The Rocketeer (film)
The Rocketeer is a 1991 American period superhero film from Walt Disney Pictures, produced by Charles Gordon, Lawrence Gordon, Lloyd Levin, directed by Joe Johnston, that stars Bill Campbell, Jennifer Connelly, Alan Arkin, Timothy Dalton, Paul Sorvino, Tiny Ron Taylor. The film is based upon the character of the same name created by comic book artist and writer Dave Stevens. Set in 1938 Los Angeles, The Rocketeer tells the story of stunt pilot Cliff Secord who stumbles upon a hidden rocket powered jet pack that he thereafter uses to fly without the need of an aircraft, his heroic deeds soon attract the attention of Howard Hughes and the FBI, who are hunting for the missing jet pack, as well as the Nazi operatives that stole it from Hughes. Development for The Rocketeer started as far back as 1983. Steve Miner and William Dear considered directing The Rocketeer before Johnston signed on. Screenwriters Danny Bilson and Paul De Meo had creative differences with Disney, which caused the film to languish in development hell.
The studio intended to change the trademark helmet design. Johnston had to convince Disney to let him cast unknown actor Billy Campbell in the lead role. Filming for The Rocketeer lasted from September 19, 1990 to January 22, 1991; the visual effects sequences were created and designed by Industrial Light & Magic, were supervised by animation director Wes Takahashi. The film was released on June 21, 1991, received positive reviews from critics. Plans for Rocketeer sequels were abandoned after the film was a disappointment at the box office, grossing only $46 million on a $35 million budget. In 1938 Los Angeles, two gangsters in Eddie Valentine's gang steal a rocket pack from Howard Hughes. During their escape from the authorities that ends up on an airfield, one gangster is shot to death, the getaway driver hides the rocket pack, stunt pilot Cliff Secord's Gee Bee racer is totaled in the resulting auto-airplane accident, crippling his career. Movie star Neville Sinclair had hired Valentine's gang to steal the rocket pack, he sends his monstrous henchman Lothar to question the injured getaway driver, who tells him about his hiding the rocket pack at the airfield.
Cliff's girlfriend is aspiring actress Jenny Blake, who has a bit part in Sinclair's latest swashbuckling film, but recent events begin to drive a wedge in their relationship. Sinclair overhears Cliff attempting to tell Jenny about the rocket pack, so he invites her to dinner. Afterward, at a local air show, Cliff uses the rocket pack to rescue his friend Malcolm, drunkenly piloting the biplane; the newsreel press and Valentine's gangsters all see him from the airshow audience, whereupon "The Rocketeer" becomes a media sensation, but sets Sinclair and the FBI on Cliff's tail. Sinclair sends Peevy's home to find the rocket pack; the FBI arrives, but Cliff and Peevy escape while Lothar steals the rocket pack's detailed schematics drawn up by Peevy. At the airfield diner and Peevy are trapped by several Valentine mobsters; the diner patrons overpower the gangsters, while a bullet ricochet punctures the rocket pack's fuel tank, which Peevy temporarily patches with Cliff's chewing gum. Cliff proceeds to the South Seas Club.
The Valentine Gang arrives, Jenny is kidnapped by Sinclair in the ensuing melée. At Sinclair's home, Jenny knocks him out, she is detained and forced to leave a message for Cliff to bring the rocket pack to the Griffith Observatory in exchange for her life. Just before he is arrested by the FBI and taken to Hughes and Peevy, Cliff hides the rocket pack. Hughes explains that his rocket pack is a prototype, similar to one that Nazi scientists have, up to now, been unsuccessful in developing; the FBI agents mention that they are tracking a Nazi spy in Hollywood, whom Cliff realizes must be Sinclair. When Hughes demands the return of the rocket pack, Cliff explains. Cliff flies to the rendezvous. Cliff divulges to the mobsters. A. stormtroopers hidden at the observatory. The Nazi rigid airship Luxembourg appears overhead to evacuate Sinclair. FBI agents announce their presence, having secretly surrounded the area. Sinclair and Lothar escape. Cliff flies to and boards the airship, but during the ensuing showdown, Jenny accidentally sets the bridge on fire with a flare gun.
Sinclair holds Jenny hostage, forcing Cliff to give him the rocket pack, but not before he secretly removes the chewing gum patch, allowing fuel to leak near the rocket pack's exhaust. Sinclair dons the rocket pack and flies off, the leaked fuel causes the rocket pack to catch on fire, causing Sinclair to plummet to his death on fire near the HOLLYWOODLAND sign.
Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. was an American animation studio, founded in 1957 by Tom and Jerry creators and former Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation directors William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, in partnership with film director George Sidney. The studio was a prominent force and a leader in American television animation for over three decades in the mid-20th century as it created a wide variety of popular animated characters and produced a succession of cartoon series, including The Flintstones, The Yogi Bear Show, The Jetsons, Wacky Races, Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! and Smurfs. Hanna and Barbera's cartoons won them seven Academy Awards, eight Emmy Awards, a Governors Award and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. With their studio now established as a successful company, the two men and original investor Sidney sold it to Taft Broadcasting on December 29, 1966. Taft would run it for the next quarter-century. By the mid-1980s, when the profitability of Saturday-morning cartoons was eclipsed by weekday afternoon syndication, Hanna-Barbera's fortunes had declined.
Turner Broadcasting System purchased the studio from Taft in late 1991 and used much of its back catalog as programming for its new channel, Cartoon Network. After Turner purchased the company and Barbera continued to serve as creative consultants and mentors; the studio became a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Animation in 1996 following Turner Broadcasting's merger with Time Warner, was absorbed into Warner Bros. Animation in 2001; as of 2019, Warner Bros. now distributes subsequent Hanna-Barbera cartoons, as well as now owning the rights to its back catalogue. William Hanna, a native of Melrose, New Mexico and Joseph Barbera, born of Italian heritage in New York City, first met at the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio in 1939, while working at its animation division and thus began a partnership that would last for six decades, their first cartoon together, the Oscar-nominated Puss Gets the Boot, featuring a cat named Jasper and an unnamed mouse, was released to theaters in 1940 and served as the pilot for the long-running short subject theatrical series Tom and Jerry.
Hanna and Barbera served as directors of the shorts for over 20 years, with Hanna supervising the animation and Barbera in charge of the stories and pre-production. Hanna did the screams, yelps and yells of Tom. In addition being nominated for twelve Oscars, seven of the cartoons won seven Academy Awards for Best Short Subject between 1943 and 1953, awarded to producer Fred Quimby, not involved in the creative development of the shorts; the pair served as animation directors for the hybrid animated/live-action musical sequences in MGM's feature films Anchors Aweigh, Dangerous When Wet and Invitation to the Dance and wrote and directed a handful of one-shot cartoons for MGM: Gallopin' Gals, Officer Pooch, War Dogs and Good Will to Men, a 1955 remake of the 1939 MGM cartoon Peace on Earth. With Quimby's retirement in 1955, Hanna and Barbera became the producers in charge of the MGM animation studio's output, supervising the last seven shorts of Tex Avery's Droopy series and directing and producing a short-lived Tom and Jerry spin-off series and Tyke, which ran for two entries.
In addition to their work on the cartoons, the two men moonlighted on outside projects, including the original title sequences and commercials for the CBS sitcom I Love Lucy. With the rise of television, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer decided in early 1957 to close its cartoon studio, as it felt it had acquired a reasonable backlog of shorts for re-release. While contemplating their future and Barbera began producing animated television commercials and during their last year at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, they had developed a concept for a new animated TV program about a dog and cat duo in various misadventures. After they failed to convince the studio to back their venture, live-action director George Sidney, who had worked with Hanna and Barbera on several of his theatrical features for MGM, offered to serve as their business partner and convinced Screen Gems, a television production subsidiary of Columbia Pictures, to make a deal with the producers. A coin toss would determine. Harry Cohn and head of Columbia Pictures, took an 18% ownership in Hanna and Barbera's new company, H-B Enterprises, provided working capital.
Screen Gems became the new studio's distributor and its licensing agent, handling merchandizing of the characters from the animated programs. The duo's cartoon firm opened for business in rented offices on the lot of Kling Studios on July 7, 1957, two months after the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation studio closed down. Sidney and several Screen Gems alumni became members of the studio's board of directors and much of the former MGM animation staff — including animators Carlo Vinci, Kenneth Muse, Lewis Marshall, Michael Lah and Ed Barge and layout artists Ed Benedict and Richard Bickenbach — became the new production staff for the H-B studio. Conductor and composer Hoyt Curtin was in charge of providing the music while many voice actors came on board, such as Daws Butler, Don Messick, Julie Bennett, Mel Blanc, Howard Morris, John Stephenson, Hal Smith and Doug Young. H-B Enterprises was the first major animation studio to produce cartoons for television. Animated programming was rebroadcasts of theatrical cartoons.
