New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, after 1535 the colony was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain, an appointed minister of the King of Spain, who ruled as monarch over the colony. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City and it developed highly regional divisions, which reflect the impact of climate, the presence or absence of dense indigenous populations, and the presence or absence of mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, and transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him and it was on this basis that the conquest and government of the New World was achieved.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain and it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas Septentrion, from North America, to the west of the continent, New Spain included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies and this was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and were considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico. To shore up its claims in North America starting in the late 18th century, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest explored and claimed the coast of what is now British Columbia and Alaska. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were of unprecedented complexity, the societies could provide the conquistadors, especially Hernán Cortés, a base from which the conquerors could become autonomous, or even independent, of the Crown.
As a result, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, the crown had set up the Casa de Contratación in 1503 to regulate contacts between Spain and its overseas possessions. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and they were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists. The Francisco Hernández Expedition, the first scientific expedition to the New World, was sent to gather information medicinal plants, an earlier Audiencia had been established in Santo Domingo in 1526 to deal with the Caribbean settlements. That Audiencia, housed in the Casa Reales in Santo Domingo, was charged with encouraging further exploration, management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy.
Therefore, in 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532 opened up the vast territories of South America to further conquests, the Crown established an independent Viceroyalty of Peru there in 1540
Intramuros is the oldest district and historic core of Manila, Philippines. It is called the Walled City, and at the time of the Spanish Colonial Period was synonymous to the city of Manila itself and it was the seat of government when the Philippines was a component realm of the Spanish Empire. Districts beyond the walls were referred as the extramuros of Manila, construction of the defensive walls was started by Spanish colonial government in the late 16th century to protect the city from foreign invasions. The 0. 67-square-kilometre walled city was located along the shores of the Manila Bay. Guarding the old city is Fort Santiago, its located at the mouth of the river. Land reclamations during the early 20th-century subsequently obscured the walls and fort from the bay, Intramuros was heavily damaged during the battle to recapture the city from the Japanese Imperial Army during the Second World War. Reconstruction of the walls was started in 1951 when Intramuros was declared a National Historical Monument, the region was invaded around 1485 by Sultan Bolkiah and became a part of the Sultanate of Brunei.
The site of Intramuros became a part of the Islamic Kingdom of Maynila a Bruneian puppet-state ruled by Rajah Sulayman, a Muslim Rajah who swore fealty to the Sultan of Brunei. In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi sailed from New Spain, having heard of the rich resources in Manila from the natives, Legazpi dispatched two of his lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo to explore the island of Luzon. The Spaniards arrived on the island of Luzon in 1570, after quarrels and misunderstandings between the Islamic natives and the Spaniards, they fought for the control of the land and settlements. Legazpi declared the area of Manila as the new capital of the Spanish colony on June 24,1571 because of its strategic location and he proclaimed the sovereignty of the Monarchy of Spain over the all the archipelago. King Philip II of Spain delighted at the new conquest achieved by Legazpi and his men, awarded the city a coat of arms and declaring it as, Intramuros was settled and became the political and religious center of the Spanish Empire in Asia.
The city was in constant danger of natural and man-made disasters and worse, in 1574, a fleet of Chinese pirates led by Limahong attacked the city and destroyed it before the Spaniards drove them away. The colony had to be again by the survivors. These attacks prompted the construction of the wall, the city of stone began during the rule of Governor-General Santiago de Vera. The city was planned and executed by Jesuit Priest, Antonio Sedeno and was approved by King Philip IIs Royal Ordinance that was issued in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, leonardo Iturriano, a Spanish military engineer specializing in fortifications, headed the project. Chinese and Filipino workers built the walls, Fort Santiago was rebuilt and a circular fort, known as Nuestra Senora de Guia, was erected to defend the land and sea on the southwestern side of the city. Funds came from a monopoly on playing cards and fines imposed on its excessive play, Chinese goods were taxed for two years
Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and divided into 125 municipalities, Jalisco is one of the most important states in Mexico because of its natural resources as well as its history. Many of the traits of Mexican culture, particularly outside Mexico City, are originally from Jalisco, such as mariachi, ranchera music, tequila, jaripeo. Hence, the motto, Jalisco es México. Economically, it is ranked third in the country, with industries centered in the Guadalajara metropolitan area, the state is home to two significant indigenous populations, the Huichols and the Nahuas. There is a significant foreign population, mostly retirees from the United States and Canada, living in the Lake Chapala, with a total area of 78,599 square kilometers, Jalisco is the seventh-largest state in Mexico, accounting for 4. 1% of the countrys territory. Jalisco is made up of a terrain that includes forests, plains.
