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Sumner Welles

Benjamin Sumner Welles was an American government official and diplomat in the Foreign Service. He was a major foreign policy adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and served as Under Secretary of State from 1936 to 1943, during FDR's presidency. Born in New York City to a wealthy, well-connected political family, Welles graduated from Harvard College in 1914, he entered the Foreign Service at the advice of Franklin Roosevelt, a family friend. Welles was excited by Woodrow Wilson's ideas about how American principles could reorder the international system based on liberal democracy, free-trade capitalism, international law, a league of nations, an end to colonialism. Welles specialized on Latin American diplomatic affairs, served several posts in Washington and in the field. President Calvin Coolidge distrusted Welles because of his divorce and private sex life, he left public service and from bases in his two mansions in the Washington area he wrote a book on the history of the Dominican Republic.

When Roosevelt was elected President in 1932, he put Welles in charge of Latin American affairs as Assistant Secretary of State for Latin American Affairs, Welles became involved in negotiations that removed Cuban president Gerardo Machado from power and replaced him with rival Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada. He was promoted to Under Secretary of State, in which role he continued to be active in Latin American issues, but expanded into European affairs as World War II began in Europe in 1939. In 1940, he issued the Welles Declaration which condemned Soviet occupation of the Baltic states and proved to be a minor point of contention among the Soviets and their Western allies once the U. S. entered the war in 1941. Wells used American power and his senior position to intrude into the domestic affairs of other countries choosing leaders who supported American policies. After the fall of France, he downgraded French affairs. Roosevelt relied on Welles much more than on the official Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, who became the enemy of Welles.

Welles was forced out of government service by Secretary Hull when it was revealed he had solicited two men for sex. Returning to private life, he continued to write books on foreign relations and became an advisor to media organizations, he was a target of the House Un-American Activities Committee during the post-war "red scare", though he was never formally sanctioned. He died in New Jersey in 1961, survived by several children. Benjamin Sumner Welles was born in New York City, the son of Benjamin Sumner Welles Jr. and Frances Wyeth Swan. He preferred to be called Sumner after his famous relative Charles Sumner, a leading Senator from Massachusetts during the Civil War and Reconstruction, his family was connected to the era's most prominent families. He was a grandnephew of Caroline Webster Schermerhorn Astor, known as "the Mrs. Astor". Among his ancestors were Thomas Welles, a colonial Governor of Connecticut, Increase Sumner, Governor of Massachusetts from 1797 to 1799. Although the two men were mistaken for cousins, Welles was no relation to director Orson Welles.

The Welles family was connected to the Roosevelts. A cousin of Sumner Welles married James "Rosy" Roosevelt, Jr. half brother of future President Franklin D. Roosevelt. At the age of 10, Welles was entered in Miss Kearny's Day School for Boys in New York City. In September 1904, he entered Groton School in Massachusetts. There he roomed with the brother of Eleanor Roosevelt. At the age of 12 served as a page at Franklin D. Roosevelt's wedding to Eleanor in March 1905. Welles attended Harvard College where he studied "economics, Iberian literature and culture", graduated after three years in 1914. After graduating from Harvard, Welles followed the advice of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and entered into the Foreign Service. A New York Times profile described him at the time he joined the foreign service: "Tall, slender and always tailored, he concealed a natural shyness under an appearance of dignified firmness. Although intolerant of inefficiency, he brought to bear unusual tact and a self-imposed patience."

He secured an assignment to Tokyo. Welles soon became a specialist in Latin American affairs, he became fluent in Spanish. In 1921, Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes appointed him to head the Division of Latin American Affairs. In March 1922, Welles resigned from the State Department, he was unsympathetic to the view held by American diplomacy that military might was meant to protect the overseas interests of American business. Hughes brought, his particular assignment was to oversee the withdrawal of American forces and to negotiate protection for overseas investors in the Dominican Republic's debt. Welles remained in that post for three years and his work was accomplished after his departure in a 1924 treaty. In 1924, President Coolidge sent Welles to act as mediator between disputing parties in Honduras; the country had lacked a legitimate government since the election of 1923 failed to produce a majority for any candidate and the legislature had failed to exercise its power to appoint a new president.

Negotiations managed by Welles from April 23 to 28 produced an interim government under General Vicente Tosta, who promised to appoint a cabinet representing all factions and to schedule a presidential election as soon as possible in which he would not be a candidate. Negotiations ended with the s

Papermoon (song)

"Papermoon" is Tommy heavenly6's 9th single and Tomoko Kawase's 16th single overall, released on December 10, 2008. Since The Brilliant Green made their comeback, Kawase had been inactive as a solo singer. Since "Papermoon" has been released, it marks her first solo single in over a year. "Papermoon" was featured as the second opening song to the anime Soul Eater. "Papermoon"'s B-side is a song called "Ruby Shoes", in reference to the overall theme of the "Papermoon" music video. "Papermoon" peaked at #10 on the Oricon singles chart. The music video features her band in a setting which resembles The Wizard of Oz, her band is dressed in matching attire featuring a tin man, a lion. Kawase herself is dressed up to resemble Dorothy. Kawase is shown singing in a room that much resembles a scene in The Wizard of Oz in which Dorothy's house is taken up into the tornado. Dorothy looks out the window of her room to see many things and people familiar to her. In the video and people from Tommy heavenly6's past videos can be seen.

Such as, Tommy February6 and Santa Claus riding a panda bear from Tommy heavenly6's "I Love Xmas" PV, to the cart pulled by a bull she rides in in her "Pray" PV, other miscellaneous objects. All lyrics are written by all music composed and arranged by Chiffon Brownie. Official Site