Its first animated TV original The Ruff and Reddy Show, premiered on NBC in December 1957. The
Warren Publishing was an American magazine company founded by James Warren, who published his first magazines in 1957 and continued in the business for decades. Magazines published by Warren include After Hours, Eerie, Famous Monsters of Filmland, Help!, Vampirella. Based in Philadelphia, the company moved by 1965 to New York City. Begun by James Warren, Warren Publishing's initial publications were the horror-fantasy--science fiction movie magazine Famous Monsters of Filmland and Monster World, both edited by Forrest J Ackerman. Warren soon published Spacemen magazine and in 1960 Help! magazine, with the first employee of the magazine being Gloria Steinem. After introducing what he called "Monster Comics" in Monster World, Warren expanded in 1964 with horror-comics stories in the sister magazines Creepy and Eerie – black-and-white publications in a standard magazine format, rather than comic-book size, selling for 35 cents as opposed to the standard comic-book price of 12 cents; such a format, Warren explained, averted the restrictions of the Comics Code Authority, the comic-book industry's self-censorship body: The Comics Code saved the industry from turmoil, but at the same time, it had a cleansing kind of effect on comics, making them "clean and family-oriented"...
We would overcome this by saying to the Code Authority, the industry, the printers, the distributors:'We are not a comic book. Creepy is magazine-sized and will be sold on magazine racks, not comic book racks". Creepy's manifesto was brief and direct: First, it was to be a magazine format, 8½" × 11", going to an older audience not subject to the Code Authority." By publishing graphic stories in a magazine format to which the Code did not apply, Warren paved the way for such graphic-story magazines as the American version of Heavy Metal. Russ Jones was the founding editor of Creepy in 1964. A year Archie Goodwin succeeded him, with Joe Orlando acting as a behind-the-scenes story editor. Goodwin, who would become one of comics' foremost and most influential writers, helped to establish the company as a leader in its field. From 1965 to 1966, Warren published the four-issue Blazing Combat, a war-comics magazine with anti-war themes, controversial at the time. After 17 issues of Creepy and 11 of Eerie, Goodwin resigned as editor in 1967.
The movement of Warren's operations from Philadelphia to New York City, combined with a change in distributors and a downturn in the market imposed a cash flow problem on Warren, Goodwin along with all of the artists except for Tom Sutton and Rocke Mastroserio departed the company. During the next two-and-a-half years, Warren's publications consisted of reprints from the early issues. During this period, a variety of editors ran the magazines including Bill Parente, Nicola Cuti, Warren himself. Things started picking up again for Warren in 1969 with the premiere of its third horror magazine, Vampirella. Many of Warren's original artists returned during this period, as would Goodwin for a period of time in 1970 and 1971. After Goodwin's second departure, editors would J. R. Cochran; the art director was Billy Graham. In 1971, Warren began using artists from the Barcelona studio of Spanish agency Selecciones Illustrada. Over the next few years, Spanish artists would dominate the magazines. Additional Spanish artists from S.
I.'s Valencia studio began freelancing for Warren in 1974. In 1973, new editor Bill DuBay, who had joined the company as an artist early in 1970, transformed Warren's magazines to create a uniform style; the following year, Warren Publishing was dissolved and replaced by Warren Communications, a sister company James Warren had founded in 1972. Dubay was editor for all three of Warren's horror magazines until 1976, except for a short period of time in 1974 where Goodwin returned to edit four issues of Creepy and two of Vampirella. During this time, the frequency of Warren's magazines was increased to nine issues a year. In 1974, DuBay oversaw a new black-and-white magazine, The Spirit, which revived acclaimed writer-artist Will Eisner's masked detective of 1940s and early-1950s newspaper Sunday supplements, reprinting the character's seven-page, semi-anthological stories for a new generation; the magazine featured new covers by an occasional reprint in color. The same year, Warren debuted Comix International, a color magazine reprinting earlier Warren stories.
