University of Massachusetts Lowell
The University of Massachusetts Lowell is a public research university in Lowell, Massachusetts. The university is part of the University of Massachusetts system and has been regionally accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1975. With over 1,150 faculty members and over 18,000 students, it is the largest university in the Merrimack Valley and the second-largest public institution in the state; the university offers 122 bachelor's, 43 master's and 36 doctoral degree programs, including nationally recognized programs in engineering, criminal justice, music and technology. The university is one of the few public universities in the United States to offer accredited undergraduate degrees in meteorology, sound recording technology, nuclear engineering and plastics engineering, it was the first to offer a degree in music education. Academically, UMass Lowell is organized into six schools and colleges: the College of Fine Arts and Social Sciences; the University of Massachusetts Lowell owes its origins to two institutions founded in the 1890s: Lowell State College on the south side of the Merrimack River and Lowell Technological Institute on the north side.
Each would follow its own path of expansion through the 20th century. Lowell State College got its start as the Lowell Normal School, chartered in 1894 as a teacher-training institution for women; the 10th and final normal school to be established in Massachusetts, it opened in 1898 with 108 students and five faculty members. The original classroom building opened the next year at the corner of Broadway and Wilder streets, became a landmark in the city. Designed by local firm Stickney & Austin, it reflects the fashion of the time: high-style Beaux Arts with classical symmetry, cast-iron lampposts and yellow brick, its design was influenced in part by Lowell High School, designed by Lowell native Frederick W. Stickney. Frank Coburn, for whom the hall was named, served as the school's first principal until 1908. After being threatened with closure during the Great Depression, school administrators rallied local support to help keep it open. A delegation of prominent individuals representing Lowell's powerful interest groups traveled to Boston and convinced state officials of the school's importance.
The result was that the school not only continued to grow and expand. In 1950, Dr. Daniel O'Leary initiated an ambitious building program; the physical plant of the campus expanded during post-war era from a single structure to a multi-building complex, forming an area now known as UMass Lowell's South Campus. As the demand for more qualified teachers grew, the legislature reorganized the Normal School into Lowell State College in 1960 with a curriculum that expanded beyond education to include baccalaureate degrees in other fields including nursing and music. Beginning in 1967, the college was authorized to confer two more degrees: Master of Education and Master of Music Education. Established in 1895 as the Lowell Textile School, the institution was founded to train technicians and managers for work in Lowell’s booming textile industry. Modeled after the now-defunct Polytechnic College of Pennsylvania, Lowell Textile was the combined effort of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and corporations eager to form a school dedicated to textile education.
Under the guidance of founder James T. Smith, Lowell Textile opened its doors in February 1897 in the upper floors of a downtown commercial block located on Middle Street; the school offered three-year training programs in cotton and wool manufacturing, textile chemistry and dyeing. In 1903, the school moved from downtown to its permanent location just northwest of the Merrimack River; the yellow brick mill-like Southwick Hall was dedicated to Dierexa Southwick. Grandparents of the wealthy businessman Frederick Ayer, the Southwicks were Quakers and abolitionists who came to Lowell in the 1820s to help establish the Lowell Carpet Company. Ten years the school granted its first bachelor's degrees in textile dyeing and textile engineering. In 1953, President Martin Lydon expanded the curriculum to include programs in plastics, leather and electronics technology, increased the liberal arts offerings and renamed the school the Lowell Technological Institute, he moved the institute decisively toward general engineering, setting up a bachelor’s program in 1956.
