Meiji Shrine, located in Shibuya, Tokyo, is the Shinto shrine, dedicated to the deified spirits of Emperor Meiji and his wife, Empress Shōken. The shrine does not contain the emperor's grave, located at Fushimi-momoyama, south of Kyoto. After the emperor's death in 1912, the Japanese Diet passed a resolution to commemorate his role in the Meiji Restoration. An iris garden in an area of Tokyo where Emperor Meiji and Empress Shōken had been known to visit was chosen as the building's location. Construction began in 1915 under Itō Chūta, the shrine was built in the traditional nagare-zukuri style, using Japanese cypress and copper; the building of the shrine was a national project, mobilizing youth groups and other civic associations from throughout Japan, who contributed labor and funding. It was formally dedicated in 1920, completed in 1921, its grounds finished by 1926; until 1946, the Meiji Shrine was designated one of the Kanpei-taisha, meaning that it stood in the first rank of government supported shrines.
The original building was destroyed during the Tokyo air raids of World War II. The present iteration of the shrine was funded through a public fund raising effort and completed in October 1958. Meiji Shrine has been visited by numerous foreign politicians, including United States President George W. Bush, United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle. On the eve of new year, Japanese visit a Shinto shrine to prepare for the worship - Hatsumōde of the new year. Meiji Shrine is the most popular location in Japan for hatsumōde. Meiji Shrine is located in a forest; this area is covered by an evergreen forest that consists of 120,000 trees of 365 different species, which were donated by people from all parts of Japan when the shrine was established. The forest is visited by many as a relaxation area in the center of Tokyo; the entrance to the shrine complex leads through the Jingu Bashi bridge. Meiji Shrine is adjacent to Yoyogi Park; the shrine itself is composed of two major areas: The Naien is the inner precinct, centered on the shrine buildings and includes a treasure museum that houses articles of the Emperor and Empress.
The treasure museum is built in the Azekurazukuri style. The Gaien is the outer precinct, which includes the Meiji Memorial Picture Gallery that houses a collection of 80 large murals illustrative of the events in the lives of the Emperor and his consort, it includes a variety of sports facilities, including the National Stadium, the Meiji Memorial Hall, used for governmental meetings, including discussions surrounding the drafting of the Meiji Constitution in the late 19th century. Today it is used for restaurants services. Meiji Jingu Stadium List of Shinto shrines List of Jingū Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Official English site Requires Flash. Meiji Shrine English map Meiji Shrine Pictures & Travel Guide Practical guide for travelers
Himiko or Pimiko was a shamaness-queen of Yamataikoku in Wa. Early Chinese dynastic histories chronicle tributary relations between Queen Himiko and the Cao Wei Kingdom, record that the Yayoi period people chose her as ruler following decades of warfare among the kings of Wa. Early Japanese histories do not mention Himiko, but historians associate her with legendary figures such as Empress Consort Jingū, regent in the same era as Himiko. Scholarly debates over the identity of Himiko and the location of her domain, have raged since the late Edo period, with opinions divided between northern Kyūshū or traditional Yamato province in present-day Kinki; the "Yamatai controversy," writes Keiji Imamura, is "the greatest debate over the ancient history of Japan." The shaman Queen Himiko is recorded in various ancient histories, dating back to 3rd century China, 8th century Japan, 12th century Korea. The first historical records of Himiko are found in a Chinese classic text, the c. 297 Records of the Three Kingdoms.
Its "Records of Wei", which focuses on the Chinese kingdom of Cao Wei, has an "Account of the Wa People". This section is the first description of Himiko and Yamatai:The people of Wa dwell in the middle of the ocean on the mountainous islands southeast of Tai-fang, they comprised more than one hundred communities. During the Han dynasty, appeared at the Court; this early history describes how Himiko came to the throne:The country had a man as ruler. For some seventy or eighty years after that there were disturbances and warfare. Thereupon the people agreed upon a woman for their ruler, her name was Himiko. She occupied herself with sorcery, bewitching the people. Though mature in age, she remained unmarried, she had a younger brother. After she became the ruler, there were few, she had one thousand women as attendants, but only one man. He acted as a medium of communication, she resided in a palace surrounded by towers and stockades, with armed guards in a state of constant vigilance. The "Records of Wei" records envoys travelling between the Wa and Wei courts.