After Dubay's departure, Louise Jones, his former assistant, headed the editorial staff from 1976 to 1980. Toward the end of Dubay's period of editorship many American artists had returned to the magazines, including John Severin, Alex Toth, Russ Heath and they contributed many stories during Jones' time as editor. Former DC Comics publisher Carmine Infantino would join the company during this period and pencil over 50 stories. Much like the wave of Spanish artists that dominated throughout the mid-1970s, a number of artists from the Philippines would begin contributing during this period. Dubay returned as editor after Jones' departure, using the alias "Will Richardson". Toward the end of the 1970s, Warren published two new magazines edited by Dubay: the science-fiction anthology 1984, in 1978. James Warren's bad health, combined with changing tastes and business problems, led to internal turmoil and editorial turnover; the company suspended publishing in late 1981, editor Bill Dubay left in 1982, Warren declared bankruptcy in 1983.
In August 1983, Harris Public
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt
A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative serialized, with text in balloons and captions. Traditionally, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, these have been published in newspapers and magazines, with horizontal strips printed in black-and-white in daily newspapers, while Sunday newspapers offered longer sequences in special color comics sections. With the development of the internet, they began to appear online as webcomics. There were more than 200 different comic strips and daily cartoon panels in South Korea alone each day for most of the 20th century, for a total of at least 7,300,000 episodes. Strips are drawn by a comics artist or cartoonist; as the name implies, comic strips can be humorous. Starting in the late 1920s, comic strips expanded from their mirthful origins to feature adventure stories, as seen in Popeye, Captain Easy, Buck Rogers and The Adventures of Tintin. Soap-opera continuity strips such as Judge Parker and Mary Worth gained popularity in the 1940s.
All are called, comic strips, though cartoonist Will Eisner has suggested that "sequential art" would be a better genre-neutral name. In the UK and the rest of Europe, comic strips are serialized in comic book magazines, with a strip's story sometimes continuing over three pages or more. Comic strips have appeared in American magazines such as Liberty and Boys' Life and on the front covers of magazines, such as the Flossy Frills series on The American Weekly Sunday newspaper supplement. Storytelling using a sequence of pictures has existed through history. One medieval European example in textile form is the Bayeux Tapestry. Printed examples emerged in 19th-century Germany and in 18th-century England, where some of the first satirical or humorous sequential narrative drawings were produced. William Hogarth's 18th century English cartoons include both narrative sequences, such as A Rake's Progress, single panels; the Biblia pauperum, a tradition of picture Bibles beginning in the Middle Ages, sometimes depicted Biblical events with words spoken by the figures in the miniatures written on scrolls coming out of their mouths—which makes them to some extent ancestors of the modern cartoon strips.
In China, with its traditions of block printing and of the incorporation of text with image, experiments with what became lianhuanhua date back to 1884. The first newspaper comic strips appeared in North America in the late 19th century; the Yellow Kid is credited as one of the first newspaper strips. However, the art form combining words and pictures developed and there are many examples which led up to the comic strip. Swiss author and caricature artist Rodolphe Töpffer is considered the father of the modern comic strips, his illustrated stories such as Histoire de M. Vieux Bois, first published in the USA in 1842 as The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck or Histoire de Monsieur Jabot, inspired subsequent generations of German and American comic artists. In 1865, German painter and caricaturist Wilhelm Busch created the strip Max and Moritz, about two trouble-making boys, which had a direct influence on the American comic strip. Max and Moritz was a series of moralistic tales in the vein of German children's stories such as Struwwelpeter.
Max and Moritz provided an inspiration for German immigrant Rudolph Dirks, who created the Katzenjammer Kids in 1897. Familiar comic-strip iconography such as stars for pain, sawing logs for snoring, speech balloons, thought balloons originated in Dirks' strip. Hugely popular, Katzenjammer Kids occasioned one of the first comic-strip copyright ownership suits in the history of the medium; when Dirks left William Randolph Hearst for the promise of a better salary under Joseph Pulitzer, it was an unusual move, since cartoonists deserted Pulitzer for Hearst. In a unusual court decision, Hearst retained the rights to the name "Katzenjammer Kids", while creator Dirks retained the rights to the characters. Hearst promptly hired Harold Knerr to draw his own version of the strip. Dirks renamed his version Fritz. Thus, two versions distributed by rival syndicates graced the comics pages for decades. Dirks' version distributed by United Feature Syndicate, ran until 1979. In the United States, the great popularity of comics sprang from the newspaper war between Pulitzer and Hearst.