Altitudes in the state vary from 0 to 4,300 meters above sea level, over 52% of the bird species found in Mexico live in the state, with 525, 40% of Mexicos mammals with 173 and 18% of its reptile species. There are 7,500 species of veined plants, one reason for its biodiversity is that is lies in the transition area between the temperate north and tropical south. Its five natural regions are, Northwestern Plains and Sierras, Sierra Madre Occidental, Central Plateau, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which covers most of the state, and it has an average altitude of 1,550 meters MASL, but ranges from 0–4,300 m. Most of the territory is semi-flat between 600–2,050 m, followed by rugged terrain of between 900–4,300 m and a percentage of flat lands between 0–1,750 m. Jalisco has several river basins with the most notable being that of the Lerma/Santiago River, the Lerma River enters extends from the State of Mexico and empties into Lake Chapala on the east side. On the west, water flows out in the Santiago River, tributaries to the Santiago River include the Zula, the Verde River, the Juchipila and the Bolaños.
About three quarters of the population lives near this river system. In the southwest of the state, there are a number of rivers that empty directly into the Pacific Ocean. The most important of these is the Ameca, with its one main tributary and this river forms the state’s border with Nayarit and empties into the Ipala Bay. The Tomatlán, San Nicolás, Purificación, Marabasco-Minatitlán, Tuxcacuesco, Armería and Tuxpan rivers flow almost perpendicular to the Pacific Ocean, another river of this group is the Cihuatlán River, which forms the boundary between Jalisco and Colima emptying into the Barra de Navidad Bay. The southeastern corner belongs to the Balsas River basin and this includes the Ayuqila and Tuxcacuesco, which join to form the Armería and the Tuxpan
Spanish East Indies
The Spanish East Indies were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899. They comprised the Philippines, the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, Cebu was the first seat of government, transferred to Manila. From 1565 to 1821 these territories, together with the Spanish West Indies, were administered through the Viceroyalty of New Spain based in Mexico City, the King of Spain traditionally styled himself King of the East and West Indies. After Mexican independence, they were ruled directly from Madrid, administrative affairs of the Spanish East Indies were handled by the Captaincy General of the Philippines and the Real Audiencia of Manila. The few remaining islands were ceded to the United States when the Treaty of Washington was ratified in 1901, Spanish contact began on 6 March 1521, when a Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan reached the Mariana Islands. He named Guam and the other islands Islas de los Ladrones because the natives came aboard his galleon, the expedition continued its journey west and reached the island of Homonhon in the eastern Philippines on 16 March, with only 150 crewmen.
There they were able to communicate with the local peoples because the Malayan interpreter, Enrique of Malacca, Miguel López de Legazpi set out from Mexico, and established the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines in 1565, which became the town of San Miguel in present-day Cebu. In 1571, the city of Manila was founded and made seat of the Spanish Captaincy General of the Philippines and these and other Asian territories claimed by the Spanish crown were to be governed from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. The Manila-Acapulco galleons shipped products gathered from both Asia-Pacific and the Americas, such as silk, silver and other Asian-Pacific islander products to Mexico, in 1606, the Spaniards established some form of trade links with the Maluku Islands and remained until 1663. Contacts with Japan were established and Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent as ambassador in 1611, on the north eastern coastal region of Taiwan, the Spaniards built Fort Santo Domingo near Keelung in 1626 and a mission in Tamsui in 1628, which they occupied until 1642.
In 1668, Blessed Diego Luis de San Vitores established the first mission on Guam, in 1762 British troops briefly captured the city of Manila during the Seven Years War. The British promised support for an uprising led by Diego Silang and his wife Gabriela, under the peace settlement Manila was exchanged, along with British-occupied Havana, for Florida and Minorca. It was handed back to Spanish authorities in April 1764, the Seven Years War prompted Charles III to initiate extensive governmental reforms throughout the overseas possessions. An intendencia was established in Manila in 1784 to handle the government finances, in a similar vein, to promote innovation and education among the residents of the islands, Governor-General José Basco y Vargas established the Economic Society of the Friends of the Country. For over 256 years, the Spanish East Indies were governed by a general. All economic matters of the Philippines were managed by the Viceroyalty of New Spain, in 1821 the New Spanish Viceroyalty collapsed following the Mexican War of Independence, which resulted in the First Mexican Empire.
