Mawlid is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which is celebrated in Rabi al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar. 12 Rabi al-awwal is the accepted date among most of the Sunni scholars and this seven days period, i. e. 12–17 Rabi al-awwal, is assigned by Islamic Republic of Iran as the unity week. The origin of Mawlid observance dates back to the period of the early four Rashidun Caliphs of Islam, the Ottomans declared it an official holiday in 1588. The term Mawlid is used in parts of the world, such as Egypt. Mawlid is recognized as a holiday in most of the Muslim-majority countries of the world except Saudi Arabia. Shaykh Faraz Rabbani states that the Mawlid is generally approved of across the four Islamic schools of law, Mawlid is derived from the Arabic root word, meaning to give birth, bear a child, descendant. In contemporary usage, Mawlid refers to the observance of the birthday of Muhammad, the date of Muhammads birth is a matter of contention since the exact date is unknown and is not definitively recorded in the Islamic traditions.
The issue of the date of the Mawlid is recorded by Ibn Khallikan as constituting the first proven disagreement concerning the celebration. Among the most recognisable dates, Sunni Muslims believe the date to have been on the twelfth of Rabi al-awwal and this celebration was introduced into the city Sabta by Abu lAbbas al-Azafi as a way of strengthening the Muslim community and to counteract Christian festivals. The early celebrations, included elements of Sufic influence, with sacrifices and torchlight processions along with public sermons. The celebrations occurred during the day, in contrast to modern day observances, emphasis was given to the Ahl al-Bayt with presentation of sermons and recitations of the Quran. This Shia origin is noted by those Sunnis who oppose Mawlid. Among Sunnis, the Mawlid celebration emerged in the 12th century, among Muslim scholars, the legality of Mawlid has been the subject of intense debate and has been described as perhaps one of the most polemical discussions in Islamic law.
Traditionally, most Sunni and nearly all of the Shia scholars have approved of the celebration of Mawlid, while Wahhabi and Ahmadiyya scholars oppose the celebration. The Damascene Shafii scholar Abu Shama supports the celebration of the Mawlid as does the Maliki scholar Ibn al-Hajj who spoke positively of the observance of the Mawlid in his book al-Madhkal. Likewise, the Shafii Egyptian scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami was a supporter of the Mawlid. This was supported and commented on by the Egyptian scholar and former head of Al-Azhar University Ibrahim al-Bajuri, another Hanafi Mufti Ali al-Qari too supported the celebration of the Mawlid and wrote a text on the subject as did the Moroccan Maliki scholar Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar al-Kattānī. Ibn al-Jazari, a Syrian Shafii scholar considers the celebration of the Mawlid to be a means of gaining Paradise, in the Muslim world, the majority of Sunni Islamic scholars are in favor of the Mawlid
Mughal architecture is an architectural style developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in Medieval India. It was an amalgam of Islamic, Persian and South-Asian architetcure, Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern of structure and character, including large bulbous domes, slender minarets at the corners, massive halls, large vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation. Examples of the style can be found in India, Bangladesh, the Mughal dynasty was established after the victory of Babur at Panipat in 1526. During his five-year reign, Babur took considerable interest in erecting buildings and his grandson Akbar built widely, and the style developed vigorously during his reign. Among his accomplishments were Humayuns Tomb, Agra Fort, the fort-city of Fatehpur Sikri, akbars son Jahangir commissioned the Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir. While Shah Jahans son Aurangzeb commissioned buildings such as the Badshahi Masjid in Lahore, his reign corresponded with the decline of Mughal architecture, Agra fort is a UNESCO world heritage site in Agra, Uttar Pradesh.
