Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa and the Philippines; the conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, the Swedish Empire on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal; the war's extent has led some historians to describe it as World War Zero, similar in scale to other world wars. Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side.
Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power. Conflict between Great Britain and France broke out in 1754–1756 when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America. Hostilities were heightened when a British unit led by a 22 year old Lt. Colonel George Washington ambushed a small French force at the Battle of Jumonville Glen on 28 May 1754; the conflict exploded across the colonial boundaries and extended to the seizure of hundreds of French merchant ships at sea. Meanwhile, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers "switched partners". Realising that war was imminent, Prussia pre-emptively struck Saxony and overran it.
The result caused uproar across Europe. Because of Austria's alliance with France to recapture Silesia, lost in the War of the Austrian Succession, Prussia formed an alliance with Britain. Reluctantly, by following the imperial diet, which declared war on Prussia on 17 January 1757, most of the states of the empire joined Austria's cause; the Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states. Sweden, seeking to regain Pomerania joined the coalition, seeing its chance when all the major powers of Europe opposed Prussia. Spain, bound by the Pacte de Famille, intervened on behalf of France and together they launched an utterly unsuccessful invasion of Portugal in 1762; the Russian Empire was aligned with Austria, fearing Prussia's ambition on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but switched sides upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762. Many middle and small powers in Europe, as in the previous wars, tried to steer clear away from the escalating conflict though they had interests in the conflict or with the belligerents.
Denmark–Norway, for instance, was close to being dragged into the war on France's side when Peter III became Russian emperor and switched sides. The Dutch Republic, a long-time British ally, kept its neutrality intact, fearing the odds against Britain and Prussia fighting the great powers of Europe, tried to prevent Britain's domination in India. Naples-Sicily, Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, declined to join the coalition under fear of British naval power; the taxation needed for war caused the Russian people considerable hardship, being added to the taxation of salt and alcohol begun by Empress Elizabeth in 1759 to complete her addition to the Winter Palace. Like Sweden, Russia concluded a separate peace with Prussia; the war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony and Prussia, in 1763. The war was successful for Great Britain, which gained the bulk of New France in North America, Spanish Florida, some individual Caribbean islands in the West Indies, the colony of Senegal on the West African coast, superiority over the French trading outposts on the Indian subcontinent.
The Native American tribes were excluded from the settlement. In Europe, the war began disastrously for Prussia, but with a combination of good luck and successful strategy, King Frederick the Great managed to retrieve the Prussian position and retain the status quo ante bellum. Prussia emerged as a new European great power. Although Austria failed to retrieve the territory of Silesia from Prussia, its military prowess was noted by the other powers; the involvement of Portugal and Sweden did not return them to their former status as great powers. France was deprived of many of it
Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)
The Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved an unsuccessful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to the Russian Empire in the course of the previous Russo-Turkish War. It took place concomitantly with the Austro-Turkish War. In May and June 1787, Catherine II of Russia made a triumphal procession through New Russia and the annexed Crimea in company with her ally, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II; these events, the rumors about Catherine's Greek Plan, the friction caused by the mutual complaints of infringements of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, which had ended the previous war, stirred up public opinion in Constantinople, while the British and French ambassadors lent their unconditional support to the Ottoman war party. In 1787, the Ottomans demanded the Russians to evacuate the Crimea and give up its holdings near the Black Sea, which Russia saw as a casus belli. Russia declared war on 19 August 1787, the Ottomans imprisoned the Russian ambassador, Yakov Bulgakov. Ottoman preparations were inadequate and the moment was ill-chosen, as Russia and Austria were now in alliance.
The Ottoman Empire opened their offensive with an attack on two fortresses near Kinburn, in southern Ukraine. Russian General Alexander Suvorov held off these two Ottoman sea-borne attacks in September and October 1787, thus securing the Crimea. In Moldavia, Russian troops captured the Ottoman cities of Jassy. Ochakov, at the mouth of the Dnieper, fell on 6 December 1788 after a six-month siege by Prince Grigori Potemkin and Suvorov. All civilians in the captured cities were massacred by order of Potemkin. Although suffering a series of defeats against the Russians, the Ottoman Empire found some success against the Austrians, led by Emperor Joseph II, in Serbia and Transylvania. By 1789, the Ottoman Empire was being pressed back in Moldavia by Austrian forces. To make matters worse, on 1 August the Russians under Suvorov attained a victory against the Ottomans led by Osman Pasha at Focsani, followed by a Russian victory at Rymnik on 22 September, drove them away from near the Râmnicul Sărat river.