In 1574 the Captaincy General of the Philippines was created as a dependency of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, Islas Carolinas Islas Marianas Islas Palau The Spanish used several names that are not currently used. Gran Moluca for the island of Mindanao and Nueva Castilla for Luzon, because Spanish interest in the region was primarily focused on its use as a base for trade with East Asia, direct Spanish control over the area expanded slowly
Captaincy General of the Philippines
The Captaincy General of the Philippines was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire. The Captaincy General encompassed the Spanish East Indies, which included the Philippine Islands and it was founded in 1565 with the first permanent Spanish settlements. However, in 1821, following the independence of Mexico, all control was transferred to Madrid, antonio Pigafetta, the expeditions chronicler and one of only 18 original crew members to survive Ferdinand Magellans circumnavigation of the globe, recorded all details of the voyage. On 5 June 1569, Guido de Lavezaris, the treasurer in the Archipelago. A letter from another official, Andres de Mirandaola, described briefly this encounter with the Portuguese, the danger of another attack led the Spaniards to remove their camp from Cebu to Panay, which they considered a safer place. Legazpi himself, in his report to the Viceroy in New Spain and it was in Panay that the conquest of Luzon was planned, and launched on 8 May 1570. Two of Lepazpis Lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo conquered Luzons northern region, in 1574 the Captaincy General of the Philippines was created as a dependency of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.
In 1584, the Real Audiencia of Manila is established by King Felipe II, the Captaincy had its capital in Cebu from 1565 to 1595, and in Manila from 1595 until 1898. Ciriaco González Carbajal was appointed as Oidor of the Audiencia of Manila and was instructed to abide by the Royal Ordinance of Mayors of 1782, a month earlier, on October 23, the Intendencia of Manila had been attached to the Captaincy General of the Philippines. Until 1822, all General Captains were civilians, but after that year they were chosen among the military. Mindanao, Misamis, Nueva Guipúzcoa sultanate of Sulu Joló Marianas, Marianas capital Agaña, palau Bonin Islands Spratly Islands Caroline Islands Marshall Islands Special Districts, Benguet and Masbate, Comandancia del Corregidor, Lower territories of Agno. Spanish rule in the Philippines ceased in 1898 after the war with the United States, most of the remaining territories in the Pacific Ocean were sold to Germany during the German-Spanish Treaty of 1899. Spanish East Indies Governor-General of the Philippines Royal Audience of Manila Spanish Empire Viceroyalty of New Spain — centered in México History of the Philippines History of the Philippines
Governor-General of the Philippines
They were the representative of the executive of the ruling power. On November 15,1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established as a government to prepare the country for independence from the American control. The governor-general was replaced by an elected Filipino President of the Philippine Commonwealth, as the executive of the Philippines. The former American Governor-General became known as the High Commissioner to the Philippines, from 1565 to 1898, the Philippines was under Spanish rule. From 1565–1821, The governor and captain-general was appointed by the Viceroy of New Spain upon recommendation of the Spanish Cortes, when there was a vacancy, the Royal Audiencia in Manila appoints a temporary governor from among its members. Ad interim Real Audiencia Great Britain occupied Manila and the port of Cavite as part of the Seven Years War. After the 1821 Mexican War of Independence, Mexico became independent and was no part of the Spanish Empire. The Viceroyalty of New Spain ceased to exist, the Philippines, as a result, was directly governed from Madrid, under the Crown.
The American military government was established following the defeat of Spain in the Spanish–American War, during the transition period, executive authority in all civil affairs in the Philippine government was exercised by the military governor. For the first year, a Military Governor, Adna Chaffee, ruled parts of the still resisting the American rule, concurrent with civil governor. Disagreements between the two were not uncommon, the following year, on July 4,1902, Taft became the sole executive authority. Chaffee remained as commander of Philippine Division until September 30,1902, the title was changed to Governor General in 1905 by an act of Congress. The term insular refers to U. S. island territories that are not incorporated into either a state or a federal district, all insular areas was under the authority of the U. S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, a division of the US War Department. On November 15,1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated as a government to prepare the country for independence.
