United States Naval Construction Battalions, better known as the Seabees, form the Naval Construction Force of the United States Navy. Their nickname is a heterograph of the first initials "C. B." from the words Construction Battalion. Depending upon how the word is used "Seabee" can refer to one of three things: all the enlisted personnel in the USN's occupational field-7, all officers and enlisted assigned to the Naval Construction Force, or the U. S. Navy's Construction Battalions. Seabees serve outside the NCF. During WWII they served in both the Naval Combat Demolition Units and the UDTs as well as the United States Marine Corps. Today they can be found in the Naval Support Unit: Department of State and under both Commanders, Naval Surface Force Alantic/Pacific fleets. Naval Construction Battalions were conceived of as a replacement for civilian construction companies working for the US Navy after the United States was drawn into World War II with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.
At that time the U. S. had 70,000 civilians working on military installations overseas. International law made it illegal for them to resist enemy attack, as to do so would classify them as guerrillas, for which they could be summarily executed, what happened when the Japanese invaded Wake Island; the Seabees would consist of skilled workers who would be trained to drop their tools if necessary and take up their weapons at a moment's notice to defend themselves. The concept model was that of a USMC–trained battalion of construction tradesmen that would be capable of any type of construction, anywhere needed, under any conditions or circumstance, it was realized that this model could be utilized in every theater of operations, as it was seen to be flexible and adaptable. The use of USMC organization allowed for smooth co-ordination, integration or interface of both the NCF and Marine Corps elements. In addition, Seabee Battalions could be deployed individually or in multiples as the project scope and scale dictated.
What distinguishes Seabees from Combat Engineers are the skill sets. Combat Engineering is but a sub-set in the Seabee toolbox, they have a storied legacy of creative field ingenuity, stretching from Normandy and Okinawa to Iraq and Afghanistan. Admiral Ernest King wrote to the Seabees on their second anniversary, "Your ingenuity and fortitude have become a legend in the naval service." Seabees believe that anything they are tasked with they "Can Do". They remain so today. In the October 1944 issue of Flying magazine the Seabees are described as "a phenomenon of World War II". In 2017, the Seabees celebrated their 75 years of service without having changed from Admiral Ben Moreell's conceptual model. World War I precursor In 1917, the Twelfth Regiment was organized at Naval Training Station Great Lakes; when the US entered World War I in April 1917, the Navy had an immediate requirement to expand the Great Lakes Station in order to house and train 20,000 naval recruits, this number would rise to 50,000 by the end of the year.
Lieutenant Malachi Elliott, a graduate of the US Naval Academy, was appointed Public Works Officer at Great Lakes on 18 June 1917, at which time about 500 enlisted men had been assigned to the Public Works Department. Seeing that the department would need to expand with skilled craftsmen, draftsmen and other professional and technical people, he began to screen incoming recruits with these skills. Finding many, but not enough, he expanded to recruiting civilians outside of the installation, getting many men willing to join the Navy as petty officers, with the understanding that qualified men could apply for commissions; this allowed the Public Works Department to grow to nearly 600 men by July 1917. They were organized into the Twelfth Regiment, the Public Works Department because staff officers could not exercise military command. Lieutenant William C. Davis was appointed commanding officer of the regiment, he exercised military control, but the Public Works Officers exercised technical control.
In October 1917, the regiment began building Camp Paul Jones at San Diego. With its completion, on 30 December 1917, the regiment became "fully operational" with 1,500 men organized into three battalions. By April 1918, the regiment consisted of 2,400 in five battalions. Men were withdrawn for assignments in the US and abroad. In spring of 1918, 100 men were given special mechanics and ordnance training before being sent to St. Nazaire, France, to assemble Naval Railway Batteries, they would join the gun crews and perform combat duties along the railway lines in proximity to the German lines. The Twelfth Regiment reached its peak strength 5 November 1918. However, with the end of the war on 11 November 1918, the regiment faded away by the end of 1918. Formation In the early 1930s, the idea that the Twelfth Regiment pioneered was still in the minds of many Navy Civil Engineers; the planners of the Bureau of Yards and Docks began providing for "Navy Construction Battalions" in their contingency war plans.