The textile program was closed in 1971. In 1972, a feasibility study was conducted on merging Lowell State College with Lowell Technological Institute. Lowell State and Lowell Tech merged in 1975 as the University of Lowell. In 1991, the Lowell campus joined the University of Massachusetts system under its current name. Under Chapter 142, the UMass system was restructured to combine the Amherst and Worcester campuses with the University of Lowell and Southeastern Massachusetts University. In 2018 the union of adjunct faculty members launched a campaign titled "Justice for Lowell", demanding health insurance. According to their information UMass Lowell is the only university in the UMass system, that doesn't offer health insurance and retirement benefits for all adjunct professors. Further cited reasons for protests are unequal contract issues. UMass Lowell is the second-largest campus in the University of Massachusetts system and it has three campus clusters: North and East; the universities main facilities are located in Lowell, Massachusetts, 25 miles no
The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division, they were a charter member of the American Association in 1882 and joined the NL in 1890. The Reds played in the NL West division from 1969 to 1993, before joining the Central division in 1994, they have won five World Series titles, nine NL pennants, one AA pennant, 10 division titles. The team plays its home games at Great American Ball Park, which opened in 2003 replacing Riverfront Stadium. Bob Castellini has been chief executive officer since 2006. For 1882-2018, the Reds' overall win-loss record is 10524-10306; the origins of the modern Cincinnati Reds can be traced to the expulsion of an earlier team bearing that name. In 1876, Cincinnati became one of the charter members of the new National League, but the club ran afoul of league organizer and long-time president William Hulbert for selling beer during games and renting out their ballpark on Sundays.
Both were important activities to entice the city's large German population. While Hulbert made clear his distaste for both beer and Sunday baseball at the founding of the league, neither practice was against league rules in those early years. On October 6, 1880, seven of the eight team owners pledged at a special league meeting to formally ban both beer and Sunday baseball at the regular league meeting that December. Only Cincinnati president W. H. Kennett refused to sign the pledge, so the other owners formally expelled Cincinnati for violating a rule that would not go into effect for two more months. Cincinnati's expulsion from the National League incensed Cincinnati Enquirer sports editor O. P. Caylor, who made two attempts to form a new league on behalf of the receivers for the now bankrupt Reds franchise; when these attempts failed, he formed a new independent ballclub known as the Red Stockings in the Spring of 1881, brought the team to St. Louis for a weekend exhibition; the Reds' first game was a 12–3 victory over the St. Louis club.
After the 1881 series proved a success, Caylor and a former president of the old Reds named Justus Thorner received an invitation from Philadelphia businessman Horace Phillips to attend a meeting of several clubs in Pittsburgh with the intent of establishing a rival to the National League. Upon arriving in the city, however and Thorner discovered that no other owners had decided to accept the invitation, with Phillips not bothering to attend his own meeting. By chance, the duo met a former pitcher named Al Pratt, who hooked them up with former Pittsburgh Alleghenys president H. Denny McKnight. Together, the three men hatched a scheme to form a new league by sending a telegram to each of the other owners who were supposed to attend the meeting stating that he was the only person who did not attend and that everyone else was enthusiastic about the new venture and eager to attend a second meeting in Cincinnati; the ploy worked, the American Association was formed at the Hotel Gibson in Cincinnati with the new Reds a charter member with Thorner as president.
Led by the hitting of third baseman Hick Carpenter, the defense of future Hall of Fame second baseman Bid McPhee, the pitching of 40-game-winner Will White, the Reds won the inaugural AA pennant in 1882. With the establishment of the Union Association Justus Thorner left the club to finance the Cincinnati Outlaw Reds and managed to acquire the lease on the Reds Bank Street Grounds playing field, forcing new president Aaron Stern to relocate three blocks away at the hastily built League Park; the club never placed higher than second or lower than fifth for the rest of its tenure in the American Association. The Cincinnati Red Stockings left the American Association on November 14, 1889 and joined the National League along with the Brooklyn Bridegrooms after a dispute with St. Louis Browns owner Chris Von Der Ahe over the selection of a new league president; the National League was happy to accept the teams in part due to the emergence of the new Player's League. This new league, an early failed attempt to break the reserve clause in baseball, threatened both existing leagues.