Himiko's emissaries first visited the court of Wei emperor Cao Rui in 238, he replied:Herein we address Himiko, Queen of Wa, whom we now call a friend of Wei. have arrived here with your tribute, consisting of four male slaves and six female slaves, together with two pieces of cloth with designs, each twenty feet in length. You live far away across the sea. Your loyalty and filial piety we appreciate exceedingly. We confer upon you, the title "Queen of Wa Friendly to Wei," together with the decoration of the gold seal with purple ribbon; the latter, properly encased, is to be sent to you through the Governor. We expect O Queen, to rule your people in peace and to endeavor to be devoted and obedient; the "Records of Wei" records that in 247 when a new governor arrived at Daifang Commandery in Korea, Queen Himiko complained of hostilities with Himikuku, the king of Kunu, one of the other Wa states. The governor dispatched "Chang Chêng, acting Secretary of the Border Guard" with a "proclamation advising reconciliation", subsequently:When Himiko passed away, a great mound was raised, more than a hundred paces in diameter.
Over a hundred male and female attendants followed her to the grave. A king was placed on the throne, but the people would not obey him. Assassination and murder followed. A relative of Himiko named a girl of thirteen, was made queen and order was restored. Chêng issued a proclamation to the effect. Commentators take this "Iyo" as a miscopy of Toyo paralleling the Wei Zhi writing Yamatai 邪馬臺 as Yamaichi. 邪馬壹 Two other Chinese dynastic histories mentioned Himiko. While both incorporated the above Wei Zhi reports, they made some changes, such as specifying the "some seventy or eighty years" of Wa wars occurred between 146 and 189, during the reigns of Han Emperors Huan and Ling; the c. 432 Book of Later Han says "the King of Great Wa resides in the country of Yamadai", rather than the Queen:The Wa dwell on mountainous islands southeast of Han in the middle of the ocean, forming more than one hundred communities. From the time of the overthrow of Chaoxian by Emperor Wu, nearly thirty of these communities have held intercourse with the Han court by envoys or scribes.
Each community has its king. The King of Great Wa resides in the country of Yamadai. … During the reigns of Huan-di and Ling-di, the country of Wa was in a state of great confusion and conflict raging on all sides. For a number of years, there was no ruler. A woman named Himiko appeared. Remaining unmarried, she bewitched the populace. Thereupon they placed her on the throne, she kept one thousand female attendants. There was only one man, in charge of her wardrobe and meals and acted as the medium of communication, she resided in a palace surrounded by to
Hakama are a type of traditional Japanese clothing. Trousers were used by the Chinese imperial court in the Sui and Tang dynasties, this style was adopted by the Japanese in the form of hakama beginning in the sixth century. Hakama are tied at the waist and fall to the ankles, they are worn over a kimono. There are two types of divided umanori and undivided andon bakama; the umanori type have divided legs, similar to trousers. Both these types appear similar. A "mountain" or "field" type of umanori hakama was traditionally worn by forest workers, they are narrower in the leg. Hakama are secured by four straps: two longer himo attached on either side of the front of the garment, two shorter himo attached on either side of the rear; the rear of the garment has a rigid trapezoidal section, called a koshi-ita. Below that on the inside is a hakama-dome, tucked into the obi or himo at the rear, helps to keep the hakama in place. Hakama have two on the back and five on the front. Although they appear balanced, the arrangement of the front pleats is asymmetrical, as such is an example of asymmetry in Japanese aesthetics.