In 1934 Captain Carl Carlson's version of the plan was circulated to the Navy Yards, this idea of "Navy Construction Battalions" would be tentatively approved by Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral William Harrison Standley. In 1935, Rear Admiral Norman Smith, Chief of BuDocks, selected Captain Walter Allen, the War Plans Officer, to represent BuDocks on the War Plans Board. Captain Allen presented the bureau's concept of "Naval Construction Battalions" to the Board; the concept was adopted for inclusion in the Rainbow war plans
A skateboard is a type of sports equipment used for the sport of skateboarding. It consists of a specially designed maplewood board combined with a polyurethane coating used for making smoother slides and stronger durability. Most skateboards are made with 7 plies of this wood. A skateboard is moved by pushing with one foot while the other remains on the board, or by pumping one's legs in structures such as a bowl or half pipe. A skateboard can be used by standing on the deck while on a downward slope and allowing gravity to propel the board and rider. If the rider's leading foot is their right foot, they are said to ride "goofy. If the rider is regular but chooses to ride goofy, they are said to be riding in "switch," and vice versa. A skater is more comfortable pushing with their back foot. Electric skateboards have appeared; these no longer require the propelling of the skateboard by means of the feet. There is no governing body that declares any regulations on what constitutes a skateboard or the parts from which it is assembled.
The skateboard has conformed both to contemporary trends and to the ever-evolving array of stunts performed by riders/users, who require a certain functionality from the board. The board shape depends upon its desired function. Longboards are a type of skateboard with larger, softer wheels; the two main types of skateboards are the shortboard. The shape of the board is important: the skateboard must be concaved to perform tricks. Longboards are faster and are used for cruising and racing, while shortboards are used for doing tricks and riding in skateparks. Main: SkateboardingSkateboarding started in California in the 1950s; the first skateboards were made from roller skates. Skateboarding gained in popularity because of surfing. Skateboards were handmade from wooden boxes and planks by individuals. Companies started manufacturing skateboards in 1959. During this time, postwar America, was carefree with children playing in the streets. Boards are continuing to evolve as companies try to make them lighter and stronger or improve their performance.
Skateboarding is a individual activity. There is no wrong way to skate. Skateboarding still hasn't stopped evolving, skaters are coming up with new tricks all the time. Skateboarding has gone through its downs over the years. However, since 2000, due to attention in the media and products like skateboarding video games, children's skateboards and commercialization, skateboarding has been pulled into the mainstream; as more interest and money has been invested into skateboarding, more skate parks, better skateboards have become available. In addition, the continuing interest has motivated skateboarding companies have to keep innovating and inventing new things. In 2020 Skateboarding will appear for the first-time in the Olympics in Japan; the following descriptions cover skateboard parts that are most prevalent in popular and modern forms of skateboarding. Many parts exist with alternative constructions. A traditional complete skateboard consists of the deck, wheels, bushings and bolts to fasten the truck and wheel assembly to the bottom of the deck.
Older decks included plastic parts such as side and nose guards. Modern decks vary in size. Wider decks can be used for greater stability. Standard skateboard decks are between 28 and 33 inches long; the underside of the deck can be printed with a design by the manufacturer, blank, or decorated by any other means. "Long" boards are over 36 inches long. Plastic "penny" boards are about 22 inches long; some larger penny boards over 27 inches long are called "nickel" boards. The longboard, a common variant of the skateboard, is used for higher speed and rough surface boarding, they are much more expensive. "Old school" boards are wider and have only one kicktail. Variants of the 1970s have little or no concavity, whereas 1980s models have deeper concavities and steeper kicktails. Grip tape is a sheet of paper or fabric with adhesive on one side and a surface similar to fine sandpaper on the other. Grip tape is applied to the top surface of a board to allow the rider's feet to grip the surface and help the skater stay on the board while doing tricks.