Because the National League decided to expand while the American Association was weakening, the team accepted an invitation to join the National League. It was at this time that the team first shortened their name from "Red Stockings" to "Reds"; the Reds wandered through the 1890s signing aging veterans. During this time, the team never finished above never closer than 10 1⁄2 games. At the start of the 20th century, the Reds had hitting Cy Seymour. Seymour's.377 average in 1905 was the first individual batting crown won by a Red. In 1911, Bob Bescher stole 81 bases, still a team record. Like the previous decade, the 1900s were not kind to the Reds, as much of the decade was spent in the league's second division. In 1912, the club opened Redland Field; the Reds had been playing baseball on that same site, the corner of Findlay and Western Avenues on the city's west side, for 28 years, in wooden structures, damaged by fires. By the late 1910s the Reds began to come out of the second division; the 1918 team finished fourth, new manager Pat Moran led the Reds to an NL pennant in 1919, in what the club advertised as its "Golden Anniversary".
The 1919 team had hitting stars Edd Roush and Heinie Groh while the pitching staff was led by Hod Eller and left-hander Harry "Slim" Sallee. The Reds finished ahead of John McGraw's New York Giants, won the world championship in eight games over the
Joseph Paul Torre is an American professional baseball executive, serving in the capacity of Major League Baseball's chief baseball officer since 2011. A former player and television color commentator, Torre ranks fifth all-time in MLB history with 2,326 wins as a manager. With 2,342 hits during his playing career, Torre is the only major leaguer to achieve both 2,000 hits and 2,000 wins as a manager. From 1996 to 2007, he was the manager of the New York Yankees and guided the team to four World Series championships. Torre's lengthy and distinguished career in MLB began as a player in 1960 with the Milwaukee Braves, as a catcher, first baseman and third baseman, he played for the St. Louis Cardinals and New York Mets until becoming a manager in 1977, when he served as the Mets' player-manager, his managerial career covered 29 seasons, including tenures with the same three clubs for which he played, the Yankees and Los Angeles Dodgers, until 2010. From 1984 to 1989, he served as a television color commentator for the California Angels and NBC.
After retiring as a manager, he accepted a role assisting the Commissioner of Baseball as the executive vice president of baseball operations. A nine-time All-Star, Torre won the 1971 National League Most Valuable Player Award after leading the major leagues in batting average and runs batted in. After qualifying for the playoffs just once while managing the Mets and Cardinals, Torre's greatest success came as manager of the Yankees, his clubs compiled a.605 regular season winning percentage and made the playoffs every year, winning four World Series titles, six American League pennants, ten AL East division titles. In 1996 and 1998, he was the AL Manager of the Year, he won two NL West division titles with the Dodgers for a total of 13 division titles. In 2014, Torre was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame. Joseph Torre was born July 1940, in Brooklyn, New York, he is the youngest of five children, two girls and three boys of Italian immigrants Joe, Sr. a plainclothes officer in the New York City Police Department, Margaret.
Joe, Sr. abused Margaret until Torre was 13 years old when Torre's brother, convinced their father to move out. They would divorce. Torre is of Italian descent, he was raised in the Marine Park neighborhood of Brooklyn. His siblings include two older brothers and Rocco, an older sister, Marguerite. Torre grew up a New York Giants fan. Torre played baseball at Saint Francis Prep and in the All-American Amateur Baseball Association for the Brooklyn Cadets. Heavyset as a teenager, Torre was not considered a viable professional prospect until he converted to catcher on the advice of his brother, Frank. Torre worked at the American Stock Exchange after high school. Torre followed in his brother Frank Torre's footsteps when he was signed by the Milwaukee Braves as an amateur free agent in 1959. In his first season in the minor leagues with the Class A Eau Claire Bears, he won the 1960 Northern League batting championship with a.344 batting average. Torre made his major league debut late in the season on September 25, 1960.
