Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin, known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as head of state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1946. From 1926, he was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Born to a peasant family, Kalinin worked as a metal worker in Saint Petersburg and took part in the 1905 Russian Revolution as an early member of the Bolsheviks. During and after the October Revolution, he served as mayor of Petrograd. After the revolution, Kalinin became the head of the new Soviet state, as well as a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Politburo. Kalinin remained head of the Soviet Union after the rise of Joseph Stalin, but held little real power or influence, he died in the same year. The former East-Prussian city of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad after him; the city of Tver was known as Kalinin until the end of the Soviet Union in 1990.
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin was born to a peasant family of ethnic Russian origin in the village of Verkhnyaya Troitsa, Tver Governorate, Russia. He was the elder brother of Fedor Kalinin. Kalinin worked for a time on a farm, he moved to Saint Petersburg, where he found employment as a metal worker in 1895. He worked as a butler and as a railway worker at Tbilisi depot, where he met Sergei Alliluyev, the father of Stalin's second wife. In 1906, he married the ethnic Jew Ekaterina Lorberg who originated from Estonia (Russian: Екатерина Ивановна Лорберг. Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1898, the year of its foundation, he came to know Stalin through the Alliluyev family. During the Russian Revolution of 1905, Kalinin worked for the Bolshevik party and on the staff of the Central Union of Metal Workers, he became active on behalf of the RSDLP in Tiflis, Reval and Moscow. In April 1906 he served as a delegate at the 4th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.
Kalinin was an early and devoted adherent of the Bolshevik faction of the RSDLP, headed by Vladimir Lenin. He was a delegate to the 1912 Bolshevik Party Conference held in Prague, where he was elected an alternate member of the governing Central Committee and sent to work inside Russia, he did not become a full member. Kalinin was arrested for his political activities in 1916 and freed during the February Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the tsarist state. Kalinin joined the Petrograd Bolshevik committee and assisted in the organization of the party daily Pravda, now legalized by the new regime. In April 1917 Kalinin, like many other Bolsheviks, advocated conditional support for the Provisional Government in cooperation with the Menshevik faction of the RSDLP, a position at odds with that of Lenin, he continued to oppose an armed uprising to overthrow the government of Alexander Kerensky throughout that summer. In the elections held for the Petrograd City Duma in autumn 1917, Kalinin was chosen as mayor of the city, which he administered during and after the Bolshevik Revolution of 7 November.
In 1919, Kalinin was elected a member of the governing Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party as well as a candidate member of the Politburo. He was promoted to full membership on the Politburo in January 1926, a position which he retained until his death in 1946; when Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov died in March 1919,Kalinin replaced him as President of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the titular head of state of Soviet Russia. The name of this position was changed to Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR in 1922 and to Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in 1938. Kalinin continued to hold the post without interruption until his retirement at the end of World War II. In 1920, Kalinin attended the Second World Congress of the Communist International in Moscow as part of the Russian delegation, he took an active part in the debates. Kalinin was a factional ally of Stalin during the bitter struggle for power after the death of Lenin in 1924, he delivered a report on Lenin and the Comintern to the Fifth World Congress in 1924.
Kalinin was one of the comparatively few members of Stalin's inner circle springing from peasant origins. The lowly social origins were publicised in the official press, which habitually referred to Kalinin as the "All-Union headman", a term hearkening to the village commune, in conjunction with his role as titular head of state. In practical terms, by the 1930s, Kalinin's role as a decision-maker in the Soviet government was nominal, he held little influence beyond receiving diplomatic letters from abroad. Recalling him, future Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said, "I don't know what practical work Kalinin carried out under Lenin, but under Stalin he was the nominal signatory of all decrees, while in reality he took part in government business. Sometimes he was made a member of a commission, but people didn't take his opinion into account much, it was embarrassing for us to see this.
Rio Bravo is a container ship owned by A. P. Moller Singapore Pte. Ltd. and operated by Maersk Line AS. The 286.45-metre long ship was built at Daewoo Mangalia Heavy Industries in Mangalia, Romania in 2009. Owned by Rio Bravo GmbH & Co KG, a subsidiary of Hamburg Süd, she has had two owners and been registered under three flags; the vessel is one of three ships of the Rio class built for Hamburg Süd by Daewoo Mangalia Heavy Industries in 2009. Rio Bravo had its keel laid down on 7 July 2008 at Daewoo Mangalia Heavy Industries in Mangalia, Romania, its hull has an overall length of 286.45 metres. In terms of width, the ship has a beam of 40 metres; the height from the top of the keel to the main deck, called the moulded depth, is 24.2 metres. The ship's container-carrying capacity of 5,905 twenty-foot equivalent units places it in the range of a Post-Panamax container ship; the ship's gross tonnage, a measure of the volume of all its enclosed spaces, is 73,899. Its net tonnage, which measures the volume of the cargo spaces, is 39,673.