The major part of Agra fort was built by Akbar The Great during 1565 AD to 1574 AD, the architecture of the fort clearly indicates the free adoption of the Rajput planning and construction. Some of the important buildings in the fort are Jahangiri Mahal built for Jahangir and his family, the Moti Masjid, the Jahangir Mahal is an impressive structure and has a courtyard surrounded by double-storeyed halls and rooms. Akbar’s greatest architectural achievement was the construction of Fatehpur Sikri, his Capital City near Agra, the religious edifices worth mentioning are the Jami Masjid and Salim Chisti’s Tomb. The tomb built in 1571 A. D. in the corner of the compound is a square marble chamber with a verandah. The cenotaph has an exquisitely designed lattice screen around it,14 years after the death of Humayun, his widow- Hamida Banu Begum built the Humayun’s tomb in Delhi. The mausoleum of Humayun is located in the centre of a surrounded by typical Mughal garden in Fatehpur Sikri. It is said to be first mature example of Mughal architecture, Buland Darwaza, known as the Gate of Magnificence, was built by Akbar in 1576 A. D.
at Fatehpur Sikri. Akbar built the Buland Darwaza to commemorate his victory over Gujarat and it is 40 metres high and 50 metres from the ground. The total height of the Structure is about 54 metres from the ground level, the Haramsara, the royal seraglio in Fatehpur Sikri was an area where the royal women lived. The opening to the Haramsara is from the Khwabgah side separated by a row of cloiters and this is the largest palace in the Fatehpur Sikri seraglio, connected to the minor haramsara quarters. The main entrance is double storied, projecting out of the facade to create a kind of leading into a recessed entrance with a balcony. Inside there is a surrounded by rooms
Ashura is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. Mourning for Husayn and his companions by his relatives and supporters began almost immediately after the Battle of Karbala. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, in India, Ashura is a public holiday due to the presence of a significant Indian Shia Muslim population. In Sunni Islam, Ashura marks the day that Moses and his followers were saved from Pharaoh by God creating a path in the Red Sea, other commemorations include Noah leaving the Ark and Muhammads arrival in Medina. The root of the word Ashura has the meaning of tenth in Semitic languages, hence the name of the remembrance, literally translated, according to the orientalist A. J. Wensinck, the name is derived from the Hebrew ʿāsōr, with the Aramaic determinative ending. The day is indeed the tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies, in April 680 Yazid I succeeded his father Muawiyah as the new caliph.
Yazid immediately instructed the governor of Medina to compel Husayn and a few prominent figures to pledge their allegiance. Husayn, refrained from making such a pledge, believing that Yazid was openly going against the teachings of Islam and he, accompanied by his household, his sons and the sons of Hasan left Medina to seek asylum in Mecca. On the other hand, the people in Kufa, when informed of Muawiyahs death, sent letters urging Husayn to join them, the mission of Muslim was initially successful and according to reports 18,000 men pledged their allegiance. But the situation changed radically when Yazid appointed Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad as the new governor of Kufa, before news of the adverse turn of events had reached Mecca, Husayn set out for Kufa. On the way, Husayn found that his messenger, Muslim ibn Aqeel, had killed in Kufa. He broke the news to his supporters and informed them that people had deserted him, he encouraged anyone who so wished to leave freely without guilt. Most of those who had joined him at various stages on the way from Mecca now left him, Husayn encountered the army of Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad along the route towards Kufa.
Husayn addressed the Kufan army, reminding them that they had invited him to come because they were without an Imam. He told them that he intended to proceed to Kufa with their support, in response, the army urged him to proceed by another route. Thus, he turned to the left and reached Karbala, where the army forced him not to go further, Umar ibn Saad, the head of the Kufan army, sent a messenger to Husayn to inquire about the purpose of his coming to Iraq. Husayn answered again that he had responded to the invitation of the people of Kufa but was ready to leave if they now were opposed to his presence and he ordered Umar ibn Saad to cut off Husayn and his followers from access to the water of the Euphrates. On the next morning, as ʿOmar b, saʿd arranged the Kufan army in battle order, Al-Hurr ibn Yazid al Tamimi challenged him and approached Ḥusayn
Malays (ethnic group)
These locations today are part of the modern nations of Malaysia, Singapore and southern Thailand. In literature, culinary traditions, traditional dress, performing arts, martial arts, throughout their history, the Malays have been known as a coastal-trading community with fluid cultural characteristics. The epic literature, the Malay Annals, associates the etymological origin of Melayu to Sungai Melayu in Sumatra, the English term Malay was adopted via the Dutch word Malayo, itself derived from Portuguese, which originates from the original Malay word, Melayu. Prior to the 15th century, the term Melayu and its variants appear to apply as an old toponym to the Strait of Malacca region in general. Malaya Dwipa, Malaya Dvipa, is described in chapter 48, Vayu Purana as one of the provinces in the sea that was full of gold. Some scholars equate the term with Sumatra, but several Indian scholars believe the term should refer to the mountainous Malay peninsula, maleu-kolon - appeared in Ptolemys work, Geographia.