The most formal type of men's hakama are made of stiff, striped silk black and white, or black and navy blue. These are worn with black montsuki kimono, white tabi, white nagajuban and various types of footwear. In cooler weather, a montsuki haori with a white haori-himo completes the outfit. Hakama can be worn with any type of kimono except yukata. While striped hakama are worn with formal kimono, stripes in colours other than black and white may be worn with less formal wear. Solid and graduated colours are common. While hakama used to be a required part of men's wear, nowadays typical Japanese men wear hakama only on formal occasions and at tea ceremonies and funerals. Hakama are regularly worn by practitioners of a variety of martial arts, such as kendo, taidō, aikido, jōdō, ryū-te, kyūdō. Sumo wrestlers, who do not wear hakama in the context of their sport, however, required to wear traditional Japanese dress whenever they appear in public; as hakama are one of the most important parts of traditional male formal dress, sumo wrestlers are seen wearing hakama when attending appropriately formal functions.
In addition to martial artists, hakama are part of the everyday wear of Shinto kannushi, priests who maintain and perform services at shrines. Both are worn with the courtly attire of sokutai; the ōguchi-hakama are red under-pants, with closed crotch, tied off on the wearer's left. The uenobakama and with an open fly, is worn over the ooguchi-hakama, tied off on the right; these hakama designs can be traced to the Nara period. Hakama traditionally formed. Worn by samurai and courtiers during the Edo period, the outfit included a formal kimono, a sleeveless jacket with exaggerated shoulders called a kataginu. Samurai visiting the shōgun and other high-ranking daimyōs at court were sometimes required to wear long hakama called naga-bakama; these resemble normal hakama in every way except their remarkable length in both the back and front, forming a train one or two feet long and impeding the ability to walk thus helping to prevent a surprise attack or assassination attempt. Naga-bakama are now only worn in noh plays, Kabuki plays and Shinto rituals.
Some hakama during the Sengoku period had the hems made narrower than the body in imitation of the ballooning trousers worn by the Portuguese. This style became called karusan-bakama. In addition to the taper, they had a secured band of cloth—looking rather like a pants cuff—sewn around each leg’s hem, so the ballooning fabric would not open out like regular hakama. Known as tattsuke-hakama. Sashinuki are a type of hakama that are meant to be worn blousing over the leg and exposing the foot. To accomplish this, they are somewhat longer than normal hakama, a cord is run through the hem and drawn tight, creating a "ballooning" effect. To allow for the body required, more formal sashinuki were six-panel hakama rather than four panels. Technically, this cord around the ankle makes sashinuki a type of kukuri- hakama; the earliest form of sashinuki were cut like normal hakama and have a cord running through the hem of each leg. These cords were tied off at the ankle; this was the form worn during the Heian period.
Sashinuki were worn by court nobles with various types of leisure or semi-formal wear. Yoroi hakama had mail armor sewn to the cloth of the hakama, they were worn by samurai warriors. Women's hakama differ from men's in a variety of ways, most notably fabric design and method of tying. While men's hakama can be worn on both formal and informal occasions, women wear hakama, except at graduation ceremonies and for traditional Japanese sports such as kyūdō, some branches of aikido and kendo. Women do not wear hakama at tea ceremony; the image of women in kimono and hakama are culturally associated with school teachers. Just as university professors
The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after modern Kyōto, it is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family. Many emperors had mothers from the Fujiwara family. Heian means "peace" in Japanese; the Heian period was preceded by the Nara period and began in 794 CE after the movement of the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō, by the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu Kanmu first tried to move the capital to Nagaoka-kyō, but a series of disasters befell the city, prompting the emperor to relocate the capital a second time, to Heian. A rebellion occurred in China in the last years of the 9th century, making the political situation unstable.
