King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare. It depicts the gradual descent into madness of the title character, after he disposes of his kingdom by giving bequests to two of his three daughters egged on by their continual flattery, bringing tragic consequences for all. Derived from the legend of Leir of Britain, a mythological pre-Roman Celtic king, the play has been adapted for the stage and motion pictures, with the title role coveted by many of the world's most accomplished actors; the first attribution to Shakespeare of this play drafted in 1605 or 1606 at the latest with its first known performance on St. Stephen's Day in 1606, was a 1608 publication in a quarto of uncertain provenance, in which the play is listed as a history; the Tragedy of King Lear, a more theatrical revision, was included in the 1623 First Folio. Modern editors conflate the two, though some insist that each version has its own individual integrity that should be preserved. After the English Restoration, the play was revised with a happy, non-tragic ending for audiences who disliked its dark and depressing tone, but since the 19th century Shakespeare's original version has been regarded as one of his supreme achievements.
The tragedy is noted for its probing observations on the nature of human suffering and kinship. George Bernard Shaw wrote, "No man will write a better tragedy than Lear." King Lear of Britain and wanting to retire from the duties of the monarchy, decides to divide his realm among his three daughters, declares he will offer the largest share to the one who loves him most. The eldest, speaks first, declaring her love for her father in fulsome terms. Moved by her flattery Lear proceeds to grant to Goneril her share as soon as she has finished her declaration, before Regan and Cordelia have a chance to speak, he awards to Regan her share as soon as she has spoken. When it is the turn of his youngest and favourite daughter, Cordelia, at first she refuses to say anything and declares there is nothing to compare her love to, nor words to properly express it. Infuriated, Lear divides her share between her elder sisters; the Earl of Gloucester and the Earl of Kent observe that, by dividing his realm between Goneril and Regan, Lear has awarded his realm in equal shares to the peerages of the Duke of Albany and the Duke of Cornwall.
Kent objects to Lear's unfair treatment of Cordelia. Lear summons the Duke of Burgundy and the King of France, who have both proposed marriage to Cordelia. Learning that Cordelia has been disinherited, the Duke of Burgundy withdraws his suit, but the King of France is impressed by her honesty and marries her nonetheless; the King of France is shocked by Lear's decision because up until this time Lear has only praised and favoured Cordelia. Meanwhile, Gloucester has introduced his illegitimate son Edmund to Kent. Lear announces he will live alternately with Goneril and Regan, their husbands, he reserves to himself a retinue of one hundred knights, to be supported by his daughters. Goneril and Regan speak revealing that their declarations of love were fake and that they view Lear as a foolish old man. Gloucester's bastard son Edmund resents his illegitimate status and plots to dispose of his legitimate older brother Edgar, he tricks his father with a forged letter. Earl of Kent returns from exile in disguise, Lear hires him as a servant.
At Albany and Goneril's house and Kent quarrel with Oswald, Goneril's steward. Lear discovers, she orders him to reduce the number of his disorderly retinue. Enraged, Lear departs for Regan's home; the Fool reproaches Lear with his foolishness in giving everything to Regan and Goneril and predicts that Regan will treat him no better. Edmund learns from Curan, a courtier, that there is to be war between Albany and Cornwall and that Regan and Cornwall are to arrive at Gloucester's house that evening. Taking advantage of the arrival of the duke and Regan, Edmund fakes an attack by Edgar, Gloucester is taken in, he proclaims him an outlaw. Bearing Lear's message to Regan, Kent meets Oswald again at Gloucester's home, quarrels with him again and is put in the stocks by Regan and her husband Cornwall; when Lear arrives, he objects to the mistreatment of his messenger, but Regan is as dismissive of her father as Goneril was. Lear is impotent. Goneril supports Regan's argument against him. Lear yields to his rage.
