The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Operation Margarethe was the occupation of Hungary by Nazi German forces during World War II, as it was ordered by Hitler on 12 March 1944. A plan for the occupation of Romania was devised under the name Operation Margarethe II but was never carried out. Hungarian Prime Minister Miklós Kállay, with the knowledge and approval of Regent Miklós Horthy, secretly sought to negotiate a separate peace with the Allies in early 1944. German dictator Adolf Hitler wanted to prevent the Hungarians from turning against Germany. Hitler needed Hungary's oil. On 12 March 1944, he ordered German troops to capture critical Hungarian facilities. Hitler invited Horthy to the palace of Klessheim, outside of Salzburg in Austria, on March 15. While the two heads of state conducted their negotiations, German forces moved into Hungary; the meeting served as a German ruse to keep Horthy out of the country and to leave the Hungarian Army without orders. Negotiations between Horthy and Hitler lasted until the 18th, when Horthy boarded a train to return home.
When he arrived in Budapest, it was German soldiers. Horthy was told that Hungary could only remain sovereign if he removed Kállay in favour of a government that would cooperate with the Germans. Otherwise, Hungary would be subject to undisguised occupation. Knowing the latter situation would mean a gauleiter who would treat Hungary no differently from an occupied enemy country, Horthy appointed Döme Sztójay as prime minister to appease German concerns; the occupation was a complete surprise, which resulted in its being bloodless. The initial plan was to immobilise the Hungarian army, but with Soviet forces advancing from the north and east, with the prospect of British and American forces invading the Balkans, the German military decided to retain Hungarian forces in the field, sending a portion to defend the passes through the Carpathians against possible invasion; as a consequence of the Nazi occupation, Adolf Eichmann arranged the transportation of 550,000 Hungarian Jews from wartime Hungary to the Nazi death camps, with the collaboration of Hungarian authorities.
Operation Margarethe II was the name for a planned Nazi German invasion of Romania by German forces in conjunction with those of Hungary should the Romanian government decide to surrender to the Soviet Union and switch sides. Romania did in fact surrender in August 1944. Hungary in World War II Operation Panzerfaust Chance Survivor
Prime Minister of Hungary
The Prime Minister of Hungary is the head of government in Hungary. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Parliament, to their political party and to the electorate; the current holder of the office is Viktor Orbán, leader of the Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance, who has served since 29 May 2010. According to the Hungarian Constitution, the President of Hungary is required to nominate the leader of the political party who wins a majority of seats in the National Assembly of Hungary as Prime Minister. If there is no party with a majority, the President holds an audience with the leaders of all parties represented in the Assembly and nominates the person, most to command a majority in the Assembly, formally elected by a simple majority of the Assembly. In practice, the leader of the party winning a plurality of votes in the elections is named Prime Minister; the Prime Minister has a leading role in the executive branch in accordance with the Hungarian Constitution.
The Prime Minister has the exclusive right to dismiss them. Cabinet nominees appear before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings, they must survive a vote by Parliament and be formally approved by the President. The title of Hungary's head of government in Hungarian is miniszterelnök. Translated, this means "Minister-President". However, since "Prime minister" or "premier" is the more usual title in a parliamentary system for a head of government in English-speaking nations, the title is translated as "Prime Minister" by most English sources; the palatine was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king from the kingdom's rise up to 1848/1918. He was in fact the representative of the king the vice-regent. In the early centuries of the kingdom, he was appointed by the king elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Habsburgs solidified their hold of Hungary, the dignity became an appointed position once again, it became hereditary in a cadet branch of the Habsburg dynasty after King Francis appointed his brother Joseph.
During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 the revolutionaries wanted the creation of a Hungarian cabinet which would be independent from the Austrian Empire and the Buda Chancellery. One of the 12 points said: 2. A responsible government in Buda-Pest. Ferdinand V appointed Count Lajos Batthyány for the position of Prime Minister of Hungary on 17 March 1848; the government was called ministry, differently from the current acceptation. The ministries were called departments. Batthyány resigned on October 2, 1848 he was succeeded by Lajos Kossuth as President of the Committee of National Defence; this executive body has not been allocated the portfolios. In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, after sounding the army, Kossuth issued the celebrated Hungarian Declaration of Independence. In May Bertalan Szemere was appointed Prime Minister; the position was vacant after the defeat of the freedom fight. As of April 2019, 5 former Prime Ministers of Hungary are alive. Viktor Orbán, who served as Prime Minister from 1998 to 2002, is serving and thus is not included on this list.