The Japanese missions to Tang China was suspended and the influx of Chinese exports halted, a fact which facilitated the independent growth of Japanese culture called kokufu bunka. Therefore, the Heian Period is considered a high point in Japanese culture that generations have always admired; the period is noted for the rise of the samurai class, which would take power and start the feudal period of Japan. Nominally, sovereignty lay in the emperor but in fact, power was wielded by the Fujiwara nobility. However, to protect their interests in the provinces, the Fujiwara, other noble families required guards and soldiers; the warrior class made steady political gains throughout the Heian period. As early as 939 CE, Taira no Masakado threatened the authority of the central government, leading an uprising in the eastern province of Hitachi, simultaneously, Fujiwara no Sumitomo rebelled in the west. Still, a true military takeover of the Japanese government was centuries away, when much of the strength of the government would lie within the private armies of the shogunate.
The entry of the warrior class into court influence was a result of the Hōgen Rebellion. At this time Taira no Kiyomori revived the Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by regency, their clan, the Taira, would not be overthrown until after the Genpei War, which marked the start of the Kamakura shogunate. The Kamakura period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors and established the shogunate in Kamakura; when Emperor Kanmu moved the capital to Heian-kyō, which remained the imperial capital for the next 1,000 years, he did so not only to strengthen imperial authority but to improve his seat of government geopolitically. Nara was abandoned after only 70 years in part due to the ascendancy of Dōkyō and the encroaching secular power of the Buddhist institutions there. Kyōto had good river access to the sea and could be reached by land routes from the eastern provinces; the early Heian period continued Nara culture. Kanmu endeavored to improve the Tang-style administrative system, in use.
Known as the ritsuryō, this system attempted to recreate the Tang imperium in Japan, despite the "tremendous differences in the levels of development between the two countries". Despite the decline of the Taika–Taihō reforms, imperial government was vigorous during the early Heian period. Kanmu's avoidance of drastic reform decreased the intensity of political struggles, he became recognized as one of Japan's most forceful emperors. Although Kanmu had abandoned universal conscription in 792, he still waged major military offensives to subjugate the Emishi, possible descendants of the displaced Jōmon, living in northern and eastern Japan. After making temporary gains in 794, in 797, Kanmu appointed a new commander, Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, under the title Sei-i Taishōgun. By 801, the shōgun had defeated the Emishi and had extended the imperial domains to the eastern end of Honshū. Imperial control over the provinces was tenuous at best, however. In the ninth and tenth centuries, much authority was lost to the great families, who disregarded the Chinese-style land and tax systems imposed by the government in Kyoto.
Stability came to Japan, but though succession was ensured for the imperial family through heredity, power again concentrated in the hands of one noble family, the Fujiwara which helped Japan develop more. Following Kanmu's death in 806 and a succession struggle among his sons, two new offices were established in an effort to adjust the Taika–Taihō administrative structure. Through the new Emperor's Private Office, the emperor could issue administrative edicts more directly and with more self-assurance than before; the new Metropolitan Police Board replaced the ceremonial imperial guard units. While these two offices strengthened the emperor's position temporarily, soon they and other Chinese-style structures were bypassed in the developing state. In 838 the end of the imperial-sanctioned missions to Tang China, which had begun in 630, marked the effective end of Chinese influence. Tang China was in a state of decline, Chinese Buddhists were persecuted, undermining Japanese respect for Chinese institutions.
Japan began to turn inward. As the Soga clan had taken control of the throne in the sixth century, the Fujiwara by the ninth century had intermarried with the imperial family, one of their members was the first head of the Emperor's Private O
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world. A shaman is someone, regarded as having access to, influence in, the world of benevolent and malevolent spirits, who enters into a trance state during a ritual, practices divination and healing; the word "shaman" originates from the Tungusic Evenki language of North Asia. According to ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen, "the word is attested in all of the Tungusic idioms" such as Negidal, Udehe/Orochi, Ilcha, Orok and Ulcha, "nothing seems to contradict the assumption that the meaning'shaman' derives from Proto-Tungusic" and may have roots that extend back in time at least two millennia; the term was introduced to the west after Russian forces conquered the shamanistic Khanate of Kazan in 1552. The term "shamanism" was first applied by Western anthropologists as outside observers of the ancient religion of the Turks and Mongols, as well as those of the neighbouring Tungusic- and Samoyedic-speaking peoples.