Grip tape is black, but is available in many different colors such as pink, yellow, checkered and clear. They have designs die-cut to show the color of the board, or to display the board's company logo. Grip tape accumulates dirt and other substances that will inhibit grip, so use of a grip eraser or rubber eraser is necessary after riding through mud or with dirty shoes. Attached to the deck are two metal trucks, which connect the wheels and bearings to the deck; the trucks are further composed of two parts. The top part of the truck is screwed to the deck and is called the baseplate, beneath it is the hanger; the axle runs through the hange
X-Men: The Last Stand
X-Men: The Last Stand is a 2006 superhero film based on the X-Men superhero team introduced in Marvel Comics. It is the sequel to 2003's X2, as well as the third installment in the X-Men film series, was directed by Brett Ratner and written by Simon Kinberg and Zak Penn, it features an ensemble cast including Hugh Jackman, Halle Berry, Ian McKellen, Famke Janssen, Anna Paquin, Kelsey Grammer, James Marsden, Rebecca Romijn, Shawn Ashmore, Aaron Stanford, Vinnie Jones, Patrick Stewart. The film's script is loosely based on two X-Men comic book story arcs: "The Dark Phoenix Saga" by writer Chris Claremont and artist John Byrne, "Gifted" by writer Joss Whedon and artist John Cassaday, with a plot that revolves around a "mutant cure" that causes serious repercussions among mutants and humans, on the resurrection of Jean Grey. Bryan Singer, who had directed the two previous films, X-Men and X2, decided to leave to work on Superman Returns, as he had not defined the storyline for a third film. Matthew Vaughn, hired as the new director, left due to personal and professional issues, was replaced with Ratner.
Filming took place from August 2005 to January 2006 with a budget of $210 million, was the most expensive film at the time of its release. It had extensive visual effects created by 11 different companies. X-Men: The Last Stand was released on May 26, 2006, by 20th Century Fox, it grossed $459 million worldwide, becoming the seventh-highest-grossing film of 2006. Critical reception was mixed, with the acting and the action scenes receiving positive notice, criticism directed at the screenplay, overuse of characters, style. Twenty years in the past, Professor Charles Xavier and Erik Lehnsherr meet young Jean Grey at her parents' house to invite her to join their school, the X-Mansion. Ten years the industrialist father of Warren Worthington III discovers his son is a mutant as Warren tries to cut off his wings. In the present, Worthington Labs announces it has developed an inoculation to suppress the X-gene that gives mutants their abilities, offer the "cure" to any mutant who wants it; the cure is created from the genome of a young mutant named Jimmy, who lives at the Worthington facility on Alcatraz Island.
While some mutants are interested in the cure, including the X-Men's Rogue, many others are horrified by the announcement. Magneto re-establishes his Brotherhood of Mutants with those who oppose the cure, warning his followers that the cure will be forcefully used to exterminate the mutant race. With help from Pyro, Magneto recruits several other mutants, they attack the mobile prison holding Mystique to free her freeing Juggernaut and Multiple Man. Mystique, shielding Magneto from a cure dart, loses her mutant abilities. Magneto abandons her as a result. Meanwhile, Scott Summers, still distraught over the loss of his fiancée Jean Grey, drives to her resting location at Alkali Lake. Jean appears to Summers but, as the two kiss, Jean kills him. Sensing trouble, Xavier sends Storm to investigate; when they arrive, they find only telekinetically floating rocks, Summers' glasses, an unconscious Jean. When Logan and Storm return to the X-Mansion, Xavier explains to Logan that when Jean sacrificed herself to save them, she freed the "Phoenix", a dark and powerful alternate personality which Xavier had telepathically repressed, aware of the Phoenix's godlike destructive potential.