The Little Bears was the first American comic strip with recurring characters, while the first color comic supplement was published by the Chicago Inter-Ocean sometime in the latter half of 1892, followed by the New York Journal's first color Sunday comic pages in 1897. On January 31, 1912, Hearst introduced the nation's first full daily comic page in his New York Evening Journal; the history of this newspaper rivalry and the rapid appearance of comic strips in most major American newspapers is discussed by Ian Gordon. Numerous events in newspaper comic strips have reverberated throughout society at large, though few of these events occurred in recent years, owing to the declining role of the newspaper comic strip as an entertainment form; the longest-running American comic strips are: The Katzenjammer Kids Gasoline Alley Ripley's Believe It or Not! Barney Google and Snuffy Smith Thimble Theater/Popeye Blondie Bringing Up Father (1913–2000.
Walt Disney's Comics and Stories
Walt Disney's Comics and Stories, sometimes abbreviated WDC or WDC&S, is an anthology comic book series featuring an assortment of Disney characters, including Donald Duck, Scrooge McDuck, Mickey Mouse, Chip'n Dale, Lil Bad Wolf, Bucky Bug, Grandma Duck, Brer Rabbit, Winnie the Pooh, others. The precursor to WDC was Mickey Mouse Magazine, published by Dell Comics in several incarnations from 1933 to 1940. WDC itself was launched by Dell in October 1940, consisted of reprints taken from the Disney comic strips Donald Duck, Mickey Mouse and Silly Symphonies reformatted for comic books and colored; the first original story created for WDC was an adaptation of The Flying Gauchito illustrated by Walt Kelly in #24. By the mid-1950s the title was the best selling comic book in the United States, with a monthly circulation of over three million. Mark Evanier describes the high circulation as the product of "an aggressive subscription push." To facilitate birthday and holiday gift giving to youngsters, Western Publishing offered to send subscription recipients illustrated letters that announced the gift.
Various premiums were offered for new subscribers, including a mini-poster attributed to Walt Kelly advertised on the back cover of WDC&S #100 from January 1949. The anthology format began with a 10-page story featuring Donald Duck and for most of the run ended with a serial or single story featuring Mickey Mouse; the most popular issues featured the Donald Duck 10-pagers written and drawn by Carl Barks who began the run with issue # 31 and ended with original stories in issue #312 but have been continually reprinted up to the present. All of these stories co-starred Donald's nephews, Huey and Louie, with frequent guest appearances by Barks' greatest creation Uncle Scrooge, as well as the Beagle Boys, Gyro Gearloose, Gladstone Gander. In many 1980s issues, as well as scattered issues from 2006 onward, new Daan Jippes and/or Freddy Milton Donald Duck stories lead off the title. Issues #523, 524, 526, 528, 531, 547 featured lead-off stories drawn by Don Rosa, while most issues from 1993–2005 featured lead-offs by William Van Horn.
Many 1940s issues featured Mickey Mouse serials by Floyd Gottfredson which were reprinted from newspaper daily comic strips. The 1980s saw. Li'l Bad Wolf stories began in issue #52 and remained a regular feature for more than ten years, continuing to appear in the majority of issues after the continuous run stopped. Carl Buettner, Gil Turner, Dick Matena are regarded as the most notable Wolf creators featured in the title. More Big Bad Wolf has supplanted his son as title character of the stories. Bucky Bug stories began in issue #20 with a series of newspaper reprints. Bucky stories were monthly through 1950. Walt Kelly of Pogo fame did the cover art for many issues between #34 and #118 and provided interior art for issues # 34–41 and 43. Walt Disney's Comics and Stories has been the longest running Disney-based comic book in history, making it their flagship title. After reaching its 600th issue, it converted to prestige format and remained that way until the end of Gemstone Publishing's run at issue #698.
Boom Studios published the title from 2009 until 2011. In January 2015, IDW Publishing stated that they were going to be publishing it from July 2015, continuing the number sequence from #721. After issue #743, IDW renamed the title to Disney Comics and Stories, restarting the numbering from #1, but keeping the legacy numbering, which appears in the indicia in the contents page. Dell Comics #1–263 Gold Key Comics #264–510 Gladstone Publishing #511–547 Disney Comics #548–585 Gladstone Publishing #586–633 Gemstone Publishing #634–698 Boom Kids! #699–720 IDW Publishing #721 - present Disney comics in the USA Other notable Disney comic titles in the USA: Mickey Mouse Donald Duck Uncle Scrooge Uncle Scrooge Adventures Donald Duck Adventures Walt Disney's Comics and Stories at the INDUCKS Walt Disney's Comics and Stories on Disney Comics Worldwide Cover of all issues of Walt Disney's Comics and Stories on outducks.org Walt Disney Comics and Stories at the Internet Archive