Records of Prime Ministers of Hungary List of Prime Ministers of Hungary by tenure List of Prime Ministers of Hungary List of heads of state of Hungary List of rulers of Hungary List of palatines of Hungary Official government Web site of the Office of the Prime Minister
German National Library of Economics
The German National Library of Economics is the world’s largest research infrastructure for economic literature, online as well as offline. The ZBW is a member of the Leibniz Association and has been a foundation under public law since 2007. Several times the ZBW received the international LIBER award for its innovative work in librarianship; the ZBW allows for access of millions of documents and research on economics, partnering with over 40 research institutions to create a connective Open Access portal and social web of research. Through its EconStor and EconBiz and students have accessed millions of datasets and thousands of articles; the ZBW edits two journals: Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics. The ZBW is Germany's central subject research infrastructure for economics in Germany, its mandate is to acquire, to index, to archive theoretical and empirical literature and subject-specific information from economics and business studies, to provide access to these materials to the general public on a national basis.
The ZBW acquires all publications from related and auxiliary disciplines focussing on economics, in order to accommodate the increasing tendency towards interdisciplinary work in economic research. The ZBW is part of the system of national literature provision within the German Research Foundation; the ZBW holds 4.4 million items. The ZBW subscribes to more than 27,100 journals and enables access to 2.3 million electronic documents. The search portal. More than 134,000 full-texts from German research institutes and universities are available online and free of charge on the repository EconStor; the ZBW creates content-descriptive metadata not only for books, but for articles in journals and working papers, i.e. they are indexed with keywords from the Standard Thesaurus for Economics. The ZBW maintains the search portal EconBiz containing more than 10 million datasets of bibliographic references for economics and business studies; the ZBW offers an online reference service, Research Guide EconDesk, which provides guidance for literature and data searches in economics and business studies.
The ZBW is an active player in the Open Access movement which aims for free access to scholarly research output. It is the chief negotiator for national licences in economics in Germany; the repository EconStor serves as a platform for the free publication of research output in economics. Authors and publishing institutions can publish without charges on EconStor. More than 400 institutions use EconStor for the digital dissemination of their publications in Open Access, it is an input service for RePEc and one of its most used archives. All titles in EconStor are indexed by search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and BASE, distributed to databases such as WoldCat, OpenAire and EconBiz; the ZBW Journal Data Archive is a service for the editors of scholarly journals in economics. Editors can deposit datasets and other material relating to empirical articles and provide access to them in order to enable reproducibility of published research findings; the ZBW publishes two journals of Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics.
The ZBW provides support for researchers dealing with the different aspects of the digitisation of the science system, such as publishing in Open Access or research data management. The ZBW participates in international projects to develop new services for its users. GeRDI – Generic Research Data Infrastructure; the project aims to develop a linked-up research data infrastructure. It aims to link existing and future research data centres all over Germany; this allows scientists to search for and re-use research data across disciplines and without barriers. The ZBW coordinates the project, funded by the German Research Foundation. Linked Open Citation Database; the project LOC-DB develops tools and processes based on linked data technologies that will enable individual libraries to participate in an open, distributed infrastructure for the indexation of citations. It aims to show that extensive automation of metadata creation can produce relevant added value to scholarly information discovery. Metrics: MEasuring The Reliability and perception of Indicators for interactions with sCientific productS.
The project focuses on gaining a deeper understanding of alternative indicators for measuring scientific performance. Under review are the quality and reliability of the indicators, but how far they are able to map discipline-specific differences. MOVING: the project aims to build a working environment for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of large collections of documents and data; the ZBW is the research partner for text and data mining and the scientific coordinator, contributes its expertise in the field of Science 2.0. Digital Imperial Statistics: Historical statistics are not available online. In this pilot project, the German Imperial Statistics 1873-1883 have been digitised and processed into a format that researchers can download for re-use in spreadsheets; this project is funded by the German Research Foundation. Digital preservation: Because of the rapid technical development of recent years, information is only available in digital form. At the same time, the hard- and software needed for reading this information becomes obsolete more rapidly.
Digital preservation ensures. To this end, the ZBW cooperates with two other German Libraries, the Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology (TIB
Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in 1933, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Opened by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, the imprisonment of Jews and Austrian criminals, foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded; the Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were work camps or Arbeitskommandos, were located throughout southern Germany and Austria. The camps were liberated by U. S. forces on 29 April 1945. Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, the so-called tree or pole hanging, standing at attention for long periods. There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, thousands that are undocumented. 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation.