Logan is disgusted to learn of this psychic tampering with Jean's mind but, once she awakens, he discovers that she killed Summers and is not the Jean Grey he once knew. The Phoenix emerges, knocks out Logan, escapes to her childhood home. Magneto learns of Jean's resurrection through Callisto, the X-Men arrive at the Grey home at the same time as the Brotherhood. Magneto and Xavier go in, both vie for Jean's loyalty until the Phoenix resurfaces, she destroys the house and disintegrates Xavier before Logan can stop her. Jean leaves with Magneto. After interrogating Mystique, the FBI discover Magneto's base in the woods. However, the life forms in the camp are all decoy copies of Multiple Man. Magneto and the Brotherhood have gone to storm Alcatraz by telekinetically rerouting the Golden Gate Bridge; the remaining X-Men confront the Brotherhood, despite being outnumbered, arrive just as the military troops who thus far have been neutralizing the attacking mutants are overwhelmed by the Brotherhood.
During the fight, Kitty Pryde saves Jimmy from Juggernaut, sent to kill him. Logan has Colossus throw him at Magneto and distract him long enough for Hank McCoy to inject Magneto with the "cure" and thus nullify his powers. Army reinforcements shoot at Jean just as Logan had calmed her down; the Phoenix disintegrates the troops in retaliation. The Phoenix begins to destroy Alcatraz and anyone within range of her powers. Logan realizes that only he can stop the Phoenix due to his healing adamantium skeleton; when Logan approaches her, Jean begs him to save her. Logan fatally mourns her death; some time mutant rights are obtained and Xavier's school is still operating with Storm as headmistress. The President of the United States appoints Hank McCoy as ambassador to the United Nations. Rogue reveals to Bobby Drake. Meanwhile, Magneto sits at a chessboard in San Francisco and weak; as he gestures toward a metal chess piece, it moves suggesting that the cure is not permanent after all
Kevin Michael Costner is an American actor, director and musician. His accolades include two Academy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, one Primetime Emmy Award, two Screen Actors Guild Awards. Costner began his acting career with Sizzle Beach, U. S. A.. Following a few minor supporting parts, he rose to prominence with his portrayal of Eliot Ness in The Untouchables; this was followed by a successful period in his career with starring roles in such films as. In 1995, Costner co-produced Waterworld; the most expensive film made at the time, it was a major box office disappointment which marked a significant downturn in his career. His second directorial feature The Postman was another disappointment which marked a massive downfall of his career as a leading man, he has since starred in numerous films to rejuvenate his leading man status, including Message in a Bottle, For Love of the Game, Thirteen Days, 3000 Miles to Graceland, Rumor Has It, The Guardian, Mr. Brooks, 3 Days to Kill, McFarland, USA, Draft Day, Criminal.
All of these films however have been either critical or commercial failures, failing to reboot his status. In recent years he has had supporting parts in critically favored films including The Upside of Anger, Man of Steel, Hidden Figures, Molly's Game. On television, Costner portrayed Devil Anse Hatfield in the miniseries Hatfields & McCoys, winning the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie. Since 2018, he stars as John Dutton on drama series Yellowstone. Costner was born on January 18, 1955 in Lynwood and grew up in Compton, California, he is the youngest of the middle of whom died at birth. His mother, Sharon Rae, was a welfare worker, his father, William Costner, was an electrician and utilities executive at Southern California Edison, his father's heritage originates with German immigrants to North Carolina in the 1700s, Costner has English, Irish and Welsh ancestry. Costner was raised Baptist, he was not academically inclined. He enjoyed sports, took piano lessons, wrote poetry, sang in the First Baptist Choir.
