Penn State Nittany Lions football
The Penn State Nittany Lions team represents the Pennsylvania State University in college football. The team is #8 all-time in total-wins, one game behind Oklahoma and Alabama, the Nittany Lions play their home games at Beaver Stadium, located on-campus in University Park, Pennsylvania. With an official seating capacity of 106,572, Beaver Stadium is the second-largest stadium in the hemisphere, behind only Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor. The team is coached by James Franklin. The first recorded game occurred on November 12,1881, when Penn State traveled to Lewisburg, Pennsylvania to play Bucknell, Penn State won 9–0, which was nine goals to none. At the time, this was really a game of American rugby, the father of American football, Walter Camp, did not develop the scrimmage, the first down and the gridiron until 1882. Although this game was reported in two State College newspapers and the Mirror, Bucknell denies that this ever happened. Penn State did not field teams from 1882 through 1886, Penn State played its first season in 1887, but had no head coach for their first five years, from 1887–1891.
The teams played its games on the Old Main lawn on campus in State College. They compiled a 12–8–1 record in these seasons, playing as an independent from 1887–1890, in 1891, the Pennsylvania Intercollegiate Football Association was formed. It consisted of Bucknell, Franklin & Marshall, Penn State and Lehigh were excluded because it was felt they would dominate the Association. Penn State won the championship with a 4–1–0 record, the Association was dissolved prior to the 1892 season. George W. Hoskins was the first head coach at Penn State. He posted a 17–4–4 record in his four seasons from 1892–1895 as head coach and his first team played its home game on the Old Main lawn on campus in State College, before the 500-seat Beaver Field opened in 1893. He was succeeded by Samuel B, who posted a 12–14 record in three seasons, 1896–1898. Sam Boyle coached for one year in 1899 and compiled a 4–6–1 record. Pop Golden coached the Nittany Lions for three seasons from 1900–1902, tallying a record of 16–12–1, daniel A.
Reed took over for the 1903 season and went 5–3. Tom Fennell coached the Nittany Lions for five seasons from 1904–1908, in 1907 the school adopted the Nittany Lion mascot, a mountain lion named after nearby Mount Nittany
The Atlanta Falcons are a professional American football team based in Atlanta, Georgia. The Falcons compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference South division. The Falcons joined the NFL in 1965 as an expansion team, the AFL instead granted a franchise to Miami. The Falcons are tied with the Dolphins for being the second-oldest NFL franchise in the Deep South, the Falcons played their home games at the Georgia Dome in downtown Atlanta from the 1992 to 2016 NFL seasons. Construction began on Mercedes-Benz Stadium in May 2014, with play projected to begin there during the 2017 season and their headquarters and practice facilities are located at a 50-acre site in Flowery Branch, Georgia. Two years later, the AFL held another exhibition, this time with the New York Jets taking on the San Diego Chargers, in 1965, after the Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium was built, the city of Atlanta felt the time was right to start pursuing professional football.
Another group reported it had deposited earnest money for a team in the AFL and he forced the city to make a choice between the two leagues. By June 30, the city picked Rankin Smith and the NFL, former commissioner Pete Rozelle and Smith made the deal in about five minutes and the Atlanta Falcons brought the largest and most popular sport to the city of Atlanta. The Atlanta expansion franchise became the 15th NFL franchise, and they were awarded the first pick in the 1966 NFL draft as well as the pick in each of the first five rounds. The Falcons drafted All-American linebacker Tommy Nobis from the University of Texas with the first pick of the draft, the league held the 1966 NFL Expansion Draft six weeks in which the Falcons selected unprotected players from existing franchises. Although the Falcons selected many players in those drafts, they still were not able to win right away. The Atlanta Falcons Football Club received its nickname on August 29,1965, miss Julia Elliott, a school teacher from Griffin, was singled out from many people who suggested Falcons as the nickname for the new franchise.