He was assigned to the Triple A Louisville Colonels for the 1961 season where, the Braves had planned to groom him as the eventual successor to their All-Star catcher, Del Crandall. However, those plans were changed when Crandall injured his throwing arm in May 1961, forcing the Braves to promote Torre to the major leagues with just over a year of minor league experience. Torre rose to the occasion, hitting for a. 278 batting average with 10 home runs. He finished the season ranked second to Billy Williams in the 1961 National League Rookie of the Year voting. Crandall resumed his role as the number one catcher in 1962 while Torre stayed on as the back-up catcher. By the 1963 season, the Braves had begun to play Crandall at first base as Torre had taken over the starting catcher's role, he ended the season with a.293 batting average with 14 home runs and 71 runs batted in and, earned a spot as a reserve for the National League team in the 1963 All-Star Game. In December 1963, the Braves traded Crandall to the San Francisco Giants leaving Torre as the undisputed number one catcher.
Torre had a breakout year in 1964 when he hit 12 home runs along with a.312 batting average by mid-season and was voted to be the starting catcher for the National League in the 1964 All-Star Game. He ended the season with a.321 batting average, fourth highest in the league, along with 20 home runs and 109 runs batted in and led National League catchers with a.995 fielding percentage. Despite the fact that the Braves finished the season in fifth place, Torre ranked fifth in voting for the 1964 National League Most Valuable Player Award. In 1965, Torre won his first of two NL Player of the Month awards when he took the honour for May, batting.382, with 10 HR, 24 RBI. Torre was once again voted to be the starting catcher for the National League in the 1965 All-Star Game and won his first and only Gold Glove Award, he ended the season with 27 home runs and 80 runs batted in although his batting average dipped to.291. In his book, The Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract, baseball historian Bill James said the decision to award Torre the 1965 Gold Glove was absurd, stating that he was given the award because of his offensive statistics and that, either John Roseboro or Tom Haller were more deserved of the award.
In an article for the St. Petersburg Independent that year, Beat Generation author Jack Kerouac called Torre "the best catcher since Roy Campanella."The Braves relocated to Atlanta for the 1966 season and would play their games in the new Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium which, due to its less dense atmosphere in the high elevation in the foothills of the
Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte is the most populous city in the U. S. state of North Carolina. Located in the Piedmont, it is the county seat of Mecklenburg County. In 2017, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated the population was 859,035, making it the 17th-most populous city in the United States; the Charlotte metropolitan area's population ranks 22nd in the U. S. and had a 2016 population of 2,474,314. The Charlotte metropolitan area is part of a sixteen-county market region or combined statistical area with a 2016 census-estimated population of 2,632,249. Between 2004 and 2014, Charlotte was ranked as the country's fastest-growing metro area, with 888,000 new residents. Based on U. S. Census data from 2005 to 2015, it tops the 50 largest U. S. cities as the millennial hub. It is the second-largest city in the southeastern United States, just behind Florida, it is the third-fastest-growing major city in the United States. It is listed as a "gamma" global city by World Cities Research Network. Residents are referred to as "Charlotteans".
Charlotte is home to the corporate headquarters of Bank of America and the east coast operations of Wells Fargo, which along with other financial institutions has made it the second-largest banking center in the United States since 1995. Among Charlotte's many notable attractions, some of the most popular include the Carolina Panthers of the NFL, the Charlotte Hornets of the NBA, the Charlotte Checkers of the AHL, the Charlotte Independence of the USL, the Charlotte Hounds of Major League Lacrosse, two NASCAR Cup Series races and the NASCAR All-Star Race, the Wells Fargo Championship, the NASCAR Hall of Fame, the Charlotte Ballet, Children's Theatre of Charlotte, Carowinds amusement park, the U. S. National Whitewater Center. Charlotte has a humid subtropical climate, it is located several miles east of the Catawba River and southeast of Lake Norman, the largest man-made lake in North Carolina. Lake Wylie and Mountain Island Lake are two smaller man-made lakes located near the city; the Catawba Native Americans were the first known historic tribe to settle Mecklenburg County and were first recorded around 1567 in Spanish records.