The office of President of the Philippine Commonwealth replaced the Governor-General as the chief executive. The Governor-General became the High Commissioner of the Philippines with Frank Murphy, the High Commissioner exercised no executive power but rather represented the colonial power, the United States Government, in the Philippines. The high commissioner moved from Malacañang Palace to the newly built High Commissioners Residence, after the Philippine independence on July 4,1946, the last High Commissioner, Paul McNutt, became the first United States Ambassador to the Philippines. In December 1941, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was invaded by Japan as part of World War II, the next year, the Empire of Japan sent a military governor to control the country during wartime, followed by the formal establishment of the puppet second republic
It was established by 10 leaders called Datus. They were connected with the court of Indianized native kingdoms of Brunei and Srivijaya, who were forced to leave that land on account of enmity with the Rajah, the local folklore says that the name of the Bornean Rajah was Makatunao. They embarked on sailing rafts of the used by the Visayans in Sumatra. The semi-democratic confederation or Kedatuan was integrated to the Spanish Empire through pacts and treaties by Miguel López de Legazpi, during the time of their hispanization, the principalities of the Confederation were already developed settlements with distinct social structure, culture and religion. Among the archaeological proofs of the existence of this Hiligaynon nation are the found in pre-Hispanic tombs from many parts of the island. There are recent discoveries of artifacts of eight-foot inhabitants of Isla de Gigantes, including extra-large Lungon. One of these Westerners accounts says that the tales regarding adventures of this ancient hero of Panay were being retold during wedding celebrations in form of songs, Madja-as was a pre-colonial Indianized kingdom.
The polity of Pannai was a militant-nation allied under the Sri-Vijaya Mandala that defended the conflict-ridden Strait of Malacca, the Chola invaders eventually destroyed the polity of Pannai and its surviving soldiers and scholars were said to have been secreted-out eastwards. In their 450 years of occupying Sumatra, they refused to be enslaved to Islam, the people who stayed behind in Pannai, have an oral tradition wherein they said that the high-borne scholars and nobles of Pannai, fled to other islands. The following is the account of P. Francisco Colin. One of these groups was subjugated there and they were unable to flee for various circumstances. Someone speaking pampango found out that they were not speaking pampango among themselves, but they donned the old pampango ethnic costume. And when he addressed an old man among them, the replied, You are descendants of the lost, that in times past left this place to settle in other lands, and nothing was heard about them again. Colins experience in Sumatra resonates the local tradition in the Visayan island of Panay, recorded in the Maragtas and it is good to note that the word maragtas in the Hiligaynon language means history.
The local Panay tradition recounts that sailing northward from Borneo along the coast of Palawan, the ten Datus from Borneo crossed the intervening sea and they landed at the point, which is near the present town of San Joaquin. They had been able to reach the place directly because their small fleet was piloted by a sailor who had visited these regions on a ship engaged in commerce. Soon after the expedition had landed, the Malay migrants from Borneo came in contact with the people of the Island. Some writers have interpreted these Atis as Negritos, other sources present evidence that they were not at all a dwarfed primitive people of Negrito type, but were rather tall, dark-skinned Indonesian type
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
Mindoro is the seventh-largest island in the Philippines. It is located off the coast of Luzon and northeast of Palawan, the southern coast of Mindoro forms the northeastern extremum of the Sulu Sea. In past times, it has been called Ma-i or Mait by Han Chinese traders and by Spaniards, according to the late historian William Henry Scott, an entry in the official history of the Sung Dynasty for the year 972 mentions Ma-i as a trading partner of China. Other Chinese records referring to Ma-i or Mindoro appear in the years that follow, the island was briefly ruled by the Sultanate of Brunei and housed Moro settlements before the Spanish invaded and Christianized the population. From 1920 to 1950, the island was a province with Calapan City as the provincial capital. In 1950, it was partitioned into its two present-day provinces, Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro, following a referendum that was pushed through by acting governor Romeo Venturanza, the island was the location of the Battle of Mindoro in World War II.
The economy of Mindoro is largely based on agriculture, products consist of a wide variety of fruits, such as citrus, lanzones and coconuts, sugarcane, fish and poultry. Logging and the mining of marble and copper thrive, tourism is a lucrative business as well, with locations such as Apo Reef National Park, Lubang Island, Puerto Galera, Sabang Beach and Mount Halcon. Puerto Galeras beaches are the islands most known tourist attraction and are widely visited, the principal language in Mindoro is Tagalog, although in some parts it has been greatly influenced by the native Mangyan and Visayan languages. Mainstream Standard Filipino and Taglish are, present in and around such areas as Calapan City, Puerto Galera and San Jose. Visayan and Mangyan languages, are spoken on the island, as are Ilocano and some foreign languages — e. g. English, the following indigenous languages are spoken in Mindoro. The religion of the indigenous Mangyan population is animism, Mindoro is home to the tamaraw or Mindoro dwarf buffalo, which is endemic to the island.