Suvorov was given the title Count Rymniksky following the battle. The Ottomans suffered more losses when the Austrians, under General Gideon E. von Laudon repelled an Ottoman invasion of Bosnia, while an Austrian counterattack took Belgrade. A Greek revolt, which further drained the Ottoman war effort, brought about a truce between the Ottoman Empire and Austria. Meanwhile, the Russians continued their advance when Suvorov captured the "impenetrable" Ottoman fortress of Ismail at the entrance of the Danube, in December 1790. A final Ottoman defeat at Machin, coupled with Russian concerns about Prussia entering the war, led to a truce agreed upon on 31 July 1791. After the capture of the fortress, Suvorov marched upon Constantinople, where the Russians hoped they could establish a Christian empire. However, as Prof. Timothy C. Dowling states, the slaughters that were committed in the ensuing period somewhat defiled Suvorov's reputation in many eyes, there were allegations at the time that he was drunk at the siege of Ochakov.
Persistent rumors about his actions were spread and circulated, in 1791 he was relocated to Finland. Accordingly, the Treaty of Jassy was signed on 9 January 1792, recognizing Russia's 1783 annexation of the Crimean Khanate. Yedisan was ceded to Russia, the Dniester was made the Russian frontier in Europe, while the Russian Asiatic frontier—the Kuban River—remained unchanged; the Ottoman war goal to reclaim the Crimea had failed, if not for the French Revolution, the Ottoman Empire's situation could have been much worse. Cunningham, Allan. Ingram, Edward, ed. Anglo-Ottoman Encounters in the Age of Revolution: Collected Essays. Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. ISBN 978-0714634944. Dowling, Timothy C. ed.. Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1598849486. Dowling, Timothy C. ed.. Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1598849479. Sicker, Martin; the Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire.
Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0275968915. Stone, Bailey; the Genesis of the French Revolution: A Global Historical Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521445702. Tucker, Spencer C.. A Global Chronology Of Conflict. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1851096671
Prince Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin-Tavricheski was a Russian military leader, statesman and favourite of Catherine the Great. He died during negotiations over the Treaty of Jassy, which ended a war with the Ottoman Empire that he had overseen. Potemkin was born into a family of middle-income noble landowners, he first attracted Catherine's favor for helping in her 1762 coup distinguished himself as a military commander in the Russo-Turkish War. He became Catherine's lover and her consort. After their passion cooled, he remained favored statesman. Catherine obtained for him the title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and gave him the title of Prince of the Russian Empire among many others: he was both a Grand Admiral and the head of all of Russia's land and irregular forces. Potemkin's achievements include the peaceful annexation of the Crimea and the successful second Russo-Turkish War. In 1774, Potemkin became the governor-general of Russia's new southern provinces. An absolute ruler, he worked to colonize the wild steppes, controversially dealing with the Cossacks who lived there.
He founded the towns of Kherson, Nikolayev and Ekaterinoslav. Ports in the region became bases for his new Black Sea Fleet, his rule in the south is associated with the "Potemkin village", a ruse involving the construction of painted façades to mimic real villages, full of happy, well-fed people, for visiting officials to see. Potemkin was known for his love of women and material wealth, he oversaw the construction of many significant buildings, including the Tauride Palace in St. Petersburg. A distant relative of the Moscovite diplomat Pyotr Potemkin, Grigory was born in the village of Chizhovo near Smolensk into a family of middle-income noble landowners; the family claimed Polish ancestry. His father, Alexander Potemkin, was a decorated war veteran. Potemkin received his first name in honour of his father's cousin Grigory Matveevich Kizlovsky, a civil servant who became his godfather, it has been suggested that Kizlovsky fathered Potemkin, who became the centre of attention, heir to the village and the only son among six children.