He has stated that a viewing of the 1962 film How the West Was Won at the age of seven had "formed" his childhood. He has described spending his teenage years in various parts of California as his father's career progressed, as a period when he "lost a lot of confidence", having to make new friends often. Costner lived in Ventura in Visalia, he earned a BA in marketing and finance from California State University, Fullerton in 1978. While at CSUF, he became a brother in the Delta Chi Fraternity. Costner became interested in acting while in his last year of college, upon graduation he married Cindy Silva, who worked at Disneyland as Cinderella; the couple honeymooned in Puerto Vallarta. Burton agreed to speak to Costner. Costner, taking acting classes but had not told his wife about his desire to be an actor, watched Burton and approached when Burton gestured. Costner told Burton that he would prefer to avoid the drama that followed Burton and asked if he would have to tolerate that if he became an actor.
Burton replied, "You have blue eyes, I have blue eyes. I think you'll be fine." After the plane landed, Burton's limousine pulled up to the curb where Costner and his wife were waiting for a taxi. Burton wished Costner good luck, the two never met again. Costner credits Burton with contributing to his career. Having agreed to undertake a job as a marketing executive, Costner began taking acting lessons five nights a week, with the support of his wife, his marketing job lasted 30 days. He took work which allowed him to develop his acting skills via tuition, including working on fishing boats, as a truck driver, giving tours of stars' Hollywood homes to support the couple while he attended auditions Costner made his film debut in the film Sizzle Beach, U. S. A.. Filmed in the winter of 1978–79, the film was not released until 1981 and re-released in 1986; the release complications and lack of documentation lead many to believe that Costner's debut was in The Touch known as, in 1983 with Eve Lilith and Andra Millian.
Costner made a brief appearance in the Ron Howard film Night Shift. He is listed in the credits as'Frat Boy No. 1' and appears at the climax of a frat-style, blow-out party in the New York City morgue, when the music is stopped by a frantic Henry Winkler. Costner can be seen looking surprised at the sudden halt of celebration. Costner appeared in a commercial for the Apple Lisa and Table for Five in 1983, the same year, had a small role in the nuclear holocaust film Testament, he was cast in The Big Chill and filmed several scenes that were planned as flashbacks, but they were removed from the final cut. His role was that of Alex, the friend who committed suicide, the event that brings the rest of the cast together. Costner was a friend of director Lawrence Kasdan, who promised the actor a role in a futur
Emmanuelle Grey Rossum is an American actress, television director, singer-songwriter. She is known for her portrayal of Fiona Gallagher in the television series Shameless, her role in Mystic River brought her recognition. She starred in the science-fiction film The Day After Tomorrow and received critical acclaim for her performance in the leading role of Christine Daaé in The Phantom of the Opera. In 2007, Rossum released her debut album, Inside Out, she released a Christmas EP the same year, titled Carol of the Bells. In 2013, she released. Emmanuelle Grey Rossum was born on September 1986, in New York City, she is the only child of a single mother who worked as a corporate photographer. Her parents separated. Rossum's mother is Jewish and her father is Protestant. Rossum identifies as Jewish, has stated that her mother instilled in her the "Jewish code of ethics and morals", she was named for her great-grandfather. She is a relative, by marriage, of designer Vera Wang. Upon singing "Happy Birthday" in all 12 keys, Rossum was welcomed to join the Metropolitan Opera Children's Chorus by chorus director Elena Doria at seven.
Over the course of five years, she sang onstage with the chorus and had the chance to perform with great singers such as Plácido Domingo and Luciano Pavarotti. For anywhere from $5 to 10 a night, Rossum sang in six languages in 20 operas, including La bohème, Turandot, a Carnegie Hall presentation of La damnation de Faust, A Midsummer Night's Dream, she worked under the direction of Franco Zeffirelli in Carmen. An increasing interest in pursuing acting led to taking classes with Flo Salant Greenberg of The New Actors Workshop in New York City, she has worked with acting coach Terry Knickerbocker. Rossum attended the Spence School, a private school in Manhattan, for years, before dropping out to pursue career opportunities, she received her high school diploma at fifteen-years old via online-extension courses offered by Stanford University's Education Program for Gifted Youth. She attended Columbia University, where she studied art history and philosophy. Rossum's television debut was in August 1997, as the original Abigail Williams in the daytime soap opera As the World Turns.