Elliott wrote, the Falcon is proud and dignified, with great courage and it is deadly and has a great sporting tradition. The Falcons had their first season in 1966, and their first preseason game on August 1,1966, under Head Coach Norb Hecker they lost their first nine regular-season games in 1966 and secured their first victory on the road against the New York Giants. The team finished the 1960s with only 12 wins, the Falcons had their first Monday Night Football game in Atlanta during the 1970 season. The only two winning seasons in this period were 1971 and 1973. In the 1978 season, the Falcons qualified for the playoffs for the first time, the following week, they lost to the Dallas Cowboys 27–20 in the Divisional Playoffs. In the 1980 season, after a winning streak, the Falcons posted a franchise then-best record of 12–4
College Football Hall of Fame
The College Football Hall of Fame is a hall of fame and museum devoted to college football. The National Football Foundation launched the Hall in 1951 to immortalize the players, from 1995 to 2012, the Hall was located in South Bend, Indiana. It was connected to a center and situated in the citys renovated downtown district,2 miles south of the University of Notre Dame campus. In August 2014, the College Football Hall of Fame and Chick-fil-A Fan Experience opened in downtown Atlanta, rutgers donated land near its football stadium, office space, and administrative support. In response, the Foundation moved its operations to New York City, when the New York Attorney Generals office began its own investigation, the foundation moved to Kings Mills, where a building finally was constructed adjacent to Kings Island in 1978. The Hall opened with good attendance figures early on, but visitation dwindled dramatically as time went on, nearby Galbreath Field remained open as the home of Moeller High School football until 2003.
A new building was opened in South Bend, Indiana on August 25,1995. Despite estimates that the South Bend location would more than 150,000 visitors a year, the Hall of Fame drew about 115,000 people the first year. In 2009, the National Football Foundation decided to move the College Football Hall of Fame to Atlanta, the possibility of moving the museum has been brought up in other cities, including Dallas, which had the financial backing of billionaire T. Boone Pickens. However, the National Football Foundation ultimately decided on Atlanta for the next site, the new $68.5 million museum opened on August 23,2014. It is located next to Centennial Olympic Park, which is near other attractions such as the Georgia Aquarium, the World of Coca-Cola, CNN Center, and the National Center for Civil and Human Rights. The Hall of Fame is located near the Georgia Institute of Technology of the ACC, the new building broke ground on January 28,2013. Sections of the architecture are reminiscent of a football in shape, the facility is 94,256 square feet and contains approximately 50,000 square feet of exhibit and event space, interactive displays and a 45-yard indoor football field.
Atlanta Hall Management operates the College Football Hall of Fame, as of 2017, there are 987 players and 214 coaches enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame, representing 306 schools. The National Football Foundation outlines specific criteria that may be used for evaluating a candidate for induction into the Hall of Fame. A player must have received major first team All-America recognition, a player becomes eligible for consideration 10 years after his last year of intercollegiate football played. Football achievements are considered first, but the record as a citizen is weighed. Players must have played their last year of football within the last 50 years
Family Feud is an American television game show created by Mark Goodson where two families compete to name the most popular responses to survey questions in order to win cash and prizes. It is considered a spin-off of Match Game, whose panel included original host Richard Dawson, the program premiered on ABC on July 12,1976, and ran as part of its daytime schedule until June 14,1985. The program was re-launched by CBS on July 4,1988, three separate editions for syndication were produced. The first aired from September 19,1977 to September 6,1985, the second aired from September 19,1988 to September 8,1995. The current syndicated series premiered on September 20,1999, the ABC network version of the show and the first syndicated series were hosted by Richard Dawson. Ray Combs hosted the CBS series and the first six seasons of the syndicated version. The 1999 syndicated series has been hosted by Louie Anderson, Richard Karn, John OHurley, announcers for the series have included Gene Wood, Burton Richardson, Joey Fatone, and Rubin Ervin.