By 1759 half the Catawba tribe had died from smallpox, endemic among Europeans, because the Catawba had no acquired immunity to the new disease. At the time of their largest population, Catawba people numbered 10,000, but by 1826 their total population had dropped to 110; the European-American city of Charlotte was developed first by a wave of migration of Scots-Irish Presbyterians, or Ulster-Scot settlers from Northern Ireland, who dominated the culture of the Southern Piedmont Region. They made up the principal founding European population in the backcountry. German immigrants settled the area before the American Revolutionary War, but in much smaller numbers, they still contributed to the early foundations of the region. Mecklenburg County was part of Bath County of New Hanover Precinct, which became New Hanover County in 1729; the western portion of New Hanover split into Bladen County in 1734, its western portion splitting into Anson County in 1750. Mecklenburg County formed from Anson County in 1762.
Further apportionment was made in 1792, after the American Revolutionary War, with Cabarrus County formed from Mecklenburg. In 1842, Union County formed from Mecklenburg's southeastern portion and a western portion of Anson County; these areas were all part of one of the original six judicial/military districts of North Carolina known as the Salisbury District. The area, now Charlotte was settled by people of European descent around 1755, when Thomas Spratt and his family settled near what is now the Elizabeth neighborhood. Thomas Polk, who married Thomas Spratt's daughter, built his house by the intersection of two Native American trading paths between the Yadkin and Catawba rivers. One path was part of the Great Wagon Road. Nicknamed the "Queen City", like its county a few years earlier, Charlotte was named in honor of German princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who had become the Queen Consort of Great Britain and Ireland in 1761, seven years before the town's incorporation. A second nickname derives from the American Revolutionary War, when British commander General Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis occupied the city but was driven out by hostile residents.
He wrote that Charlotte was "a hornet's nest of rebellion", leading to the nickname "The Hornet's Nest". Within decades of Polk's settling, the area grew to become "Charlotte Town", incorporating in 1768; the crossroads in the Piedmont became the heart of Uptown Charlotte. In 1770, surveyors marked the streets in a grid pattern for future development; the east–west trading path became Trade Street, the Great Wagon Road became Tryon Street, in honor of William Tryon, a royal governor of colonial North Carolina. The intersection of Trade and Tryon—commonly known today as "Trade & Tryon," or "The Square"—is more properly called "Independence Square". While surveying the boundary between the Carolinas in 1772, William Moultrie stopped in Charlotte Town, whose five or six houses were "very ordinary built of logs". Local leaders came together in 1775 and signed the Mecklenburg Resolves, more popularly known as the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. While not a true declaration of independence from British rule, it is among the first such declarations that led to the American Revolution.
May 20, the traditional date of the signing of the declaration, is celebrated annually in Charlotte as "MecDec", with musket and cannon fire by reenactors in Independence Square. North Carolina's state flag and state seal bea
The Atlanta Braves are an American professional baseball franchise based in the Atlanta metropolitan area. The franchise competes in Major League Baseball as a member of the National League East division; the Braves played home games at Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium from 1966 to 1996, Turner Field from 1997 to 2016. Since 2017, their home stadium has been SunTrust Park, a new stadium 10 miles northwest of downtown Atlanta in the Cumberland neighborhood of Cobb County; the Braves play spring training games at CoolToday Park in Florida. The "Braves" name, first used in 1912, originates from a term for a Native American warrior, they are nicknamed "the Bravos", referred to as "America's Team" in reference to the team's games being broadcast on the nationally available TBS from the 1970s until 2007, giving the team a nationwide fan base. From 1991 to 2005, the Braves were one of the most successful teams in baseball, winning division titles an unprecedented 14 consecutive times, producing one of the greatest pitching rotations in the history of baseball.
Most notably, this rotation consisted of pitchers Greg Maddux, John Smoltz, Tom Glavine. The Braves won the National League West division from 1991 to 1993, after divisional realignment, the National League East division from 1995 to 2005, they returned to the playoffs as the National League Wild Card in 2010. The Braves advanced to the World Series five times in the 1990s, winning the title in 1995 against the Cleveland Indians. Since their debut in the National League in 1876, the franchise has won 18 divisional titles, 17 National League pennants, three World Series championships — in 1914 as the Boston Braves, in 1957 as the Milwaukee Braves, in 1995 as the Atlanta Braves; the Braves are the only Major League Baseball franchise to have won the World Series in three different home cities. The Braves and the Chicago Cubs are the National League's two remaining charter franchises; the Braves were founded in Boston, Massachusetts, as the Boston Red Stockings. The team states it is "the oldest continuously operating professional sports franchise in America."After various name changes, the team began operating as the Boston Braves, which lasted for most of the first half of the 20th century.