Upon observing more religious traditions across the world, some Western anthropologists began to use the term in a broad sense. The term was used to describe unrelated magico-religious practices found within the ethnic religions of other parts of Asia, Africa and completely unrelated parts of the Americas, as they believed these practices to be similar to one another. Mircea Eliade writes, "A first definition of this complex phenomenon, the least hazardous, will be: shamanism ='technique of religious ecstasy'." Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds. Shamans are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul. Alleviating traumas affecting the soul/spirit restores the physical body of the individual to balance and wholeness; the shaman enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community. Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions to bring guidance to misguided souls and to ameliorate illnesses of the human soul caused by foreign elements.
The shaman operates within the spiritual world, which in turn affects the human world. The restoration of balance results in the elimination of the ailment. Beliefs and practices that have been categorized this way as "shamanic" have attracted the interest of scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, including anthropologists, historians, religious studies scholars and psychologists. Hundreds of books and academic papers on the subject have been produced, with a peer-reviewed academic journal being devoted to the study of shamanism. In the 20th century, many Westerners involved in the counter-cultural movement have created modern magico-religious practices influenced by their ideas of indigenous religions from across the world, creating what has been termed neoshamanism or the neoshamanic movement, it has affected the development of many neopagan practices, as well as faced a backlash and accusations of cultural appropriation and misrepresentation when outside observers have tried to represent cultures to which they do not belong.
The word shamanism derives from the Manchu-Tungus word šaman, meaning'one who knows'. The word "shaman" may have originated from the Evenki word šamán, most from the southwestern dialect spoken by the Sym Evenki peoples; the Tungusic term was subsequently adopted by Russians interacting with the indigenous peoples in Siberia. It is found in the memoirs of the exiled Russian churchman Avvakum; the word was brought to Western Europe in the late 17th century by the Dutch traveler Nicolaes Witsen, who reported his stay and journeys among the Tungusic- and Samoyedic-speaking indigenous peoples of Siberia in his book Noord en Oost Tataryen. Adam Brand, a merchant from Lübeck, published in 1698 his account of a Russian embassy to China; the etymology of the Evenki word is sometimes connected to a Tungus root ša- "to know". This has been questioned on linguistic grounds: "The possibility cannot be rejected, but neither should it be accepted without reservation since the assumed derivational relationship is phonologically irregular."
Other scholars assert that the word comes directly from the Manchu language, as such would be the only used English word, a loan from this language. However, Mircea Eliade noted that the Sanskrit word śramaṇa, designating a wandering monastic or holy figure, has spread to many Central Asian languages along with Buddhism and could be the ultimate origin of the Tungusic word; this proposal has been critiqued since 1917. Ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen regards it as an "anachronism" and an "impossibility", nothing more than a "far-fetched etymology."21st-century anthropologist and archeologist Silvia Tomaskova argues that by the mid-1600s, many Europeans applied the Arabic term shaitan to the non-Christian practices and beliefs of indigenous peoples beyond the Ural Mountains. She suggests that shaman may have entered the various Tungus dialects as a corruption of this term, been told to Christian missionaries, explorers and colonial administrators with whom the people had increasing contact for centuries.