The program has spawned multiple regional adaptations in over 50 international markets outside the United States, within a year of its debut, the original version became the number one game show in daytime television, however, as viewing habits changed, the ratings declined. Harveys takeover in 2010 increased Nielsen ratings significantly and eventually placed the program among the top five most popular syndicated shows in the country. In 2013, TV Guide ranked Family Feud third in its list of the 60 greatest game shows of all time, two family teams of five contestants each compete to win cash and prizes. The original version of the show began with the families being introduced, seated opposite each other as if posing for family portraits, each round begins with a face-off question that serves as a toss-up between two opposing contestants. The host asks a question that was previously posed to a group of 100 people. A certain number of answers are concealed on the board, ranked by popularity of the surveys responses, only answers that receive two or more responses can appear on the board.
The first contestant to buzz-in gives an answer, if it is the most popular, the opponent responds and the family member providing the higher-ranked answer wins. Ties are broken in favor of the contestant who buzzes-in first, if neither contestants answer is on the board, the other eight contestants have a chance to respond, one at a time from alternating sides, until an answer is found. The family that wins the face-off may choose to play the question or pass control to their opponents, the family with control of the question tries to win the round by guessing all of the remaining concealed answers, with each member giving one answer in sequence. Giving an answer not on the board, or failing to respond within the allotted time, answers are worth one point for every person in the 100-member survey who gave them. The winning family in each round scores the points for all revealed answers to that question, including those given during the face-off
Miami Hurricanes football
The Miami Hurricanes football team represents the University of Miami in the sport of American football. The Hurricanes compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association s Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, the program began in 1926 and has won five AP national championships. Miami is ranked fourth on the list of All-time Associated Press National Poll Championships, tied with Southern California and Ohio State and behind Alabama, Notre Dame, and Oklahoma. Miami holds a number of NFL Draft records, including most first round selections in a single draft, two Hurricanes have won the Heisman Trophy and nine have been inducted to the College Football Hall of Fame. The team plays its games at Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens. The Hurricanes are currently coached by Mark Richt, UM began with just a freshman football team in 1926. Its first game was played on October 23,1926, a 7–0 win over Rollins College before 304 fans, under the guidance of head coach Howard P. Buck, the freshman team posted a perfect 8–0 record in its inaugural season.
Two of the wins were against the University of Havana, one on Thanksgiving Day in Miami, Miamis last home game at of the season featured a first, the first Hurricane football game played on New Years Day against Howard at Miamis University Stadium. Varsity competition began in 1927, with Miami beating Rollins 39–3 in its first game and going on to a 3–6–1 record. The team improved to 4–4–1 in 1928, but it was not enough for Buck to keep his job, rixs arrival was funded by a group of local businessmen. That off-season, the program, which competed as an independent during its first two years of existence, joined the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association,1929 saw Miami play its first varsity road game, and Rix led the team to its first winning season, going 3–2. His tenure, was short-lived, off-campus financing for the dried up in the wake of the 1929 stock market crash. Ernest Brett replaced Rix, and in 1930, Miami played Temple in its first game outside the South, losing 34–0 to the Owls in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
On October 31,1930, the Hurricanes played in one of the nations first night games vs. Bowden College in Miami, Brett only lasted one year, and Tom McCann became the programs fourth head coach in 1931. Under McCann, the program experienced its most successful seasons to that point. After a difficult first year, Miami put together a record in 1932 and served as host to the inaugural Palm Festival. A 5–1–2 campaign and another Palm Festival berth followed in 1933, and in 1934, in 1935, a group of Miami football supporters sought to hire Red Grange as coach. However, the move was vetoed by President Bowman Foster Ashe, instead Irl Tubbs took over as head coach in 1935, and though Miami compiled an 11–5–2 record in his two seasons, it did not play in a bowl in either year
The Heisman Memorial Trophy, is awarded annually to the most outstanding player in college football in the United States whose performance best exhibits the pursuit of excellence with integrity. Winners epitomize great ability combined with diligence and hard work and it is presented by the Heisman Trophy Trust in early December before the postseason bowl games. The award was created by the Downtown Athletic Club in 1935 to recognize the most valuable football player east of the Mississippi. After the death in October 1936 of the Clubs athletic director, John Heisman, Heisman had been active in college athletics as a football player, a head football and baseball coach, and an athletic director. It is the oldest of several awards in college football, including the Maxwell Award, Walter Camp Award. The most recent winner of the Heisman Trophy is University of Louisville quarterback Lamar Jackson, the trophy itself, designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu, is modeled after Ed Smith, a leading player in 1934 for the now-defunct New York University football team.