The tamaraw is a related to the water buffalo and is an endangered species. Washington DC Media related to Mindoro at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Mindoro at OpenStreetMap Map of Mindoro showing towns and major mountain tops
There are around 13 indigenous communities, of which the majority have converted to the religion of Islam and are now Muslims or Moros, most are the followers of Islam of the Shafii madhhab. The term Moro came into use during the Spanish colonial period by the Spaniards and it was originally used to refer to the Berber/Arab Muslims who ruled Muslim Spain, but for a time it came to be used informally by the Spaniards to refer to all Muslims. The term is self-prescribed by the communities themselves, on both declarations, the signatories used the word, Moro Nation which translates as Bangsa Moro. In modern history, influential groups such as the Moro National Liberation Front espoused the Moro identity to unify all Muslim groups in the Philippines and this is different from the Filipino identity as it was more seen as an epithet to Catholic converted ethnic groups. The Moro people mostly live in Mindanao and Palawan, many Moros have emigrated to Malaysia and Brunei in the last half of the 20th century due to the conflict in the Southern Philippines.
Newer communities can be today in Kota Kinabalu, Semporna in neighbouring Sabah, North Kalimantan in Indonesia. The recently coined term Bangsamoro, derived from the old Malay word bangsa, the term Bangsamoro carries the aspiration of the Filipino Muslims to have an Islamic country or state. The term was used again by the Spanish when they arriving in the Philippine archipelago. Marvic Leonen, who was the Chief Peace Negotiator for Philippine government with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, has said, There is Bangsamoro, the place, there is Bangsamoro, the identity. The established historical and political factors of the Moro communities made them a separate country unethically annexed to the emerging Philippine Republic. It was adopted as a name for separatist organisations such as the Moro National Liberation Front, the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro recognises Bangsamoro as an identity and calls for the creation of a new autonomous political entity called Bangsamoro. The native Moro Communities of Mindanao and Sulu are termed considered as Filipino Muslim by the Philippine government and it includes the cities of Cotabato, Dipolog, General Santos, Marawi.
Conflict immediately broke out on the following the decision, with nearly half a million people displaced. This definition of the people by the bangsamoro is purely owned by the bangsamoro. Moro by definition still means Muslim who are still the minority population of Mindanao, the Bangsamoro share similarities with the Malay people of Malaysia, Brunei and southern Thailand, while being distinct from them. Islam is the most dominant influence on the Moro cultures since the era of the Sultanate of Maguindanao and small mosques can be found all over the region. In accordance with Islamic Law and fornication are prohibited and pork byproducts are not permissible. Another practice is fasting during Ramadan and providing charity for the poor, the Hajj is a major requirement as it is one of the five pillars of Islam
Manila, officially City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines. Founded on June 24,1571, by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi and it is situated on the eastern shore of Manila Bay and is home to many landmarks, some of which date back to the 16th century. In 2012, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Manila as a global city, the city proper is home to 1,780,148 people in 2015, forming the historic core of Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines. The metropolitan area, which includes the much larger Quezon City, Manila is the most densely populated city proper in the world, with 41,515 people per square kilometer. The term Manila is commonly used to refer to either the whole area or the city proper. Manila is located on the shore of the Manila Bay on one of the finest harbors in the country. The city has six districts for the lower house of the Philippine Congress. Manila was once ruled by the Kingdom of Tondo before it became a province of the Majapahit Empire.
During the Bruneian invasion of the Philippines, Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei captured Seludong and renamed it Maynilà, Maynilà became a vassal state of the Sultanate of Brunei, established to overpower Tondo. In 1571, conquistadors arrived from Mexico, across the Pacific Ocean, Spanish missionaries soon Christianized the city, incorporated Tondo and built some of the oldest churches in the country, including San Agustin Church. The conquistadors renamed the area Nuevo Reino de Castilla, Manila became the center of Spanish activity in the Far East and one end of the Manila–Acapulco galleon trade route linking Spanish America with Asia, one of the earliest examples of globalization. Because of its location on Pacific trade routes, Manila received the moniker Pearl of the Orient. Spanish rule of the Philippine archipelago lasted for more than three centuries, until 1898, order was usually quickly restored and the city returned to the business of trade. In the 19th century, Manila was one of the most modern cities in Asia, before the Spanish–American War, it saw the rise of the Philippine Revolution.
After the war, the United States took control, switched the official language from Spanish to English, near the end of World War II, during the Battle of Manila, most of the city was flattened by intensive aerial bombardment by the United States Air Force. As a result, relatively little remains of Manilas prewar and colonial architecture, although there are ongoing projects, especially within the old walled city. Maynilà, the Filipino name for the city, originated from the word nilà, referring to a mangrove tree that grew on the delta of the Pasig River. The flowers were made into garlands that, according to folklore, were offered to statues on religious altars or in churches