Ethnolinguists did not develop as a discipline nor achieve contact with these communities until the late 19th century, may have mistakenly "read backward" in time for the origin of this word. A shamaness is somet
Patrick Lafcadio Hearn, known by the Japanese name Koizumi Yakumo, was a writer, known best for his books about Japan his collections of Japanese legends and ghost stories, such as Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things. In the United States, Hearn is known for his writings about the city of New Orleans based on his ten-year stay in that city. Hearn was born in and named after the island of Lefkada, one of the Greek Ionian Islands, on 27 June 1850, he was the son of Surgeon-Major Charles Bush Hearn and Rosa Antoniou Kassimatis, a Greek woman of noble Kytheran lineage through her father, Anthony Kassimatis. His father was stationed in Lefkada during the British occupation of the islands, where he was the highest-ranking surgeon in his regiment. Lafcadio was baptized Patricios Lefcadios Hearn in the Greek Orthodox Church, but he seems to have been called "Patrick Lefcadio Kassimati Charles Hearn" in English. Hearn's parents were married in a Greek Orthodox ceremony on 25 November 1849, several months after his mother had given birth to the couple's first child, Hearn's older brother, George Robert Hearn, on 24 July 1849.
George Hearn died on 17 August 1850, two months after Lafcadio's birth. A complex series of conflicts and events led to Lafcadio Hearn being moved from Greece to Ireland, where he was abandoned first by his mother his father, by his father's aunt, appointed his official guardian. In 1850 Hearn's father was promoted to Staff Surgeon Second Class and was reassigned from Lefkada to the British West Indies. Since his family did not approve of the marriage, worried that his relationship might harm his career prospects, Charles Hearn did not inform his superiors of his son or pregnant wife and left his family behind. In 1852, he arranged to send his son and wife to live with his family in Dublin, where they received a cool reception. Charles Hearn's Protestant mother, Elizabeth Holmes Hearn, had difficulty accepting Rosa Hearn's Catholicism and lack of education. Rosa found it difficult to adapt to a foreign culture and the Protestantism of her husband's family, was taken under the wing of Elizabeth's sister, Sarah Holmes Brenane, a widow who had converted to Catholicism.
Despite Sarah Brenane's efforts, Rosa suffered from homesickness. When her husband returned to Ireland on medical leave in 1853, it became clear that the couple had become estranged. Charles Hearn was assigned to the Crimean Peninsula, again leaving his pregnant wife and child in Ireland; when he came back in 1856 wounded and traumatized, Rosa had returned to her home island of Cerigo in Greece, where she gave birth to their third son, Daniel James Hearn. Lafcadio had been left in the care of Sarah Brenane. Charles Hearn petitioned to have the marriage with Rosa annulled, on the basis of her lack of signature on the marriage contract, which made it invalid under English law. After being informed of the annulment, Rosa immediately married Giovanni Cavallini, a Greek citizen of Italian ancestry, appointed by the British as governor of Cerigotto. Cavallini required as a condition of the marriage that Rosa give up custody of both Lafcadio and James; as a result, James was sent to his father in Dublin and Lafcadio remained in the care of Sarah Brenane.
Neither Lafcadio nor James saw their mother again. Rosa was committed to the National Mental Asylum on Corfu, where she died in 1882. Charles Hearn, who had left Lafcadio in the care of Sarah Brenane for the past 4 years, now appointed her as Lafcadio's permanent guardian, he married his childhood sweetheart, Alicia Goslin, in July 1857, left with his new wife for a posting in Secunderabad, where they had three daughters prior to Alicia's death in 1861 Lafcadio never saw his father again: Charles Hearn died of malaria in the Gulf of Suez in 1866. In 1857, at age seven and despite the fact that both his parents were still alive, Hearn became the permanent ward of his great aunt, Sarah Brenane, she divided her residency between Dublin in the winter months, her husband's estate at Tramore, County Waterford on the southern Irish coast, a house at Bangor, North Wales. Brenane engaged a tutor during the school year to provide basic instruction and the rudiments of Catholic dogma. Hearn began exploring Brenane's library and read extensively in Greek literature myths.