Mo-lo-yu - mentioned by Yijing, a Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk who visited the Southeast Asia in 688–695, according to Yijing, the Mo-Lo-Yu kingdom was located in a distance of 15 day sail from Bogha, the capital of Sribhoga. It took a 15-day sail as well to reach Ka-Cha from Mo-lo-yu, therefore, a popular theory relates Mo-Lo-Yu with the Jambi in Sumatra, however the geographical location of Jambi contradicts with Yi Jings description of a half way sail between Ka-Cha and Bogha. Among the terms used was Bok-la-yu, Mok-la-yu, Ma-li-yu-er, Oo-lai-yu - traced from the source of monk Xuanzang). Malayur - inscribed on the wall of the Brihadeeswarar Temple in Tamil Nadu. It was described as a kingdom that had a mountain for its rampart in Malay peninsula. Bhūmi Mālayu -, a transcription from Padang Roco Inscription dated 1286 CE by Slamet Muljana, the term is associated with Dharmasraya kingdom. Ma-li-yu-er - mentioned in the chronicle of Yuan Dynasty, referring to a nation of Malay peninsula that faced the southward expansion of Sukhothai Kingdom, the chronicle stated.
Animosity occurred between Siam and Ma-li-yu-er with both killing each other. In response to the Sukhothais action, a Chinese envoy went to the Ram Khamhaengs court in 1295 bearing an imperial decree, Keep your promise and do no evil to Ma-li-yu-er. Malauir - mentioned in Marco Polos account as a kingdom located in the Malay peninsula, malayapura -, inscribed on the Amoghapasa inscription dated 1347 CE. The term was used by Adityawarman to refer to Dharmasraya. The word Malay refer to Mountain, other evidence that supports this theory include, stone tools found in the Malay Archipelago are analogous to Central Asian tools, the similarity of Malay customs and Assam customs. The New Guinea theory - The proto-Malays are believed to be knowledgeable in oceanography. Over the years they settled at places and adopted various cultures
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations. The huge field of Islamic architecture is the subject of an article, leaving fields as varied as calligraphy, glass, pottery. Islamic art is not at all restricted to art, but includes all the art of the rich. It frequently includes secular elements and elements that are frowned upon, if not forbidden, figurative painting may cover religious scenes, but normally in essentially secular contexts such as the walls of palaces or illuminated books of poetry. There are repeating elements in Islamic art, such as the use of floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as the arabesque. The arabesque in Islamic art is used to symbolize the transcendent, indivisible. Mistakes in repetitions may be introduced as a show of humility by artists who believe only God can produce perfection. Human portrayals can be found in all eras of Islamic art, above all in the private form of miniatures.
Human representation for the purpose of worship is considered idolatry and is forbidden in some interpretations of Islamic law. There are depictions of Muhammad, Islams chief prophet. Small decorative figures of animals and humans, especially if they are hunting the animals, are found on pieces in many media from many periods. Other inscriptions include verses of poetry, and inscriptions recording ownership or donation, Islamic calligraphy in the form of painting or sculptures are sometimes referred to as quranic art. Large inscriptions made from tiles, sometimes with the letters raised in relief, complex carved calligraphy decorates buildings. For most of the Islamic period the majority of coins only showed lettering, the tughra or monogram of an Ottoman sultan was used extensively on official documents, with very elaborate decoration for important ones. Other single sheets of calligraphy, designed for albums, might contain short poems, Quranic verses, or other texts. The main languages, all using Arabic script, are Arabic, always used for Quranic verses, Persian in the Persianate world, especially for poetry, calligraphers usually had a higher status than other artists.