As the son of an noble family, he grew up with the expectation that he would serve the Russian Empire. After Alexander died in 1746, Daria took charge of the family. In order to achieve a career for her son, aided by Kizlovsky, the family moved to Moscow, where Potemkin enrolled at a gymnasium school attached to the University of Moscow; the young Potemkin interested in the Russian Orthodox Church. He enlisted in the army in 1750 in accordance with the custom of noble children. In 1755 a second inspection placed him in the élite Horse Guards regiment. Having graduated from the University school, Potemkin became one of the first students to enroll at the University itself. Talented in both Greek and theology, he won the University's Gold Medal in 1757 and became part of a twelve-student delegation sent to Saint Petersburg that year; the trip seems to have affected Potemkin: afterwards he studied little and was soon expelled. Faced with isolation from his family, he rejoined the Guards. At this time his net worth amounted to 430 souls, equivalent to that of the poorer gentry.
His time was taken up with "drinking and promiscuous lovemaking", he fell deep in debt. Grigory Orlov, one of Catherine's lovers, led a palace coup in June 1762 that ousted the Emperor Peter III and enthroned Catherine II. Sergeant Potemkin represented his regiment in the revolt; as Catherine reviewed her troops in front of the Winter Palace before their march to the Peterhof, she lacked a sword-knot, which Potemkin supplied. Potemkin's horse refuse to leave her side for several minutes before Potemkin and horse returned to the ranks. After the coup Catherine singled out Potemkin for reward and ensured his promotion to second lieutenant. Though Potemkin was among those guarding the ex-Tsar, it appears that he had no direct involvement in Peter's murder in July. Catherine promoted him again to Kammerjunker. Potemkin was soon formally presented to the Empress. Although Catherine had not yet taken Potemkin as a lover, it seems that she passively—if not actively—encouraged his flirtatious behaviour, including his regular practice of kissing her hand and declaring his love for her: without encouragement, Potemkin could have expected trouble from the Orlovs who dominated court.
Potemkin entered Catherine's circle of advisers, in 1762 took his only foreign assignment, to Sweden, bearing news of the coup. On his return, he was appointed Procurator, won a reputation as a lover. Under unclear circumstances, Potemkin lost his left eye and fell into a depression, his confidence shattered, he withdrew from court. Eighteen months Potemkin reappeared summoned by Catherine, he oversaw uniform production. Shortly after, he became a Guardian of Exotic Peoples at the new All-Russian Legislative Commission, a significant political post. In September 1768, Potemkin became Kammerherr.
Russian is an East Slavic language, official in the Russian Federation, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch. Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onward. Russian is the largest native language in Europe and the most geographically widespread language in Eurasia, it is the most spoken of the Slavic languages, with 144 million speakers in Russia and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers.
The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian is the second most widespread language on the Internet after English respectively. Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds; every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Stress, unpredictable, is not indicated orthographically though an optional acute accent may be used to mark stress, such as to distinguish between homographic words, for example замо́к and за́мок, or to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words or names. Russian is an East Slavic language of the wider Indo-European family, it is a lineal descendant of the language used in Kievan Rus', a loose conglomerate of East Slavic tribes from the late 9th to the mid 13th centuries. From the point of view of spoken language, its closest relatives are Ukrainian and Rusyn, the other three languages in the East Slavic languages.
In many places in eastern and southern Ukraine and throughout Belarus, these languages are spoken interchangeably, in certain areas traditional bilingualism resulted in language mixtures such as Surzhyk in eastern Ukraine and Trasianka in Belarus. An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect, although vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is sometimes considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian. Russian has notable lexical similarities with Bulgarian due to a common Church Slavonic influence on both languages, as well as because of interaction in the 19th and 20th centuries, although Bulgarian grammar differs markedly from Russian. In the 19th century, the language was called "Great Russian" to distinguish it from Belarusian called "White Russian" and Ukrainian called "Little Russian"; the vocabulary, principles of word formations, and, to some extent and literary style of Russian have been influenced by Church Slavonic, a developed and russified form of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic language used by the Russian Orthodox Church.
However, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with many different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language. Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have been influenced by Western and Central European languages such as Greek, Polish, German, French and English, to a lesser extent the languages to the south and the east: Uralic, Turkic and Arabic, as well as Hebrew. According to the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers, requiring 1,100 hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency, it is regarded by the United States Intelligence Community as a "hard target" language, due to both its difficulty to master for English speakers and its critical role in U.