In 1953, the team moved to Milwaukee and became the Milwaukee Braves, followed by the final move to Atlanta in 1966. The team's tenure in Atlanta is noted for Hank Aaron breaking Babe Ruth's career home run record in 1974; the Cincinnati Red Stockings, established in 1869 as the first all-professional baseball team, voted to dissolve after the 1870 season. Player-manager Harry Wright, with brother George and two other Cincinnati players went to Boston, Massachusetts at the invitation of Boston Red Stockings founder Ivers Whitney Adams to form the nucleus of the Boston Red Stockings, a charter member of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players; the original Boston Red Stockings team and its successors can lay claim to being the oldest continuously playing team in American professional sports. Two young players hired away from the Forest City club of Rockford, turned out to be the biggest stars during the NAPBBP years: pitcher Al Spalding and second baseman Ross Barnes. Led by the Wright brothers and Spalding, the Red Stockings dominated the National Association, winning four of that league's five championships.
The team became one of the National League's charter franchises in 1876, sometimes called the "Red Caps". The Boston Red Caps played in the first game in the history of the National League, on Saturday, April 22, 1876, defeating the Philadelphia Athletics, 6–5. Although somewhat stripped of talent in the National League's inaugural year, Boston bounced back to win the 1877 and 1878 pennants; the Red Caps/Beaneaters were one of the league's dominant teams during the 19th century, winning a total of eight pennants. For most of that time, their manager was Frank Selee. Boston came to be called the Beaneaters while retaining red as the team color; the 1898 team finished 102–47, a club record for wins that would stand for a century. Stars of those 1890s Beaneater teams included the "Heavenly Twins", Hugh Duffy and Tommy McCarthy, as well as "Slidin'" Billy Hamilton; the team was decimated when the American League's new Boston entry set up shop in 1901. Many of the Beaneaters' stars jumped to the new team, which offered contracts that the Beaneaters' owners did not bother to match.
They only managed one winning season from 1900 to 1913, lost 100 games five times. In 1907, the Beaneaters eliminated the last bit of red from their stockings because their manager thought the red dye could cause wounds to become infected (as noted in The Sporting News Baseball Guide during the 1940s when each team's entry had a history of its nickname; the American League club's owner, Charles Taylor, wasted little time in adopting Red Sox as his team's first official nickname. Media-driven nickname changes to the Doves in 1907 and the Rustlers in 1911 did nothing to change the National League club's luck; the team became the Braves for the first time in 1912. Their owner, James Gaffney, was a member of New York City's political machine, Tammany Hall, which used an In
Batting average (baseball)
In baseball, the batting average is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is reported to three decimal places and read without the decimal: A player with a batting average of.300 is "batting three-hundred." If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken beyond the.001 measurement. In this context, a.001 is considered a "point," such that a.235 batter is 5 points higher than a.230 batter. Henry Chadwick, an English statistician raised on cricket, was an influential figure in the early history of baseball. In the late 19th century he adapted the concept behind the cricket batting average to devise a similar statistic for baseball. Rather than copy cricket's formulation of runs scored divided by outs, he realized that hits divided by at bats would provide a better measure of individual batting ability; this is because while in cricket, scoring runs is entirely dependent on one's own batting skill, in baseball it is dependent on having other good hitters on one's team.