The trophy is made out of cast bronze, is 13.5 inches tall, Eliscu had asked Smith, his former George Washington High School classmate, to pose for a commissioned sculpture of a football player. Smith did not realize until 1982 that the sculpture had become the Heisman Trophy, the Downtown Athletic Club presented Smith with a Heisman Trophy of his own in 1985. From its inception in 1935, the statue was cast by Dieges & Clust in New York until 1980, for a time until at least 2008, the statues were cast by Roman Bronze Works in New York. There are 870 media voters,145 voters from each of six regions, according to Heisman. com there are currently 57 prior winners eligible to vote and, thus,57 potential votes. Fans, As the Premier Partner of the Heisman Trophy, Nissan has a vote, fan voting done through a survey collected by ESPN on NissanHeismanHouse. com. Each voter identifies three selections, ranking them in order, each first-place selection is awarded three points. Each second-place selection is awarded two points, each third-place selection is awarded one point.
Voters must make three selections and cannot duplicate a selection, else the ballot is invalid and none of the selections count, the accounting firm Deloitte is responsible for the tabulation of votes, which has moved almost exclusively to online voting since 2007. Larry Kelley and Clint Frank of Yale were the first teammates to win the Heisman Trophy, nile Kinnick of Iowa was the only Heisman Trophy winner to have a stadium named after him. In 1972, the University of Iowa renamed its football complex Kinnick Stadium, Kinnick is the only winner to die in military service of the United States, he went down piloting an F4F Wildcat from the deck of USS Lexington. His death in 1943 made him the first Heisman Trophy winner to die, Doc Blanchard was the first junior to win the Heisman Trophy when he led Army to the national title in 1945. Paul Hornung was the player to win the Heisman Trophy as a player for a losing team
The Pittsburgh Maulers were a team that competed in the 1984 season of the United States Football League. Their most prominent player was first pick overall in the 1984 USFL draft, running back Mike Rozier of Nebraska, the Maulers played at Three Rivers Stadium. No one was surprised when two groups filed for a Pittsburgh franchise in the winter of 1983, DeBartolo, Sr. was one of them—a considerable surprise, given his sons ownership of the 49ers. However, once he did apply, the owners knew that he would lend the upstart league instant credibility. Unusually, DeBartolo applied for the franchise in his own rather than setting up a corporation or partnership. Stoudt had his former fans pelt him with snowballs and ice during the game and it would be the teams only sellout. The team finished 3–15, tying the Washington Federals for the worst record in the league, while undermanned, they were not nearly as bad as their record indicated. They were in part victims of a tough schedule. They played nine games against playoff teams and caught a lot of the teams when they were hot—Oklahoma and New Orleans early and San Antonio.
The team was built around the idea that Dallas Cowboys longtime third-string QB Glenn Carano would be a starter in the USFL. To support Carano, the team had RB Mike Rozier and WR Greg Anderson, Carano had his moments but he struggled overall, completing only 53. 7% of his passes with 13 touchdowns and 19 interceptions. Backup Tom Rozantz was expected to carry a clipboard, but he ended up playing a lot. However, either would have been a disappointment, as most fans expected the Maulers to pick Steve Young rather than Mike Rozier, even bringing in former Arizona Wranglers star WR Jackie Flowers did not turn around the offense. Head coach Joe Pendry was fired ten games into the season, the defense, led by CB Jerry Holmes and DE Sam Clancy finished a respectable eighth in points allowed. In spite of this, they were hobbled by a low-octane offense, San Antonio Gunslingers L 21-3 6/16/1984 vs. DeBartolo was determined to stick it out, even going as far as hiring Hank Bullough away from the Green Bay Packers to become the new head coach.