He rushes out into a storm to rant against his ungrateful daughters, accompanied by the mocking Fool. Kent follows to protect him. Gloucester protests against Lear's mistreatment. With Lear's retinue of a hundred knights dissolved, the only companions he has left are his Fool and Kent. Wandering on the heath after the storm, Edgar, in the guise of a madman named Tom o' Bedlam, meets Lear. Edgar babbles madly. Kent leads them all to shelter. Edmund betrays Gloucester to Cornwall and Goneril, he reveals evidence that his father knows of an impending French invasion designed to reinstate Lear to the throne. Once Edmund leaves with Goneril to warn Albany about the invasion, Gloucester is arrested
Three Sisters (play)
Three Sisters is a play by the Russian author and playwright Anton Chekhov. It was first performed in 1901 at the Moscow Art Theatre; the play is sometimes included on the short list of Chekhov's outstanding plays, along with The Cherry Orchard, The Seagull and Uncle Vanya. Olga Sergeyevna Prozorova – The eldest of the three sisters, she is the matriarchal figure of the Prozorov family though at the beginning of the play she is only 28 years old. Olga is a teacher at the high school, where she fills in for the headmistress whenever the latter is absent. Olga is a spinster and at one point tells Irina that she would have married "any man an old man if he had asked" her. Olga is motherly to the elderly servants, keeping on the elderly nurse/retainer Anfisa, long after she has ceased to be useful; when Olga reluctantly takes the role of headmistress permanently, she takes Anfisa with her to escape the clutches of the heartless Natasha. Maria Sergeyevna Kulygina – The middle sister, she is 23 at the beginning of the play.
She married her husband, when she was 18 and just out of school. When the play opens she has been disappointed in the marriage and falls in love with the idealistic Lieutenant-Colonel Vershinin, they begin a clandestine affair. When he is transferred away, she is crushed, but returns to life with her husband, who accepts her back despite knowing what she has done, she has a short temper, seen throughout the play, is the sister who disapproves the most of Natasha. Onstage, her directness serves as a tonic to the melodrama, her wit comes across as heroic, her vitality provides most of the play's plentiful humour. She was trained as a concert pianist. Irina Sergeyevna Prozorova – The youngest sister, she is 20 at the beginning of the play, it is her "name day" at the beginning of the play and though she insists she is grown-up she is still enchanted by things such as a spinning top brought to her by Fedotik. Her only desire is to go back to Moscow, she believes she will find her true love in Moscow, but when it becomes clear that they are not going to Moscow, she agrees to marry the Baron Tuzenbach, whom she admires but does not love.
She gets her teaching degree and plans to leave with the Baron, but he is shot and killed by Solyony in a pointless duel. She decides to dedicate her life to work and service. Andrei Sergeyevich Prozorov – The brother of the three sisters. In Act I, he is a young man on the fast track to being a Professor in Moscow. In Act II, Andrei still longs for his old days as a bachelor dreaming of life in Moscow, but is now, due to his ill-conceived wedding to Natasha, stuck in a provincial town with a baby and a job as secretary to the County Council. In Act III, his debts have grown to 35,000 rubles and he is forced to mortgage the house, but does not tell his sisters or give them any shares in the family home. Act IV finds Andrei a pathetic shell of his former self, now the father of two, he acknowledges he is a failure and laughed at in town for being a member of the village council whose president, Protopopov, is cuckolding him. Natalia Ivanovna – Andrei's love interest at the start of the play his wife.
She begins the play as an awkward young woman who hides her true nature. Much fun is made of her ill-becoming green sash by the sisters, she bursts into tears, she has no family of her own and the reader never learns her maiden name. Act II finds a different Natasha, she has grown bossy and uses her relationship with Andrei as a way of manipulating the sisters into doing what she wants. She has begun an affair with Protopopov, the head of the local council, cuckolds Andrei flagrantly. In Act III, she has become more controlling, confronting Olga head on about keeping on Anfisa, the elderly, loyal retainer, whom she orders to stand in her presence, throwing temper tantrums when she doesn't get her way. Act IV finds that she has inherited control of the house from her weak, vacillating husband, leaving the sisters dependent on her, and, as the châtelaine, planning to radically change the grounds to her liking, it is arguable that the vicious, self-absorbed Natasha, who cares for no one besides her own children and Sofia, upon whom she dotes fatuously, is the complete victor by the end of the play.
Fyodor Ilyich Kulygin – Masha's older husband and the Latin teacher at the high school. Kulygin is a jovial, kindly man, who loves his wife, her sisters, although he is much aware of her infidelity. In the first act he seems foolish, giving Irina a gift he has given her, joking around with the doctor to make fun of Natasha, but begins to grow more and more sympathetic as Masha's affair progresses. During the fire in Act 3, he confesses to Olga that he might have married her – the fact that the two would be happy together is hinted at many times throughout the show. Throughout the show at the most serious moments, he tries to make the other characters laugh in order to relieve tension, while that doesn't always work, he is able to give his wife comfort through humor in her darkest hour at the show's climax. At the end of the play, although knowing what Masha had been doing, he takes her back and accepts her failings. Aleksandr Ignatyevich Vershinin – Lieutenant colonel commanding the artillery battery, Vershinin is a true philosopher.