The tradition of the Persian miniature has been dominant since about the 13th century, strongly influencing the Ottoman miniature of Turkey, portraits of rulers developed in the 16th century, and in Persia, becoming very popular. Mughal portraits, normally in profile, are very finely drawn in a realist style, while the best Ottoman ones are vigorously stylized, album miniatures typically featured picnic scenes, portraits of individuals or animals, or idealized youthful beauties of either sex
The keffiyeh or kufiya, known as a ghutrah, shemagh, ḥaṭṭah, chafiye or cemedanî, is a traditional Middle Eastern headdress fashioned from a square scarf, usually made of cotton. It is typically worn by Arabs, as well as by some Mizrahi Jews and it is commonly found in arid regions as it provides protection from sunburn and sand. During his sojourn with the Marsh Arabs of Iraq, Gavin Young noted that the local sayyids – venerated men accepted, as descendants of the Prophet Muhammad and Ali ibn Abi Talib – wore dark green keffiyeh in contrast to the black-and-white checkered examples typical of the areas inhabitants. Many Palestinian keffiyehs are a mix of cotton and wool, which facilitates quick drying and, the keffiyeh is usually folded in half and the fold worn across the forehead. Often, the keffiyeh is held in place by a circlet of rope called an agal, some wearers wrap the keffiyeh into a turban, while others wear it loosely draped around the back and shoulders. A taqiyah is sometimes worn underneath the keffiyeh, in the past, the keffiyeh is almost always of white cotton cloth, but many have a checkered pattern in red or black stitched into them.
The plain white keffiyeh is most popular in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf – in Kuwait and Bahrain, the keffiyeh is worn by men of all ages, whether on the head or around the shoulders. In Jordan, the keffiyeh is strongly associated with the country and its heritage. The Jordanian keffiyeh has decorative cotton or wool tassels on the sides, the bigger these tassels, the greater the garments supposed value and it has long been worn by Bedouins and villagers and used as a symbol of honor and/or tribal identification. The tasseled red-and-white Jordanian shemagh is much thicker than the untasseled red-and-white shemagh seen in Persian Gulf countries, in Yemen, the keffiyeh is used extensively in both red-white and black-white pattern and in some traditional Yemeni designs and colours. The shemagh is part of an ancient Middle Eastern headgear tradition, the keffiyeh, especially the all-white keffiyeh, is known as the ghutrah. This is particularly common in the Arabian Peninsula, where the skullcap is called a keffiyeh, the garment is known in some areas as the ḥaṭṭah.
Roughly speaking, Ordinary keffiyeh A piece of cloth made from wool and cotton. Shemagh A piece of cloth, usually made of cotton or flax and decorated with many colors, ghutrah A piece of white cloth made of cotton mild, worn in western Iraq and by the Arabs of the Persian Gulf states. Rezza It is worn by inhabitants of North Africa and Egypt, traditionally worn by Palestinian farmers, the keffiyeh became worn by Palestinian men of any rank and became a symbol of Palestinian nationalism during the Arab Revolt of the 1930s. Its prominence increased during the 1960s with the beginning of the Palestinian resistance movement, Arafat would wear his keffiyeh in a semi-traditional way, wrapped around his head via an agal. He wore a similarly patterned piece of cloth in the neckline of his military fatigues. Early on, he had made it his trademark to drape the scarf over his right shoulder only, arranging it in the rough shape of a triangle
Tatar mosque — is the typical mosque architecture in Tatarstan and other Volga Tatar-populated areas of Russia. Occasionally found in regions of Russia, modern Tatar religious architecture was developed in the late 18th century. The earliest examples of Islamic Tatar architecture are located in Bolghar and they reflect strong similarities to Central Asian Islamic architecture from which the designs were derived. However, it is believed that design of rural mosques, opposing to Central Asian-like mosques of capital cities, many mosques, both stone and wooden were built, according to this style. The oldest of the active modern Tatar mosques is the Märcani mosque in the Tatar capital of Kazan. Dating from the reign of Catherine the Great, the minaret is placed in the center of a gabled roof. It is believed that the concept was adopted from traditional rurual Tatar mosques, the Märcani mosque is an example of revival Tatar religious architecture as most mosques were destroyed due to the Christianization edict of 1742.
Tatar mosques, such as Märcani and Apanay were built in baroque style, İske Taş and Pink Mosques were contributed to classicism style. In 1844 another exemplary mosque project was introduced, which was used mostly for urban mosques, the minaret was placed at the northern part of the building, under the door. However, mosques with minarets in the roof are constructed till today
Eid al-Fitr is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting. The religious Eid is the first and only day in the month of Shawwal during which Muslims are not permitted to fast, the holiday celebrates the conclusion of the 29 or 30 days of dawn-to-sunset fasting during the entire month of Ramadan. The day of Eid, falls on the first day of the month of Shawwal, the date for the start of any lunar Hijri month varies based on the observation of new moon by local religious authorities, so the exact day of celebration varies by locality. Eid al-Fitr has a particular Salat consisting of two Rakats and generally offered in a field or large hall. Other Sunni schools usually have twelve Takbirs, seven in the first and this Eid al-Fitr salat is, depending on which juristic opinion is followed, Fard فرض, Mustahabb مستحب or mandoob مندوب. Muslims believe that they are commanded by Allah, as mentioned in the Quran, to continue their fast until the last day of Ramadan and pay the Zakat and fitra before offering the Eid prayers.
If the moon is not observed immediately after the 29th day of the lunar month. Before the advent of Islam in Arabia, there is mention of festivals as well as some others among the Arabs, the Israelites had festivals as well, some directly prescribed in the Old Testament and others commemorating important days of their history. Eid al-Fitr was originated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad and it is observed on the first of the month of Shawwal at the end of the month of Ramadan, during which Muslims undergo a period of fasting. According to certain traditions, these festivals were initiated in Medina after the migration of Muhammad from Mecca, anas reports, When the Prophet arrived in Madinah, he found people celebrating two specific days in which they used to entertain themselves with recreation and merriment. He asked them about the nature of these festivities at which they replied that these days were occasions of fun, Eid al-Fitr is celebrated for one, two or three days. Common greetings during this holiday are the Arabic greeting ‘Eid Mubārak or ‘Eid Sa‘īd.
In addition, many countries have their own greetings in the local language – in Turkey, for example, Muslims are encouraged on this day to forgive and forget any differences with others or animosities that may have occurred during the year. It is forbidden to fast on the Day of Eid and it is customary to acknowledge this with a small sweet breakfast, preferably of date, before attending a special Eid prayer. As an obligatory act of charity, money is paid to the poor and you can speak once youve left the Masjid, or mosque or any other place you were praying. Say Eid Mubarak to other Muslims Muslims recite the following incantation in a low voice while going to the Eid prayer, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, lā ilāha illà l-Lāh wal-Lāhu akbar, Allahu akbar walil-Lāhi l-ḥamd. Recitation ceases when they get to the place of Eid or once the Imam commences activities, Muslims are recommended to use separate routes to and from the prayer grounds. No call to prayer is given for this Eid prayer, the Eid prayer is followed by the sermon and a supplication asking for Allahs forgiveness, mercy and blessings for all living beings across the world
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day. What today is known as Islamic architecture was influenced by Persian, Byzantine, further east, it was influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam spread to Southeast Asia. The principal Islamic architectural types are, the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace, from these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths and domestic architecture. Symbolic views of scholars on Islamic architecture have consistently been criticized by historians for lacking historical evidence. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is one of the most important buildings in all of Islamic architecture and it is patterned after the nearby Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Byzantine Christian artists were employed to create its elaborate mosaics against a golden background. The great epigraphic vine frieze was adapted from the pre-Islamic Syrian style, the Dome of the Rock featured interior vaulted spaces, a circular dome, and the use of stylized repeating decorative arabesque patterns.