However, just a few days after Bulloughs hiring, the USFL voted to switch to a schedule in 1986. DeBartolo was a believer in the USFLs original spring football concept. As a result, just a week after the vote to move to the fall, several former Maulers went on to other teams for the USFLs third and final season
The Missouri Tigers athletics programs include the extramural and intramural sports teams of the University of Missouri, located in Columbia, United States. The name comes from a band of armed guards called the Fighting Tigers of Columbia who, in 1864, the University of Missouri is the flagship institution of the University of Missouri System. Mizzou is a member of the Southeastern Conference and is the only NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision program in Missouri and its wrestling program, the only one sponsored by an SEC member school, competes in the Mid-American Conference. Missouri competed in the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association starting in 1907, the Missouri Tigers are represented in the following NCAA Division I varsity sports, The first Missouri Tigers baseball team was in 1868. The first recorded season was in 1891, when the Tigers went 2–2, the Tigers won the National Championship in 1954. The presence of former Missouri Tiger baseball players in professional baseball continues to each year.
Current MU head coach Tim Jamieson has seen 40 players in his 13-year tenure sign pro contracts, in 2006, pitcher Max Scherzer was selected in the first round with the 11th overall pick by the Arizona Diamondbacks. Scherzer went on to win the Al Cy Young Award with the Detroit Tigers in 2013, in 2008, pitcher Aaron Crow was picked 9th overall by the Washington Nationals. The Tigers were regularly a national power under Norm Stewart, whose tenure spanned four decades and he was replaced with then-UAB head coach Mike Anderson. In 2009 the team lost in the Elite Eight to the Connecticut Huskies, after a first-round exit from the NCAA tournament in 2011, Anderson took the head coaching position with the University of Arkansas. The head coaching vacancy was filled in early April 2011 with Frank Haith, in 2014, Kim Anderson became the new head basketball coach. The 1920–21 and 1921–22 teams were named national champions by the Premo-Porretta Power Poll. The current head coach of the basketball program is Robin Pingeton.
She was hired in April 2010 to replace Cindy Stein, who resigned under pressure from boosters, the universitys first football team was formed in 1890 by the sophomore class of the Academic School. They challenged a team of Engineering students in April of that year upon encouragement of Dr. A. L. McRea, a university professor. Interest in the sport quickly grew among the students and administrators, the first intercollegiate game for the university took place on Thanksgiving Day,1890, when Missouri played Washington University before a crowd of 3,000 in St. Louis, Missouri. The Washington University team, which had already been playing for several years, Missouri has compiled a 15–16 record in bowl games, including a 41-31 victory over Oklahoma State in the 2014 Cotton Bowl and a 33-17 win over Minnesota in the 2015 Citrus Bowl. It has finished in the final Associated Press poll Top Ten eight times since the poll began in 1936, Missouri softball began play in 1975
A running back is an American and Canadian football position, a member of the offensive backfield. The primary roles of a running back are to receive handoffs from the quarterback for a play, to catch passes from out of the backfield. There are usually one or two running backs on the field for a play, depending on the offensive formation. A running back may be a halfback or a fullback, a running back will sometimes be called a feature back if he is the teams starting running back. The halfback or tailback position is responsible for carrying the ball on the majority of running plays, in the modern game, an effective halfback must have a blend of both quickness and agility as a runner, as well as sure hands and good vision up-field as a receiver. Quarterbacks depend on halfbacks as a safety valve receiver when primary targets downfield are covered or when they are under pressure, halfbacks line up as additional wide receivers. As a trick play, running backs are used to pass the ball on a halfback option play or halfback pass.