S. world policy. Feudal divisions and conflicts as well as other obstacles to the exchange of goods and ideas that ancient Russian principalities have suffered from before and during the Mongol yoke strengthened dialectical differences and for a while prevented the emergence of the standardized national language; the formation of the unified and centralized Russian state in 15th and 16th centuries and the gradual emergence of a common political and cultural space have created the need for a common standard language. The initial impulse for the standardization came from the government bureacracy for the lack of a reliable tool of communication in administrative and judicial affairs became an obvious practical problem; the earliest attempts at standardizing Russian were made based on the so-called Moscow official or chancery language. Since the underlying logic of language reforms in Russia reflected the considerations of standardizing and streamlining language norms and rules in order to ensure the Russian language's role as a practical tool of communication and administration.
The current standard form of Russian is regarded as the modern Russian literary language. It arose in the beginning of the 18th century with the modernizat
Ryazan is a city and the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, located on the Oka River 196 kilometers southeast of Moscow. Population: 524,927 , it was known as Peryslavl-Ryazansky. The area of Ryazan was settled by Slavic tribes around 6th century, it is argued that the Ryazan kremlin was founded in 800, by Slavic settlers, as a part of their drive into territory populated by Finnic peoples. It was built of wood replaced by masonry; the oldest preserved part of the Kremlin dates back to the 12th century. However, the first written mention of the city, under the name of Pereslavl, dates to 1095. At that time, the city was part of the independent Principality of Ryazan, which had existed since 1078 and, centered on the old city of Ryazan; the first ruler of Ryazan was Yaroslav Sviatoslavich, Prince of Ryazan and Murom. The lands of Ryazan, situated on the border of forest and steppe, suffered numerous invasions from the south as well as from the north, carried out by a variety of military forces including Cumans, but the Principality was in a conflict with Vladimir-Suzdal.
By the end of the 12th century, the capital of Duchy was burnt several times by the armies of Suzdal. Ryazan was the first Russian city to be sacked by the Mongol horde of Batu Khan. On December 21, 1237, it was devastated and never recovered; as result of the sack, the seat of the principality was moved about 55 kilometers to the town of Pereslavl-Ryazansky, which subsequently took the name of the destroyed capital. The site of the old capital now carries the name of Staraya Ryazan, close to Spassk-Ryazansky. In 1380, during the Battle of Kulikovo, the Grand Prince of Ryazan Oleg and his men came under a coalition of Mamai, a strongman of the Tatar Golden Horde, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, against the armies under the command of the Grand Prince of Vladimir, Dmitry Donskoy. Late in the 13th century, the Princes of Ryazan moved their capital to Pereslavl, known as Ryazan from the 16th century; the principality was incorporated into that of Moscow in 1521. Ryazan was bombed by Germany in World War II and was an Extermenent Camp of Jews and Poles, 1917-1991.
After World War II, rapid development of the city began. Ryazan became a major industrial and military center of the European part of Russia. Massive factories were constructed in the city; such establishments included the largest refinery in Europe, the Soviet Union's only producer of potato-harvesting equipment - Ryazselmash Plant, accounting machines, a machine-tool plant, heavy forging equipment, foundry Centrolit, chemical fiber company, instrument factory and others. Leading areas of industry are heavy and non-ferrous metallurgy, oil refining and machine-tool industry, mechanical engineering and food industries. More than half of the plants produce for export; the military potential of the city has developed: Ryazan became the main training center of the Airborne Forces of the Soviet Union - a city surrounded by numerous training centers and military training-grounds. Several positioned MANPADS protect the urban sky. Besides the Airborne School, Ryazan hosts the Automobile School and Institute of Communications, a regiment of railway troops, airbase strategic bombers, a training center in Diaghilev.
Ryazan developed rapidly while Nadezhda Nikolaevna Chumakova served as Chair of the Council of People's Deputies of Ryazan and Ryazan mayor. Under Chumakova, the city's population increased more than seven times: from 72 to 520 thousand people. Chumakova oversaw the construction of social and cultural amenities, more than 20 urban areas, hundreds of kilometers of trolleybus and bus routes. Landscaping became a fundamental strategy for the development of the city at that time. A "green" ring of forests and garden associations surrounded Ryazan, with large parks located in each area of the city, compositions of flowers and vertical gardening became customary, not only for the main streets, but for industrial zones and factory buildings. Ryazan won recognition among the cities of the Soviet Union for its landscaping. During her 26 years in office, Nadezhda Chumakova accepted awards of the Red Banner of the USSR on behalf of Ryazan. In September 1999, Ryazan became one of the cities involved in the Russian apartment bombings episode, though it did not experience a successful bomb attack.
Ryazan's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style. Many famous Russian architects worked in Ryazan. Example: Kazakov, who worked and died in this city, built the house of Politech University. Ryazan's churches were built between the 19th centuries. Ryazan classicism is interesting. In 1900s style moderne was popular. Soviet Constructivism was an important step in Ryazan architecture. Ryazan is one of the leading tourist destinations in the Central Russia; the monuments of history and culture attract many tourists. The Ryazan Kremle is famous symbol and main landmark in Ryzan, it is ensemble of The Old main of beautiful churches and Palace of Oleg. Sobornaia Bell is one of the highest bells of The Orthodox Church. Ryazan State Museum of Art is one of the largest museums of European arts, it has paintings of A. van Ostade, V. V. Kandinsky and others. In the Political system of Ryazan, the legislature, a city council is the Ryazan City Duma. Kind of the lower house of the municipality - Youth Parliament, preparing draft le
Oryol or Orel is a city and the administrative center of Oryol Oblast, located on the Oka River 360 kilometers south-southwest of Moscow. Population: 317,747 . While there are no historical records, archaeological evidence shows that a fortress settlement existed between the Oka and Orlik Rivers as early as the 12th century, when the land was a part of the Principality of Chernigov; the name of the fortress is unknown. In the 13th century the fortress became a part of the Zvenigorod district of the Karachev Principality. In the early 15th century, the territory was conquered by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the city was soon abandoned by its population, after being sacked either by Lithuanians or the Golden Horde. The territory became a part of the Tsardom of Russia in the 16th century. Ivan the Terrible decreed that a new fortress be built on the spot in 1566, for the purpose of defending the southern borders of the country; the fortress was built speedily, work starting in the summer of 1566 and ending in the spring of 1567.
The location chosen was less than ideal strategically, as the fortress was located on a seasonally flooded low ground targeted from the neighboring high ground. False Dmitry I and his army passed through Oryol in 1605. Polish intervention sacked it in 1611 and 1615. Orlovsky Uyezd nonetheless continued to exist on paper. Oryol was rebuilt in 1636; the question of moving the fortress to the more advantageous high ground was in the air up until the 1670s, but the move was never made. The fortress was taken apart in the early 18th century. In the mid-18th century Oryol became one of the major centers of grain production, with the Oka River being the major trade route until the 1860s when it was replaced by a railroad. Oryol was granted town status in 1702. In 1708, Oryol was included as a part of Kiev Governorate; the Province was transferred to the newly created Belgorod Governorate in 1727. On March 11, 1778 Oryol Vice-Royalty was created from parts of Belgorod Governorates. In 1779, the city was entirely rebuilt based on a new plan.
After the October Revolution of 1917, the city was in Bolshevik hands, except for a brief period between October 13 and October 20, 1919, when it was controlled by Anton Denikin's White Army. Oryol was once again moved between different oblasts in the 1920s and 1930s becoming the administrative center of its own Oryol Oblast on September 27, 1937; the Oryol Prison was a notable place of incarceration for political prisoners and war prisoners of the Second World War. Christian Rakovsky, Maria Spiridonova, Olga Kameneva and 160 other prominent political prisoners were shot on September 11, 1941 on Joseph Stalin's orders in the Medvedev Forest massacre outside Oryol. During World War II, Oryol was occupied by the Wehrmacht on October 3, 1941, liberated on August 5, 1943, after the Battle of Kursk; the city was completely destroyed. In February 2012, the city duma abolished the direct election of mayor. In December 2013, a referendum was held, which 71% of the people supported the return of direct mayoral election.
Oryol is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Orlovsky District though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Oryol—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Oryol is incorporated as Oryol Urban Okrug. The city is served by the Oryol Yuzhny Airport. Since 1868, there has been a railway connection between Moscow. Oryol is a major transport hub on the borders of the Central and Central Black Earth economic regions. Through the city converge 7 important highways of federal and republican values: M2, P92, R119, R120, A142, 5 railway lines: on Yelets, Kursk, Mikhailovsky mine; the city has an airport. The formation of the Oryol as an important transportation hub is due to the favorable geographical position of the city on the borders of economic regions.