Desert palaces in Jordan and Syria served the caliphs as living quarters, reception halls, and baths, the horseshoe arch became a popular feature in Islamic structures. After the Moorish invasion of Spain in 711 AD the form was taken by the Umayyads who accentuated the curvature of the horseshoe. The Great Mosque of Damascus, built on the site of the basilica of John the Baptist after the Islamic invasion of Damascus, certain modifications were implemented, including expanding the structure along the transversal axis which better fit with the Islamic style of prayer. The Abbasid dynasty witnessed the movement of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, the shift to Baghdad influenced politics and art. The Great Mosque of Samarra, once the largest in the world, was built for the new capital, other major mosques built in the Abbasid Dynasty include the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Abu Dalaf in Iraq, the great mosque in Tunis. Abbasid architecture in Iraq as exemplified in the Fortress of Al-Ukhaidir demonstrated the despotic, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is considered the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world.
Its original marble columns and sculptures were of Roman workmanship brought in from Carthage and it is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques, founded in 670 AD and dating in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is constituted of a square minaret, a large courtyard surrounded by porticos. The Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq, completed in 847 AD, the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul influenced Islamic architecture. When the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines, they converted the basilica to a mosque, the Hagia Sophia served as a model for many Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque. Domes are a structural feature of Islamic architecture. Domes remain in use, being a significant feature of many mosques, the distinctive pointed domes of Islamic architecture, originating with the Byzantines and Persians, have remained a distinguishing feature of mosques into the 21st century
Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people. The early forms of Muslim culture were predominantly Arab, Islamic culture generally includes all the practices which have developed around the religion of Islam, including Quranic ones such as prayer and non-Quranic such as divisions of the world in Islam. It includes as the Baul tradition of Bengal, and facilitated the conversion of most of Bengal. There are variations in the application of Islamic beliefs in different cultures, Islamic culture is itself a contentious term. Muslims live in different countries and communities, and it can be difficult to isolate points of cultural unity among Muslims. Anthropologists and historians nevertheless study Islam as an aspect of, and influence on, the noted historian of Islam, Marshall Hodgson, noted the above difficulty of religious versus secular academic usage of the words Islamic and Muslim in his three-volume work, The Venture Of Islam.
He proposed to resolve it by using these terms for purely religious phenomena. However, his distinction has not been widely adopted, early Muslim literature is in Arabic, as that was the language of Muhammads communities in Mecca and Medina. As the early history of the Muslim community was focused on establishing the religion of Islam, see the articles on Quran and Sirah, which formed the earliest literature of the Muslim community. With the establishment of the Umayyad empire, see The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. While having no content, this secular literature was spread by the Arabs all over their empires. By the time of the Abbasid empire, Persian had become the language of Muslim World. Much of the most famous Muslim literature was written in Persian, from Rumi in Anatolia, to Nizami in the Caucasus, to Jami in Samarkand, from the 11th century, there was a growing body of Islamic literature in the Turkic languages. However, for centuries to come the official language in Turkish-speaking areas would remain Persian, in Anatolia, with the advent of the Seljuks, the practise and usage of Persian in the region would be strongly revived.
A branch of the Seljuks, the Sultanate of Rum, took Persian language and they adopted Persian language as the official language of the empire. The Ottomans, which can roughly be seen as their eventual successors, after a period of several centuries, Ottoman Turkish had developed towards a fully accepted language of literature, which was even able to satisfy the demands of a scientific presentation. However, the number of Persian and Arabic loanwords contained in those works increased at times up to 88%. With the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish grew in importance in both poetry and prose becoming, by the beginning of the 18th century, the language of the Empire