He knew the girls' father in Moscow and they talk about how when they were little they called him the "Lovesick Major". In the course of the play, despite being married, he enters into an affair with
Community service is a non-paying job performed by one person or a group of people for the benefit of the community or its institutions. Community service is distinct from volunteering, since it is not always performed on a voluntary basis. Personal benefits may be realized, but it may be performed for a variety of reasons including citizenship requirements, a substitution of criminal justice sanctions, requirements of a school or class, requisites for receipt of certain benefits. Community service is a non-paying job performed by one person or a group of people for the benefit of the community or its institutions. Community service is distinct from volunteering, since it is not always performed on a voluntary basis, it may be performed for a variety of RAMON IST EIN DRECKSNAZI law)|sanctions]] – when performed for this reason it may be referred to as community payback. It may be mandated by schools to meet the requirements of a class, such as in the case of service-learning or to meet the requirements of graduating as class valedictorian.
In it has been made a condition of the receipt of certain benefits. In Sweden it's a suspended sentence called "samhällstjänst"; some educational jurisdictions in the United States require students to perform community service hours to graduate from high school. In some high schools in Washington, for example, students must finish 200 hours of community service to get a diploma; some school districts in Washington, including Seattle Public Schools, differentiate between community service and "service learning," requiring students to demonstrate that their work has contributed to their education. If a student in high school is taking an AVID course, community service is needed. Whether American public schools could require volunteer hours for high school graduation was challenged in Immediato v. Rye Neck School District, but the court found no violation. Many other high schools do not require community service hours for graduation, but still see an impressive number of students get involved in their community.
For example, in Palo Alto, students at Palo Alto High School log about 45,000 hours of community service every year. As a result, the school's College and Career Center awards about 250–300 students the President's Volunteer Service Award every year for their hard work. Though not technically considered a requirement, many colleges include community service as an unofficial requirement for acceptance. However, some colleges prefer work experience over community service, some require that their students continue community service for some specific number of hours to graduate; some schools offer unique “community service” courses, awarding credit to students who complete a certain number of community service hours. Some academic honor societies, along with some fraternities and sororities in North America, require community service to join and others require each member to continue doing community service. Many student organizations exist for the purpose of community service, the largest of, Alpha Phi Omega.
Community service projects are done by sororities and fraternities. Beginning in the 1980s, colleges began using service-learning as a pedagogy. A partnership of college presidents began in 1985 with the initiative of boosting community service in their colleges; this alliance called Campus Compact, led the way for many other schools to adopt service-learning courses and activities. Service-learning courses vary in time span, in the balance of “service” and “learning” stressed in the course. A typical service-learning course, has these factors in common: A service component where the student spends time serving in the community meeting actual needs A learning component where students seek out or are taught information—often both interpersonal and academic—that they integrate into their service A reflection component that ties service and learning togetherReflection is sometimes symbolized by the hyphen in the term “service-learning” to indicate that it has a central role in learning by serving.
Reflection is a scheduled consideration of one’s own experiences and thoughts. This can take many forms, including journals and discussions. Service-learning courses present learning the material in context, meaning that students learn and tend to apply what was learned; as the book Where’s the Learning in Service-Learning? notes, “Students engaged in service-learning are engaged in authentic situations. Thus, students are motivated to learn the materials to resolve their questions. Community service learning strives to connect or re-connect students with serving their community after they finish their course, it creates a bridge for the lack of community service found among college-age people in the United States. The one serving may be able to take something away from the experience and be able to use any newfound knowledge or interpersonal discoveries to improve their future servitude and the people around them. To gain the most from community service requires balancing learning with serving.
Learning and serving at the same time improves a student's community while teaching life lessons and building character. Community service-learning is “about leadership development as well as traditional information and skill acquisition.” Therefore, the combination of people doing service and learning at the same time teaches them how to be effective and, more how to be effective about what is important to them. It improves their overall application opportunities they gain from it. By adding
Anna Maria Cecilia Bonnevie is a Swedish-Norwegian actress. She was born in Västerås, but grew up in Oslo, Norway, her parents are Swedish actor Per Waldvik. Bonnevie was educated at Swedish National Academy of Mime and Acting and had her first theater role in Hrafn Gunnlaugsson's Hvíti víkingurinn, at the age of fifteen. In 1997, she had her debut in the play Yvonne by Ingmar Bergman, her screen debut was in 1991 in the movie Kvitebjørn Kong Valemon, directed by Ola Solum. Her big breakthrough came with the movie Jerusalem, among her movies are Insomnia and Syndere i sommersol. For the movie Jeg er Dina she received a prize for best foreign actress at the Montreal International Film Festival. In 2002 she was named one of European film's Shooting Stars by European Film Promotion. In 1999, she played Olga in The 13th Warrior. In 2004, she appeared in the Swedish film Dag och natt directed by Simon Staho. In 2007, she played the female lead in the Russian film The Banishment directed by Andrey Zvyagintsev.