The difference between halfback and tailback is the position of the player in the offensive formation. In historical formations, the lined up approximately halfway between the line of scrimmage and the fullback. Because the halfback is usually the main ball carrier, modern offensive formations have positioned the halfback behind the fullback. As a result, some systems or playbooks will call for a tailback as opposed to a halfback, in most modern college and professional football schemes, fullbacks carry the ball infrequently, instead using their stronger physiques as primary lead blockers. On most running plays, the leads the halfback, attempting to block potential tacklers before they reach the ball carrier. When fullbacks are called upon to carry the ball, the situation calls for gaining a short amount of yardage. Fullbacks are technically running backs, but today the term running back is used in referring to the halfback or tailback. Although modern fullbacks are rarely used as carriers, in previous offensive schemes fullbacks would be the designated ball carriers.
In high school football, where player sizes vary greatly, fullbacks are still used as ball carriers. In high school and college offenses, the triple option uses the fullback as a primary ball carrier. The fullback plays a role by establishing an inside running threat on every play
The Nebraska Cornhuskers is the name given to the intercollegiate athletic teams of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference and the Cornhuskers compete in NCAA Division I, early nicknames for the universitys athletic teams included the Hawkeyes, the Antelopes, the Old Gold Knights, the Bugeaters and the Mankilling Mastodons. The name Cornhuskers first appeared in the newspaper as We Have Met The Cornhuskers And They Are Ours referring to a 20–18 upset victory over Iowa in 1893. The term Cornhuskers was referring to Iowa in that instance, the name would be used again, this time to refer to Nebraska by Cy Sherman in The Nebraska State Journal during the 1899 season and would replace all other names by 1900. Sherman tired of referring to the Nebraska teams with such a term as Bugeaters. Iowa had, from time to time, been called the Cornhuskers, the Cornhuskers have two official mascots, Herbie Husker and Lil Red. The Cornhuskers participate in 21 sports sponsored by the Big Ten Conference, in addition the Huskers field varsity teams in two sports not sponsored by the Big Ten, namely rifle and bowling.
The rifle team is a member of the single-sport Great America Rifle Conference, Nebraska joined the Big Ten Conference in 2011. † = Rifle is technically a mens sport, but mens, womens, * = Beach volleyball is a fully sanctioned NCAA sport which had its first national championship in the spring of 2016. Nebraska currently competes as an independent, the Nebraska Cornhuskers field both a male and female cross country team coached by David Harris. They currently run on a course through Pioneers Park in Lincoln, the mens team started in 1938 and the womens team started in 1975 as a result of Title IX. The Nebraska Cornhuskers have never won a Big 12 conference championship, the only mens conference championship was in 1940 Big Six meet. The women have won the conference championship 5 times, the latter three mark one of only three times that a team has won three NCAA Division I-A/FBS national football championships in four seasons. The other two were Notre Dame in 1946,1947 and 1949, and Alabama in 2009,2011 and 2012, the Cornhuskers won three national titles under Osborne, including one in his final season.
Nebraskas home games always open with the Tunnel Walk, which signifies the entry of the team onto the field, when the Cornhuskers play at home in Memorial Stadium, the stadium holds more people than Bellevue. The current attendance record was set on Saturday, September 20,2014 and they currently hold the NCAA record for the most consecutive sold out home games, the sellout streak dates back to November 3,1962. On December 2,2007, athletic director Tom Osborne named Bo Pelini head football coach at Nebraska, Pelini left his previous position as defensive coordinator at LSU after the 2008 National Championship win against Ohio State. Pelini was defensive coordinator at Nebraska in 2003 and was head coach for the 2003 Alamo Bowl game
It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football and it is in college football where a players performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as a free agent. Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained extremely popular throughout the U. S, in many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. This allows them to more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries, colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as football, by the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges, the first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9,1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock, a football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College, a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional mob football played in England.
The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football, Princeton University students played a game called ballown as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as Bloody Monday began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes, in 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a figure called Football Fightum. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called Old division football, the rules of which were first published in 1871, all of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities