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Miklós Horthy

Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya was a Hungarian admiral and statesman, who became the Regent of Hungary. He served as Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary between World Wars I and II and throughout most of World War II, from 1 March 1920 to 15 October 1944, he was styled His Serene Highness the Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, Hungarian: Ő Főméltósága a Magyar Királyság Kormányzója. Horthy started his career as a Sub-Lieutenant in the Austro-Hungarian Navy in 1896 and attained the rank of Rear-Admiral in 1918, he saw action in the Battle of the Strait of Otranto and became Commander-in-Chief of the Austro-Hungarian Navy in the last year of the First World War. In 1919, following a series of revolutions and external interventions in Hungary from Romania and Yugoslavia, Horthy returned to Budapest with the National Army and was subsequently invited to become Regent of the Kingdom by parliament. Horthy led a national conservative government through the interwar period, banning the Hungarian Communist Party as well as the Arrow Cross Party, pursuing an irredentist foreign policy in the face of the Treaty of Trianon.

King Charles IV unsuccessfully attempted twice to return to Hungary until, in 1921, the Hungarian Government caved in to Allied threats to renew hostilities. King Charles was escorted out of Hungary on a British warship into exile. In the late 1930s, Horthy's foreign policy led him into a reluctant alliance with Germany against the Soviet Union. With the begrudging support of Adolf Hitler, Horthy was able to recover certain Hungarian lands removed from them by the Allies. Under Horthy's leadership, Hungary gave support to Polish refugees in 1939 and participated in a supportive role in the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, during the German invasion of Yugoslavia the same year occupied and annexed former Hungarian territories, given to the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by the Allies after the First World War. Horthy's reluctance to contribute to the German war effort and the Holocaust in Hungary, as well as refusing to hand over more than 600,000 of the 825,000 Hungarian Jews to German authorities, coupled with several attempts to strike a secret deal with the Allies of World War II after it had become obvious that Axis would lose the war led the Germans to invade and take control of the country in March 1944 in Operation Margarethe.

In October 1944, Horthy announced that Hungary had declared an armistice with the Allies and withdrawn from the Axis. He was placed under arrest by the Germans and taken to Bavaria. At the end of the war, he came under the custody of American troops. After appearing as a witness at the Nuremberg war-crimes trials in 1948, Horthy settled and lived out his remaining years in exile in Portugal, his memoirs, Ein Leben für Ungarn, were first published in 1953. He is perceived as a controversial historical figure in contemporary Hungary. Miklós Horthy was born at Kenderes to an untitled lower nobility, descended from István Horti, ennobled by King Ferdinand II in 1635, his father, István Horthy, was a member of the House of Magnates, the upper chamber of the Diet of Hungary, lord of a 1,500 acre estate. He married Paula Halassy in 1857. Miklós was the fourth of their eight children. Horthy entered the Austro-Hungarian "Imperial and Royal Naval Academy" at Fiume at age 14; because the official language of the naval academy was German, Horthy spoke Hungarian with a slight, but noticeable, Austro-German accent for the rest of his life.

He spoke Italian, Croatian and French. As a young man, Horthy travelled around the world and served as a diplomat for Austria-Hungary in the Ottoman Empire and other countries. Horthy married Magdolna Purgly in Arad in 1901, they had 4 children: Magdolna, István and Miklós. From 1911 until 1914, he was a naval aide-de-camp to Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, for whom he had a great respect. At the beginning of World War I, Horthy was commander of the pre-dreadnought battleship SMS Habsburg. In 1915, he earned a reputation for boldness, he planned the 1917 attack on the Otranto Barrage, which resulted in the Battle of the Strait of Otranto, the largest naval engagement of the war in the Adriatic Sea. A consolidated British and Italian fleet met the Austro-Hungarian force. Despite the numerical superiority of the Allied fleet, the Austrian force emerged from the battle victorious; the Austrian fleet remained unscathed, however Horthy was wounded. After the Cattaro mutiny of February 1918, Emperor Charles I of Austria selected Horthy over many more senior commanders as the new Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Fleet in March 1918.

In June, Horthy planned another attack on Otranto, in a departure from the cautious strategy of his predecessors, he committed the empire's battleships to the mission. While sailing through the night, the dreadnought SMS Szent István met Italian MAS torpedo boats and was sunk, causing Horthy to abort the mission, he managed to preserve the rest of the empire's fleet in being until he was ordered by Emperor Charles to surrender it to the new State of Slovenes and Serbs on 31 October. The end of the war saw Hungary tu

2010–11 UEFA Champions League qualifying phase and play-off round

This article details the 2010–11 UEFA Champions League qualifying phase and play-off round. There were two paths: Champions Path, which included all domestic champions which did not automatically qualified for the group stage. Non-Champions Path, which included all non-domestic champions which did not automatically qualified for the group stage; each tie is played with each team playing one leg at home. The team that has the higher aggregate score over the two legs progresses to the next round. In the event that aggregate scores finish level, the away goals rule is applied, i.e. the team that scored more goals away from home over the two legs progresses. If away goals are equal thirty minutes of extra time are played, divided into two fifteen-minutes halves; the away goals rule is again applied after extra time, i.e. if there are goals scored during extra time and the aggregate score is still level, the visiting team qualifies by virtue of more away goals scored. If no goals are scored during extra time, the tie is decided by penalty shootout.

All times CEST All draws held at UEFA headquarters in Switzerland. Below are the 54 teams that were involved in the qualifying phase and play-off round, grouped by their starting rounds; the 10 winners of the play-off round qualified for the group stage to join the 22 automatic qualifiers. The losing teams from the third qualifying round and the play-off round entered the Europa League play-off round and the group stage respectively. In each round, teams were seeded based on their 2010 UEFA club coefficients. Prior to the draw, UEFA may form "groups" in accordance with the principles set by the Club Competitions Committee, but they are purely for convenience of the draw and do not resemble any real groupings in the sense of the competition, while ensuring that teams from the same association not drawn against each other. Notes Rudar Pljevlja won 7–1 on aggregate. Birkirkara won 7–3 on aggregate; the first leg was awarded 3 -- 0 to Birkirkara. Notes Sparta Prague won 5–0 on aggregate. Aktobe won 3–1 on aggregate.

Debrecen won 4–3 on aggregate. Partizan won 4–1 on aggregate. 1–1 on aggregate. Lech Poznań won 9–8 on penalties. Dinamo Zagreb won 5–4 on aggregate. Litex Lovech won 5–0 on aggregate. Žilina won 3–1 on aggregate. Sheriff Tiraspol won 3–2 on aggregate. Hapoel Tel Aviv won 6–0 on aggregate. Omonia won 5–0 on aggregate. Red Bull Salzburg won 5–1 on aggregate; the New Saints won 4–1 on aggregate. BATE won 6–1 on aggregate. AIK won 1–0 on aggregate. Rosenborg won 2–0 on aggregate. HJK won 2–1 on aggregate. Notes Sparta won 2–0 on aggregate. Hapoel Tel Aviv won 3–2 on aggregate. 2–2 on aggregate. Sheriff Tiraspol won 6–5 on penalties. Žilina won 4–2 on aggregate. Basel won 5–1 on aggregate. Rosenborg won 4–0 on aggregate. Partizan won 5–1 on aggregate. Anderlecht won 6–1 on aggregate. Copenhagen won 3–2 on aggregate. Red Bull Salzburg won 5–2 on aggregate. 4–4 on aggregate. Ajax won on away goals. Dynamo Kyiv won 6–1 on aggregate. Young Boys won 3–2 on aggregate. Braga won 4–2 on aggregate. Zenit St. Petersburg won 1–0 on aggregate.

Hapoel Tel Aviv won 4–3 on aggregate. 2–2 on aggregate. Copenhagen won on away goals. Basel won 4–0 on aggregate. Žilina won 3–0 on aggregate. 4–4 on aggregate. Partizan won 3–2 on penalties. Tottenham won 6–3 on aggregate. Braga won 5–3 on aggregate. Werder Bremen won 5–4 on aggregate. Auxerre won 2–1 on aggregate. Ajax won 3–2 on aggregate. 2010–11 UEFA Champions League, UEFA.com

2019 Finali Mondiali

The 2019 Finali Mondiali was the 2019 edition of the season-ending event for all Ferrari Challenge championships. Held at the Mugello Circuit in Italy for the first time since 2017, the event saw drivers from the Asia-Pacific and North American championships take part. Two of the four reigning champions returned – with Trofeo Pirelli Pro and Coppa Shell Pro-Am champions Nicklas Nielsen and Christophe Hurni moved onto other championships. 2018 Trofeo Pirelli Pro-Am champion Fabienne Wohlwend moved into the Pro class, leaving just Coppa Shell Am champion Ingvar Mattsson to defend his title. 2019 Ferrari Challenge Europe 2019 Ferrari Challenge North America 2019 Ferrari Challenge Asia-Pacific