Chadwick noted that hits are independent of teammates' skills, so used this as the basis for the baseball batting average. His reason for using at bats rather than outs is less obvious, but it leads to the intuitive idea of the batting average being a percentage reflecting how a batter gets on base, whereas hits divided by outs is not as simple to interpret in real terms. In modern times, a season batting average higher than.300 is considered to be excellent, an average higher than.400 a nearly unachievable goal. The last player to do so, with enough plate appearances to qualify for the batting championship, was Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox, who hit.406 in 1941, though the best modern players either threaten to or do achieve it if only for brief periods of time. There have been numerous attempts to explain the disappearance of the.400 hitter, with one of the more rigorous discussions of this question appearing in Stephen Jay Gould's 1996 book Full House. Ty Cobb holds the record for highest career batting average with.366, 9 points higher than Rogers Hornsby who has the second highest average in history at.358.
The record for lowest career batting average for a player with more than 2,500 at-bats belongs to Bill Bergen, a catcher who played from 1901 to 1911 and recorded a.170 average in 3,028 career at-bats. The modern-era record for highest batting average for a season is held by Nap Lajoie, who hit.426 in 1901, the first year of play for the American League. The modern-era record for lowest batting average for a player that qualified for the batting title is held by Chris Davis, who hit.168 in 2018. While finishing six plate appearances short of qualifying for the batting title, Adam Dunn of the Chicago White Sox hit.159 for the 2011 season, nine points lower than the record. The highest batting average for a rookie was.408 in 1911 by Shoeless Joe Jackson. For non-pitchers, a batting average below.230 is considered poor, one below.200 is unacceptable. This latter level is sometimes referred to as "The Mendoza Line", named for Mario Mendoza, a stellar defensive shortstop whose defensive capabilities just made up for his offensive shortcomings.
The league batting average in Major League Baseball for 2016 was.255, the all-time league average is between.260 and.275. In rare instances, MLB players have concluded their careers with a perfect batting average of 1.000. John Paciorek had three hits in all three of his turns at bat. Esteban Yan went two-for-two, including a home run. Hal Deviney's two hits in his only plate appearances included a triple, while Steve Biras, Mike Hopkins, Chet Kehn, Jason Roach and Fred Schemanske went two-for-two. A few dozen others have hit safely in their one and only career at-bat. Sabermetrics, the study of baseball statistics, considers batting average a weak measure of performance because it does not correlate as well as other measures to runs scored, thereby causing it to have little predictive value. Batting average does not take into account walks or power, whereas other statistics such as on-base percentage and slugging percentage have been designed to measure such concepts. Adding these statistics together form a player's On-base plus slugging or "OPS".
This is seen as a much better, though not perfect, indicator of a player's overall batting ability as it is a measure of hitting for average, hitting for power and drawing bases on balls. In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits; this skyrocketed batting averages, including some near.500, the experiment was abandoned the following season. The Major League Baseball batting averages championships is awarded annually to the player in each league who has the highest batting average. Ty Cobb holds the MLB record for most batting titles winning 11 in his pro career; the National League record of 8 batting titles is shared by Tony Gwynn. Most of Cobb's career and all of Wagner's career took place in what is known as the Dead-Ball Era, characterized by higher batting averages and much less power, whereas Gwynn's career took place in the Live-Ball Era. To determine which players are eligible to win the batting title, the following conditions have been used over the sport's history: Pre-1920 – A player is required to appear in at least 100 or more games when the schedule was 154 games, 90 games when the schedule was 140 games.
An exception to the rule was made for Ty Cobb in 1914, who appeared in 98 games but had a big lead and was a favorite of League President Ban Johnson. 1920–1949 – A player had to appear in 100 games to qualify in the National League.
Catcher is a position for a baseball or softball player. When a batter takes his/her turn to hit, the catcher crouches behind home plate, in front of the umpire, receives the ball from the pitcher. In addition to this primary duty, the catcher is called upon to master many other skills in order to field the position well; the role of the catcher is similar to that of the wicket-keeper in cricket. Positioned behind home plate, the catcher can see the whole field, is therefore in the best position to direct and lead the other players in a defensive play; the catcher calls for pitches using hand signals. The calls are based on the pitcher's mechanics and strengths, as well as the batter's tendencies and weaknesses. Foul tips, bouncing balls in the dirt, contact with runners during plays at the plate are all events to be handled by the catcher, necessitating the use of protective equipment; this includes a mask and throat protectors, shin guards, a padded catcher's mitt. Because the position requires a comprehensive understanding of the game's strategies, the pool of former catchers yields a disproportionate number of managers in both Major League Baseball and Minor League Baseball, including such prominent examples as Connie Mack, Steve O'Neill, Al López, Mike Scioscia, Joe Girardi, Joe Torre.