In the postwar years the Dachau facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans, expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement, was used for a time as a United States military base during the occupation, it was closed in 1960. There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site, open to the public. Dachau served as a model for the other German concentration camps that followed; every community in Germany had members taken away to these camps. Newspapers continually reported "the removal of the enemies of the Reich to concentration camps." As early as 1935, a jingle went around: "Lieber Herr Gott, mach mich stumm, Das ich nicht nach Dachau komm'". The camp's layout and building plans were developed by Commandant Theodor Eicke and were applied to all camps, he had a separate secure camp near the command center, which consisted of living quarters and army camps. Eicke became the chief inspector for all concentration camps, responsible for organizing others according to his model.
The Dachau complex included the prisoners' camp, which occupied 5 acres, the much larger area of SS training school including barracks, plus other facilities of around 20 acres. The entrance gate used by prisoners carries the phrase "Arbeit macht frei"; this phrase was used in Theresienstadt, near Prague, Auschwitz I. Dachau was the concentration camp, in operation the longest from March 1933 to April 1945, nearly all twelve years of the Nazi regime. Dachau's close proximity to Munich, where Hitler came to power and where the Nazi Party had its official headquarters, made Dachau a convenient location. From 1933 to 1938, the prisoners were German nationals detained for political reasons. After the Reichspogromnacht or Kristallnacht, 30,000 male Jewish citizens were deported to concentration camps. More than 10,000 of them were interned in Dachau alone; as the German military occupied other European states, citizens from across Europe were sent to concentration camps. Subsequently, the camp was used for prisoners of all sorts, from every nation occupied by the forces of the Third Reich.:137In the postwar years, the camp continued in use.
From 1945 through 1948, the camp was used by the Allies as a prison for SS officers awaiting trial. After 1948, when hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were expelled from eastern Europe, it held Germans from Czechoslovakia until they could be resettled, it served as a military base for the United States, which maintained forces in the country. It was closed in 1960. At the insistence of survivors, various memorials have been constructed and installed here.:138 Demographic statistics vary but they are in the same general range. History will never know how many people were interned or died there, due to periods of disruption. One source gives a general estimate of over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries for the Third Reich's years, of whom two-thirds were political prisoners, including many Catholic priests, nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and another 10,000 in its subcamps from disease and suicide. In late 1944, a typhus epidemic occurred in the camp caused by poor sanitation and overcrowding, which caused more than 15,000 deaths.
It was followed by an evacuation. Toward the end of the war, death marches to and from the camp caused the deaths of numerous unrecorded prisoners. After liberation, prisoners weakened beyond recovery by the starvation conditions continued to die. Two thousand cases of "the dread black typhus" had been identified by 3 May, the U. S. Seventh Army was "working day and night to alleviate the appalling conditions at the camp". Prisoners with typhus, a louse-borne disease with an incubation period from 12 to 18 days, were treated by the 116th Evacuation Hospital, while the 127th would be the general hospital for the other illnesses. There were 227 documented deaths among the 2,252 patients cared for by the 127th. Over the 12 years of use as a concentration camp, the Dachau administration recorded the intake of 206,206 prisoners and deaths of 31,951. Crematoria were constructed to dispose of the deceased. Visitors may now walk through the buildings and view the ovens used to cremate bodies, which hid the evidence of many deaths.
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Lajos Kossuth de Udvard et Kossuthfalva 19 September 1802 – 20 March 1894) was a Hungarian nobleman, journalist, politician and Governor-President of the Kingdom of Hungary during the revolution of 1848–49. With the help of his talent in oratory in political debates and public speeches, Kossuth emerged from a poor gentry family into regent-president of Kingdom of Hungary; as the influential contemporary American journalist Horace Greeley said of Kossuth: "Among the orators, statesmen, exiles, he has, living or dead, no superior."Kossuth's powerful English and American speeches so impressed and touched the famous contemporary American orator Daniel Webster, that he wrote a book about Kossuth's life. He was honored during his lifetime, including in Great Britain and the United States, as a freedom fighter and bellwether of democracy in Europe. Kossuth's bronze bust can be found in the United States Capitol with the inscription: Father of Hungarian Democracy, Hungarian Statesman, Freedom Fighter, 1848–1849.