She had a guest role as Caroline Beels in Snoops. Rossum was nominated for a Young Artist Award in 1999 for Best Performance in a TV Movie for her work in the made-for-TV movie, Genius, she portrayed a young Audrey Hepburn in the ABC television film, The Audrey Hepburn Story. Rossum made her film debut in 2000's Songcatcher, as Deladis Slocumb, an Appalachian orphan. Debuting at the Sundance Film Festival, the film won the Special Jury Award for Outstanding Ensemble Performance. For her role, Rossum received an Independent Spirit Award nomination for Best Debut Performance and had the opportunity to sing a duet with Dolly Parton on the Songcatcher soundtrack. Variety magazine named Rossum as "One of the Ten to Watch" in 2000. In Nola, Rossum played an aspiring songwriter. In her first major studio film, Clint Eastwood's Mystic River, Rossum starred as Katie Markum, the ill-fated daughter of small-business owner Jimmy Markum, played by Sean Penn. Rossum had a breakthrough role as Laura Chapman in the Roland Emmerich eco-disaster film The Day After Tomorrow.
She returned to New York, where she was the last to audition, in full costume and make-up, for the role of Christine Daaé in The Phantom of the Opera, the onscreen adaptation of composer Andrew Lloyd Webber's musical of the same name. After having nearly missed the audition due to a family engagement, Rossum was asked to audition in person for Webber at his home in New York. For her role as Christine Daaé, Rossum received a Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Actress in a musical or comedy, she received a Critics' Choice Award for Best Young Actress, along with a Saturn Award for Best Performance by a Younger Actor. In 2006, Rossum appeared in Poseidon, Wolfgang Petersen's remake of the disaster film The Poseidon Adventure, she played the daughter of Kurt Russell's character. Rossum described the character as being proactive and strong in all situations, rather than a damsel in distress. Rossum appeared as Juliet Capulet in a 2006 Williamstown Theatre Festival production of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.
In early 2009, Rossum appeared in Dragonball Evolution. Her next big screen venture was the indie Dare, an official selection of the 2009 Sundance Film Festival. In November 2009, Rossum appeared in Broadway's 24 Hour Plays in which actors and directors collaborate to produce, perform six one-act plays within 24 hours to benefit the Urban Arts Partnership. Rossum appeared in Warren Leight's "Daily Bread", directed by Lucie Tiberghien. In December 2009, Rossum joined the cast of the Showtime dramedy series Shameless, based on the British series of the same title; the series co-stars William H. Macy. Rossum plays the oldest sister of a large, motherless family, functioning as a guardian/surrogate mother to her five younger siblings; the series has received consistent acclaim, with Rossum's performance being universally praised. She made her directorial debut with episode four of season seven, "I Am a Storm." In December 2016, Rossum was in a contract dispute with the show's producers over her desire for a salary equal to that of co-star Macy and back pay for the differential over seven seasons, resolved
Jennifer Joanna Aniston is an American actress, film producer, businesswoman. The daughter of actors John Aniston and Nancy Dow, she began working as an actress at an early age with an uncredited role in the 1987 film Mac and Me. After her career grew in the 1990s, Aniston has remained a well-known public figure and established herself as one of the leading and highest-paid actresses in Hollywood as of 2018. Aniston rose to fame portraying Rachel Green on the television sitcom Friends, for which she earned Primetime Emmy, Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild awards; the character was popular while the series aired and was recognized as one of the greatest female characters in American television. Aniston has since played lead roles in romantic comedies, her box office successes include Bruce Almighty, The Break-Up, Marley & Me, Just Go with It, Horrible Bosses, We're the Millers, each of which grossed over $200 million in worldwide box office receipts. Her most critically acclaimed roles include the dramedy the drama Cake.