In 1861, Hearn's aunt, aware that Hearn was turning away from Catholicism, at the urging of Henry Hearn Molyneux, a relative of her late husband and a distant cousin of Hearn, enrolled him at the Institution Ecclésiastique, a Catholic church school in Yvetot, France. Hearn's experiences at the school confirmed his lifelong conviction that Catholic education consisted of "conventional dreariness and ugliness and dirty austerities and long faces and Jesuitry and infamous distortion of children's brains." Hearn became fluent in French and would translate into English the works of Guy de Maupassant, who coincidentally attended the school shortly after Hearn's departure. In 1863, again at the suggestion of Molyneux, Hearn was enrolled at St. Cuthbert's College, Ushaw, a Catholic seminary at what is now the University of Durham. In this environment, Hearn adopted the nickname "Paddy" to try to fit in better, was the top student in English composition for three years. At age 16, while at Ushaw, Hearn injured his left eye in a schoolyard mishap.
The eye became infected and, despite consultations with specialists in Dublin and
Ame-no-Uzume-no-mikoto is the goddess of dawn and revelry in the Shinto religion of Japan, the wife of fellow-god Sarutahiko Ōkami. She famously relates to the tale of Amaterasu Omikami, her name can be pronounced as Ama-no-Uzume. She is known as Ōmiyanome-no-ōkami, an inari kami due to her relationship with her husband. Amaterasu's brother, the storm god Susano'o, had vandalized her rice fields, threw a flayed horse at her loom, brutally killed one of her maidens due to a quarrel between them. In turn, Amaterasu retreated into the Heavenly Rock Cave, Amano-Iwato; the world, without the illumination of the sun, became dark and the gods could not lure Amaterasu out of her hiding place. The clever Uzume overturned a tub near the cave entrance and began a dance on it, tearing off her clothing in front of the other deities, they considered this so comical. This dance is said to have founded Kagura. Uzume had hung a beautiful jewel of polished jade. Amaterasu heard them, peered out to see what all the fuss was about.
When she opened the cave, she saw the jewel and her glorious reflection in a mirror which Uzume had placed on a tree, came out from her clever hiding spot. At that moment, the god Ame-no-Tajikarawo-no-mikoto dashed forth and closed the cave behind her, refusing to budge so that she could no longer retreat. Another god tied a magic shimenawa across the entrance; the deities Ame-no-Koyane-no-mikoto and Ame-no-Futodama-no-mikoto asked Amaterasu to rejoin the divine. She agreed, light was restored to the earth. Ame-no-Uzume-no-Mikoto is still worshiped today as a Shinto kami, spirits indigenous to Japan, she is known as Ame-no-Uzume-no-Mikoto, The Great Persuader, The Heavenly Alarming Female. She is depicted in kyōgen farce as a woman who revels in her sensuality. According to Michael Witzel, Uzume is most related to the Vedic goddess Ushas, a descendant of the Proto-Indo-European goddess Hausos. Both goddesses share many similarities such as the cave and the exposure of breasts as a sign of friendship.
Witzel proposed that the Japanese and Vedic religions are much more related compared to other mythologies under what he calls Laurasian mythology, that the two myths may go back to the Indo-Iranian period, around 2000 BCE. Music, Ame-no-Uzume op. 4 composed by Hiroaki Zakōji In Lewis Libby’s The Apprentice, Ame-no-Uzume-no-Mikoto is praised at the novel’s climax as “the goddess who brought laughter to the heavens and coaxed the sun from its cave”, while mocked by the novel’s narrator as a “false goddess” who merits her ceremonial murder at the novel’s climax by a figure leaping from the back of the stage. After her death, various successors take up her powers, regaining control of the novel’s youthful protagonist. Ame-no-Uzume appears in the second season of American Gods, played by actress Uni Park. Littleton, C. Scott. Mythology: The Illustrated Anthology of World Myth and Storytelling. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. Pp. 464–467. A substantial article on this subject Amaterasu and Uzume, Goddesses of Japan, at Goddess Gift A one-paragraph glossary entry in Italian