The town has trolley and bus systems. These kinds of public transport cover the entire territory of the city; each bus and trolley is equipped with route indicators that inform about the route through the city, designated stops. There is a waterbus on the Oka River. In the city there are taxis and shuttles, rental cars. Intercity transport terminals: Oryol Station, Station Luzhki-Oryol, Oryol Bus Station, as well as federal highway M2, P92, R119, R120, A142. On November 3, 1898 Orel inaugurated an electric tram; the draft was prepared by the Belgian entrepreneur FF Gilon and firm «Compagnie mutuelle de tramways», which won the right to build not only a tram, but lighting in the city. Oryol has a humid continental climate. 1991–1997: Alexander Kislyakov 1997–2002: Yefim Velkovsky 2002–2006: Vasily Uvarov 2006–2009: Alexander Kasyanov 2009–2010: Vasily Eremin 2010–2012: Viktor Safianov 2012: Mikhail Bernikov 2012–2016: Sergey Stupin 2016–present: Vasily Novikov Oryol is twinned with: Brest, Belarus Ke
A commander-in-chief, sometimes called supreme commander, is the person that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a head of state or a head of government. A commander-in-chief role if held by an official, need not be or have been a commissioned officer or a veteran; such countries follow the principle of civilian control of the military. The formal role and title of a ruler commanding the armed forces derives from Imperator of the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, who possessed imperium powers. In English use, the term first applied to King Charles I of England in 1639, it continued to be used during the English Civil War. A nation's head of state holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. In a parliamentary system, the executive branch is dependent upon the will of the legislature.
Governors-general and colonial governors are often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces within their territory. A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as supreme commander, sometimes used as a specific term; the term is used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, as a subordinate to a head of state. The term is used for officers who hold authority over an individual military branch, special branch or within a theatre of operations; this includes heads of states who: Are chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making, including command of the armed forces. Ceremonial heads of state with residual substantive reserve powers over the armed forces, acting under normal circumstances on the constitutional advice of chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making. According to the Constitution of Afghanistan, The President of Afghanistan is the Commander-in-chief of Afghan Armed Forces.
According to the Constitution of Albania, The President of the Republic of Albania is the Commander-in-chief of Albanian Armed Forces. The incumbent Commander-in-chief is President Ilir Meta. Under part II, chapter III, article 99, subsections 12, 13, 14 and 15, the Constitution of Argentina states that the President of the Argentine Nation is the "Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Nation", it states that the President is entitled to provide military posts in the granting of the jobs or grades of senior officers of the armed forces, by itself on the battlefield. The Ministry of Defense is the government department that assists and serves the President in the management of the armed forces. Under chapter II of section 68 titled Command of the naval and military forces, the Constitution of Australia states that: The command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor General as the Queen's representative. In practice, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the Australian Defence Force's command structure, the democratically accountable Australian Cabinet de facto controls the ADF.
The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the Australian Defence Organisation. Section 8 of the Defence Act 1903 states:The Minister shall have the general control and administration of the Defence Force, the powers vested in the Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Navy, the Chief of Army and the Chief of Air Force by virtue of section 9, the powers vested jointly in the Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force by virtue of section 9A, shall be exercised subject to and in accordance with any directions of the Minister; the commander-in-chief is the president, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister. The only exception was the first commander-in-chief, General M. A. G. Osmani, during Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, commander of all Bangladesh Forces, reinstated to active duty by official BD government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972, he relinquished all authority and duties to the President of Bangladesh.
Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the Brazilian Armed Forces is under the supreme command of the President of the Republic. The President of Belarus is the Commander-in-Chief of the Belarusian Armed Forces; the Sultan of Brunei is the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. The powers of command-in-chief over the Canadian Armed Forces are vested in the Canadian monarch, are delegated to the Governor General of Canada, who uses the title Commander-in-Chief. In this capacity, the governor general is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office and special cuff braid serving as rank insignia. By constitutional convention, the Crown's prerogative powers over the armed forces and constitutional powers as commander-in-chief are exercised on the advice of the prime minister and the rest of Cabinet, the governing ministry that commands the confidence of the House of Commons. According to the National Defence Act, t