Kossuth was born in Monok, Kingdom of Hungary, a small town in the county of Zemplén, as the oldest of four children in a Lutheran noble family of partial Slovak origin. His father, László Kossuth, belonged to the lower nobility, had a small estate and was a lawyer by profession. László Kossuth had one sister; the House of Kossuth originated from the county of Turóc. They acquired the rank of nobility in 1263 from King Béla IV. Lajos Kossuth's mother, Karolina Weber, was born to a Lutheran family of partial German descent, living in Upper Hungary. Karolina Kossuth raised her children as strict Lutherans; as a result of his mixed ancestry, as was quite common during his era, he spoke three languages – Hungarian and Slovak since his early childhood. Kossuth studied at the Piarist college of Sátoraljaújhely and one year in the Calvinist college of Sárospatak and the University of Pest. Aged nineteen, he entered his father's legal practice, he was popular locally, having been appointed steward to the countess Szapáry, a widow with large estates, he became her voting representative in the county assembly and settled in Pest.
He was subsequently dismissed on the grounds of some misunderstanding in regards to estate funds. Shortly after his dismissal by Countess Szapáry, Kossuth was appointed as deputy to Count Hunyady at the National Diet; the Diet met during 1825–27 and 1832–36 in Pressburg capital of Hungary. Only the upper aristocracy could vote in the House of Magnates and Kossuth took little part in the debates. At the time, a struggle to reassert a Hungarian national identity was beginning to emerge under leaders such as Wesselényi and the Széchenyis. In part, it was a struggle for economic and political reforms against the stagnant Austrian government. Kossuth's duties to Count Hunyady included reporting on Diet proceedings in writing, as the Austrian government, fearing popular dissent, had banned published reports; the high quality of Kossuth's letters led to their being circulated in manuscript among other liberal magnates. Readership demands led him to edit an organized parliamentary gazette. Orders from the Official Censor halted circulation by lithograph printing.
Distribution in manuscript by post was forbidden by the government, although circulation by hand continued. In 1836, the Diet was dissolved. Kossuth continued covering the debates of the county assemblies; the newfound publicity gave the assemblies national political prominence. They had had little idea of each other's proceedings, his embellishment of the speeches from the liberals and reformers enhanced the impact of his newsletters. After the prohibition of his parliamentary gazette, Kossuth loudly demanded the legal declaration of freedom of the press and of speech in Hungary and in the entire Habsburg Empire; the government attempted in vain to suppress the letters, other means having failed, he was arrested in May 1837, with Wesselényi and several others, on a charge of high treason. After spending a year in prison at Buda awaiting trial, he was condemned to four more years' imprisonment, his strict confinement damaged his health. He increased his political knowledge, acquired, from the study of the King James version of the Bible and Shakespeare, a thorough knowledge of English.
Kossuth's arrests caused great controversy. The Diet, which reconvened in 1839, demanded the release of the prisoners, refused to pass any government measures. Austrian prime minister Metternich long remained obdurate, but the danger of war in 1840 obliged him to give way. While Wesselényi had been broken by his imprisonment, Kossuth supported by the frequent visits of Terézia Meszlényi, emerged from prison in better conditions. After his release and Terézia Meszlényi were married, she remained a firm supporter of his politics. Meszlényi was a Catholic and her Church refused to bless the marriage, as Kossuth, a Protestant, would not convert; this experience influenced Kossuth's firm defense of mixed marriages. They had three children: Ferenc Lajos Ákos, Minister for Trade between 1906 and 1910. Kossuth had now become a national icon, he regained full health in January 1841 and was appointed editor of Pesti Hírlap, a new Liberal party newspaper which received t
Minister of Foreign Affairs (Hungary)
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet and the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The current foreign minister is Péter Szijjártó; the position was called People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs during the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919 and Minister besides the King between 1848 and 1918, except in 1849 when Hungary declared its independence from the Austrian Empire. During the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy the two countries had a joint Minister of Foreign Affairs; this page is a list of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Hungary. Parties Conservative Party Parties Opposition Party After the collapse of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Hungarian Kingdom became an integral part of the Austrian Empire until 1867, when dual Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was created. Parties Deák Party/Liberal Party/National Party of Work Catholic People's Party F48P/F48P–Károlyi Independent Parties F48P–Károlyi Civic Radical Party Parties MSZP/SZKMMP Parties Independent Parties MSZDP Parties Independent Parties KNEP EP–NEP–MÉP Independent Parties Arrow Cross Party Parties FKGP Parties FKGP MKP-MDP Parties MDP-MSZMP MSZP Parties MSZP Fidesz MDF Independent List of heads of state of Hungary List of Prime Ministers of Hungary List of Ministers of Agriculture of Hungary List of Ministers of Civilian Intelligence Services of Hungary List of Ministers of Croatian Affairs of Hungary List of Ministers of Defence of Hungary List of Ministers of Education of Hungary List of Ministers of Finance of Hungary List of Ministers of Interior of Hungary List of Ministers of Justice of Hungary List of Ministers of Public Works and Transport of Hungary Politics of Hungary