Aniston co-founded production company Echo Films in 2008. Divorced from actor Brad Pitt, to whom she was married for five years, she is separated from actor Justin Theroux, whom she married in 2015. Aniston was born on February 11, 1969, in the Los Angeles suburb of Sherman Oaks, the daughter of Greek-born actor John Aniston and actress Nancy Dow. One of her maternal great-grandfathers, Louise Grieco, was from Italy, her mother's other ancestry includes English, Scottish, a small amount of Greek. Aniston has two half-brothers, John Melick, her older maternal half-brother, Alex Aniston, her younger paternal half-brother. Aniston's godfather was one of her father's best friends; as a child she moved to New York City. Despite her father's television career she was discouraged from watching television, though she found ways around the prohibition; when she was six, she began attending a Waldorf school. Her parents split up. Having discovered acting at age 11 at the Waldorf school, Aniston enrolled in Manhattan's Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts, where she joined the school's drama society.
Anthony Abeson was her drama teacher. She was in The Sign in Sidney Brustein's Window by Lorraine Hansberry and Three Sisters by Anton Chekhov. Aniston first worked in Off-Broadway productions such as For Dear Life and Dancing on Checker's Grave, supported herself with part-time jobs which included working as a telemarketer and bike messenger. In 1988, she had an uncredited minor role in Me; the next year she appeared on The Howard Stern Show as a spokesmodel for Nutrisystem, moved back to Los Angeles. She obtained her first regular television role on Molloy in 1990, appeared in Ferris Bueller, a television adaptation of the 1986 film Ferris Bueller's Day Off, she starred as a teenager going to summer camp in the made-for-television film Camp Cucamonga, as a spoiled daughter followed by a vengeful leprechaun in the horror film Leprechaun. A 2014 retrospective from Entertainment Weekly identified Leprechaun as her worst role, Aniston herself has expressed embarrassment over it. Aniston appeared in two more failed television comedy series, The Edge and Muddling Through, guest-starred in Quantum Leap, Herman's Head, Burke's Law.
Depressed over her four unsuccessful television shows, Aniston approached Warren Littlefield at a Los Angeles gas station asking for reassurance. The head of NBC entertainment encouraged her to continue acting, a few months helped cast her for Friends, a sitcom, set to debut on NBC's 1994–1995 fall lineup; the producer wanted Aniston to audition for the role of Monica Geller, but Courteney Cox was considered more suitable. Thus, Aniston was cast as Rachel Green, she was offered a spot as a featured player on Saturday Night Live, but turned it down to do Friends. She played Rachel until the show ended in 2004; the program was successful and Aniston, along with her co-stars, gained worldwide recognition among television viewers. Her character was popular and was recognized as one of the greatest female characters in American television; the actress received five Primetime Emmy Award nominations, including a win for Lead Actress. She was nominated for two Golden Globe Awards and won in 2003 as Best Actress – Television Series Musical or Comedy.
According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Aniston became the highest-paid television actress of all time with her $1 million-per-episode paycheck for the final season of Friends. Her character's relationship with Ross Geller, portrayed by David Schwimmer in the show, was popular among audiences, the couple was voted as television's favorite couple in polls and magazines. Following a four-year hiatus, Aniston returned to film work in 1996, when she performed in the ensemble cast of romantic comedy She's the One. Aniston's first starring vehicle was Picture Perfect, in which she played a struggling young advertising executive opposite Kevin Bacon and Jay Mohr. While the film received mixed reviews, it was a moderate commercial success, Aniston's performance was more warmly received, with many critics suggesting that she had screen presence. In 1998, she appeared as a woman who falls for a gay man in the romantic comedy The Object of My Affection, the next year she starred as a restaurant waitress in the cult film Office Space.
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s