The physical and mental demands of being involved on every defensive play can wear catchers down over a long season, can have a negative effect on their offensive output. Because of the strategic defensive importance of catching, if a catcher has exceptional defensive skills, teams are willing to overlook their relative offensive weaknesses. A knowledgeable catcher's ability to work with the pitcher, via pitch selection and location, can diminish the effectiveness of the opposing team's offense. Many great defensive catchers toiled in relative anonymity, because they did not produce large offensive numbers. Notable examples of light-hitting, defensive specialists were Ray Schalk, Jim Hegan, Jim Sundberg and Brad Ausmus. Schalk's career batting average of.253 is the lowest of any position player in the Baseball Hall of Fame. That he was selected for enshrinement in 1955 was a tribute to his outstanding defensive skills. Catchers are able to play first base and less third base. In the numbering system used to record baseball plays, the catcher is assigned the number'2'.
In the middle of the nineteenth century, the game of baseball began to evolve from a sport played by amateurs for recreation into a more serious game played by professionals. One of the most dramatic changes was the transition of the pitcher's delivery from an underhand motion to an overhanded throw. Before the American Civil War, the pitcher's role was to initiate the action by offering an underhanded throw to the batter, in much the same way that a basketball referee offers up a jump ball to begin play. Since this type of pitching caused the batter to hit lazy, foul pop-ups, catchers played their position twenty to twenty-five feet behind the batter, wore no protective equipment; as the game progressed towards professionals and became more serious, pitchers began to attempt to prevent the batter from hitting the ball by throwing faster pitches. With the introduction of the called strike in 1858, catchers began inching closer to home plate due to the rules requirement that a strikeout could only be completed by a catch.
The rules governing the delivery of pitches proved to be hard to enforce, pitchers continued to stretch the boundaries of the rules until the 1870s when the release point of pitches had reached the pitcher's waist level. Pitchers had begun throwing overhand by 1884, the National League made a rule change removing all restrictions on the pitcher's delivery; these developments meant that catchers began to take on a crucial defensive role, as a pitcher's deceptive deliveries could only be effective if the catcher was capable of fielding them. The progression of the catcher positioning himself closer to the plate would lead to changes in pitching deliveries that would revolutionize the sport. In the 1870s, pitcher Candy Cummings was able to introduce the curveball because his catcher, Nat Hicks, fielded his position in close proximity to home plate and was able to catch the deceptive pitch. Other specialized pitches such as the spitball and the knuckleball followed, which further emphasized the defensive importance of the catcher's position.
At about the same time that catchers began fielding their position closer to home plate, baseball teams began using a less rubbery ball which led to a decline in the number of runs scored. In the 1860s it sixty runs in a game; the combination of the new, harder ball and the continuation of the rise in pitcher's release points helped usher in what became known as the Dead-ball era. The decrease in run production placed greater significance on stolen bases and bunts, which in turn emphasized the crucial defensive role played by catchers. In 1901, the National League introduced a new rule specifying that the catcher must stand within 10 feet of home plate; the American League adopted the rule the following year. The rising velocity of pitches in conjunction with catchers moving closer to home plate increased the risk of injuries for catchers face and hand injuries. By the late 1870s, catchers began to use padded, fingerless gloves to protect their hands, in 1877 the first protective catcher's mask was used.
The first catchers to use protective masks sometimes had their courage called into question, but the effectiveness of the masks in preventing injuries meant that they became accepted. In the 1880s, the first padded chest protectors came into use, in 18