The Karlovy Vary International Film Festival invited Bonnevie to join the Grand Jury of the Festival's 44th edition in 2009. In 2012, she played Countess Isolde in Belle du Seigneur alongside Jonathan Rhys-Meyers, Natalia Vodianova and Ed Stoppard. Maria Bonnevie on IMDb
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Hardboiled fiction is a literary genre that shares some of its characters and settings with crime fiction. The genre's typical protagonist is a detective who witnesses the violence of organized crime that flourished during Prohibition and its aftermath, while dealing with a legal system that has become as corrupt as the organized crime itself. Rendered cynical by this cycle of violence, the detectives of hardboiled fiction are antiheroes. Notable hardboiled detectives include Philip Marlowe, Mike Hammer, Sam Spade, Lew Archer, The Continental Op; the style was pioneered by Carroll John Daly in the mid-1920s, popularized by Dashiell Hammett over the course of the decade, refined by James M. Cain and by Raymond Chandler beginning in the late 1930s. From its earliest days, hardboiled fiction was published in and associated with so-called pulp magazines, most famously Black Mask under the editorship of Joseph T. Shaw. In its earliest uses in the late 1920s, "hardboiled" did not refer to a type of crime fiction.
Hardboiled writing is associated with "noir fiction". Eddie Duggan discusses the similarities and differences between the two related forms in his 1999 article on pulp writer par excellence, Cornell Woolrich. Pulp historian Robert Sampson argues that Gordon Young's "Don Everhard" stories, about an "extremely tough and lethal" gun-toting urban gambler, anticipated the hardboiled detective stories. Black Mask moved to publishing detective stories in 1933, pulp's exclusive reference to crime fiction became fixed around that time, although it's impossible to pin down with precision; the hardboiled crime story became a staple of several pulp magazines in the 1930s. Many hardboiled novels were published by houses specializing in paperback originals colloquially known as "pulps". "pulp fiction" is used as a synonym for hardboiled crime fiction or gangster fiction. In the United States, the original hardboiled style has been emulated by innumerable writers, including Sue Grafton, Chester Himes, Paul Levine, John D. MacDonald, Ross Macdonald, Jim Butcher, Walter Mosley, Sara Paretsky, Robert B.
Parker, Mickey Spillane, James Ellroy. Damon Runyon Femme fatale Guy Noir Mediterranean noir Mystery film Naturalism Noir fiction Breu, Christopher. "Going blood-simple in poisonville: hard-boiled masculinity in Dashiell Hammett's Red Harvest". Men and Masculinities. 7: 52–76. Doi:10.1177/1097184X03257449. Eddie Duggan'Writing in the darkness: the world of Cornell Woolrich' CrimeTime 2.6 pp. 113–126. Duggan, Eddie Sfhea, Eddie Duggan. "Dashiell Hammett: Detective, Writer". Crimetime: 101–114 – via Academia.edu. Gosselin, Adrienne Johnson. Multicultural Detective Fiction: Murder from the "Other" Side, Garland Publishing, ISBN 0-8153-3153-3 Haut, Woody. Pulp Culture: Hardboiled Fiction and the Cold War, Serpent's Tail, ISBN 1-85242-319-6 Irwin, John T.. Unless the Threat of Death Is Behind Them: Hard-Boiled Fiction and Film Noir, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-8435-7 Kemp, Simon. Defective Inspectors: Crime-fiction Pastiche in Late Twentieth-century, Maney Publishing, ISBN 1-904350-51-8 Mizejewski, Linda.
Hardboiled and High Heeled: The Woman Detective in Popular Culture, Routledge Chapman Hall, ISBN 0-415-96970-0 O'Brien, Geoffrey. Hardboiled America: Lurid Paperbacks and the Masters of Noir, Da Capo, ISBN 0-306-80773-4 Panek, LeRoy Lad. New Hard-Boiled Writers: 1970s-1990s, University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0-87972-819-1 Server, Lee. Encyclopedia of Pulp Fiction Writers, Facts On File Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4577-1 "Detective Novels: An Overview" major history of the genre by Prof. William Marling, Case Western Reserve University "The Hard-Boiled Way" article by Gary Lovisi.