Its total carrying capacity in terms of weight, is 80,225.8 long tons deadweight. The vessel was built with a Doosan Engine Co. Ltd. 8RTA96C main engine, which drives a controllable-pitch propeller. The 8-cylinder engine has a Maximum Continuous Rating of 45,765 kW with 102 revolutions per minute at MCR; the cylinder bore. The ship features 4 main power distribution system auxiliary generators, 2 at 5,428.5-kilowatt, 2 at 4,071.4-kilowatt. The vessel's steam piping system features an Aalborg CH 8-500 auxiliary boiler. Construction of the ship was completed on 18 August 2009; as of 2018, the ship is classified by the ABS with the code "A1, Container Carrier, AMS, ACCU.
Mount Pleasant is a town situated in the Barossa Council, just north of the Adelaide Hills region of South Australia, 55 kilometres east-north-east of the state capital, Adelaide. It is located in the Barossa Council and Mid Murray Council local government areas, is at an altitude of 440 metres above sea level. Rainfall in the area averages 687 mm per annum. Today's Mount Pleasant comprises three townships, Totness and Hendryton. Mount Pleasant township was developed by Henry Glover, surveyed in 1856, it comprised the land from Railway Terrace to Saleyard Road. The name was taken from that used by James Phillis; the land had reminded him of his homeland. His sister was named Pleasant, who may have inspired the name. Totness was surveyed with Henry Giles Sr. as the developer. It was named after the birthplace of Mary Ann. Henry developed North Totness, the land from Pentelows Road to the Walkers Flat Road, surveyed in 1869. John Hendry, a blacksmith living in Totness, developed the land to the west of Mount Pleasant, comprising that from the Cricks Mill Road to Railway Terrace, this was surveyed in 1865.
The first European explorers through the Mount Pleasant district were Dr George Imlay and John Hill in January 1838. Settlers moved into the area in the late 1830s with bags of grain. One of the early settlers, James Phillis, had arrived in Adelaide in 1839 and rode a horse into the Adelaide Hills looking for suitable land to farm, he settled at Mount Pleasant in 1843, planted wheat, harvested the crop, had to take it to Adelaide to sell. From the profits he sailed to England where he bought a flock of Romney Marsh sheep which he shipped back to the area. Over the years he became one of the district's most successful farmers; this is an extract from an article written by Nancy Mavis Pike. Several of Mt Pleasant's pioneer families were to lose sons in the Great War, like William Polden, now buried in The Lone Pine Cemetery, Gallipoli. A small quantity of gold was found in the district in the 1860s, but not enough to attract significant mining activity; the town remained a small service centre for the region.
The original police station, from the 1860s, has been replaced by a newer building. The main street, Melrose Street, is lined with plane trees. Mount Pleasant was the centre of its own municipality, the District Council of Mount Pleasant, from 1935 until 1997 when it was divided between the larger Barossa Council and Mid Murray Council. Mount Pleasant township is now part of the Barossa Council. Mount Pleasant has a number of significant heritage-listed sites, including:'Kent Farm' - 3184 Eden Valley Road: Historic Cottage and Barn 27 Melrose Street: Mount Pleasant Police Station and Cells Walker Flat-Mount Pleasant Road: Rosebank Shearing Shed Mount Pleasant is located 10 km north-east of Birdwood heading towards Springton, Eden Valley and Angaston. At the ABS 2001 census, Mount Pleasant had a population of 529 people living in 240 dwellings. Mount Pleasant has a primary school, kindergarten, a district hospital, volunteer ambulance station, general store, golf club, two bakeries, two pubs, showgrounds featuring the annual Mount Pleasant show, a weekly Saturday Farmer's market, caravan park, RSL and a football club A coach is operated from Tea Tree Plaza Interchange to Gumeracha and Mount Pleasant by Affordable Coachlines.
A private coach service goes from Birdwood to the Barossa Valley via Mount Pleasant. Mount Pleasant was once the terminus of the Mount Pleasant railway line which branched from the Adelaide to Murray Bridge line at Balhannah; the line opened on 16 September 1918 and was closed on 4 March 1963, following improved road conditions via the Adelaide-Mannum Road. The former rail corridor can still be seen from a few roads, is being converted, from Balhannah towards Mount Pleasant, into a cycling and horseback riding trail known as the Amy Gillett Bikeway; as of 2015, this conversion had reached Mount Torrens. Wiljani Conservation Park The Quiet Waters By: The Mount Pleasant District 1843–1993, written by Reg Butler