Julius Caesar (play)
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a history play and tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599. It is one of several plays written by Shakespeare based on true events from Roman history, which include Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra. Although the play is named Julius Caesar, Brutus speaks more than four times as many lines as the title character; the play opens with two tribunes discovering the commoners of Rome celebrating Julius Caesar's triumphant return from defeating the sons of his military rival, Pompey. The tribunes, insulting the crowd for their change in loyalty from Pompey to Caesar, attempt to end the festivities and break up the commoners, who return the insults. During the feast of Lupercal, Caesar holds a victory parade and a soothsayer warns him to "Beware the ides of March", which he ignores. Meanwhile, Cassius attempts to convince Brutus to join his conspiracy to kill Caesar. Although Brutus, friendly towards Caesar, is hesitant to kill him, he agrees that Caesar may be abusing his power.
They hear from Casca that Mark Antony has offered Caesar the crown of Rome three times and that each time Caesar refused it with increasing reluctance, in hopes that the crowd watching the exchange would beg him to accept the crown, yet the crowd applauded Caesar for denying the crown, upsetting Caesar, due to his wanting to accept the crown. On the eve of the ides of March, the conspirators meet and reveal that they have forged letters of support from the Roman people to tempt Brutus into joining. Brutus reads the letters and, after much moral debate, decides to join the conspiracy, thinking that Caesar should be killed to prevent him from doing anything against the people of Rome if he were to be crowned. After ignoring the soothsayer, as well as his wife Calpurnia's own premonitions, Caesar goes to the Senate; the conspirators approach him with a fake petition pleading on behalf of Metellus Cimber's banished brother. As Caesar predictably rejects the petition and the others stab him. At this point, Caesar utters the famous line "Et tu, Brute?", concluding with "Then fall, Caesar!"
The conspirators make clear that they committed this murder for the good of Rome, not for their own purposes, do not attempt to flee the scene. Brutus delivers an oration defending his own actions, for the moment, the crowd is on his side. However, Mark Antony makes a subtle and eloquent speech over Caesar's corpse, beginning with the much-quoted "Friends, countrymen, lend me your ears!" In this way, he deftly turns public opinion against the assassins by manipulating the emotions of the common people, in contrast to the rational tone of Brutus's speech, yet there is method in his rhetorical speech and gestures: he reminds them of the good Caesar had done for Rome, his sympathy with the poor, his refusal of the crown at the Lupercal, thus questioning Brutus's claim of Caesar's ambition. Antony as he states his intentions against it, rouses the mob to drive the conspirators from Rome. Amid the violence, an innocent poet, Cinna, is confused with the conspirator Lucius Cinna and is taken by the mob, which kills him for such "offenses" as his bad verses.
Brutus next attacks Cassius for soiling the noble act of regicide by having accepted bribes. The two are reconciled after Brutus reveals that his beloved wife committed suicide under the stress of his absence from Rome; that night, Caesar's ghost appears to Brutus with a warning of defeat. At the battle and Brutus, knowing that they will both die, smile their last smiles to each other and hold hands. During the battle, Cassius has his servant kill him after hearing of the capture of his best friend, Titinius. After Titinius, not captured, sees Cassius's corpse, he commits suicide. However, Brutus wins that stage of the battle. With a heavy heart, Brutus battles again the next day, he commits suicide by running on his own sword, held for him by a loyal soldier. The play ends with a tribute to Brutus by Antony, who proclaims that Brutus has remained "the noblest Roman of them all" because he was the only conspirator who acted, in his mind, for the good of Rome. There is a small hint at the friction between Mark Antony and Octavius which characterises another of Shakespeare's Roman plays and Cleopatra.
The main source of the play is Thomas North's translation of Plutarch's Lives. Shakespeare makes Caesar's triumph take place on the day of Lupercalia instead of six months earlier. For dramatic effect, he makes the Capitol the venue of Caesar's death rather than the Curia Pompeia. Caesar's murder, the funeral, Antony's oration, the reading of the will and the arrival of Octavius all take place on the same day in the play; however the assassination took place on 15 March, the will was published on 18 March, the funeral was on 20 March, Octavius arrived only in May. Shakespeare makes the Triumvirs meet in Rome instead of near Bononia to avoid