Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19

The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 is a Soviet second generation, single-seat, twin jet-engined fighter aircraft, the world's first mass-produced supersonic aircraft. It was the first Soviet production aircraft capable of supersonic speeds in level flight. A comparable U. S. "Century Series" fighter was the North American F-100 Super Sabre, although the MiG-19 would oppose the more modern McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II and Republic F-105 Thunderchief over North Vietnam. In 1950 the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau began work on a new fighter aircraft, intended to have a greater range than the existing MiG-15 and MiG-17 aircraft, capable of reaching supersonic speeds in level flight. MiG chose to use two of the new Mikulin AM-5 axial jet engines for its new fighter; as a test bed for the new engine, OKB-155 was authorised on 20 April 1951 to convert a MiG-17F, replacing the single Klimov VK-1F engine with two 19.60 kN AM-5s, with the testbed, designated SM-1, flying late in 1951. While the SM-1 was a useful testbed, its performance was less than expected, first resulted in an afterburner being designed for the AM-5, resulting in the AM-5F.

While the SM-1 was a test bed, the SM-2 was intended as the required supersonic escort fighter, with work authorised on 10 August 1951. The SM-2 was a mid-winged aircraft, its thin wings, designed at TsAGI, the Soviet Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, for supersonic flight were swept back at an angle of 55 degrees and had a single wing fence on each side. Unusually, a T-tail was fitted. Armament was two Nudelman N-37 37-mm cannon located in the leading edge of the aircraft's wings, near the wing roots - the guns had been moved compared to those in the MiG-15 and -17 to avoid ingestion of gun blast gases causing surging of the aircraft's engines; the first SM-2, the SM-2/1 was sent to the Letno-Issledovatel'skiy Institut in April 1952 for testing, was flown for the first time on 24 May 1952, with test pilot G. A. Sedov at the aircraft's controls. With the un-reheated AM-5A engines, the SM-2 could not exceed the speed of sound in level flight, so reheated AM-5F engines were substituted. While the new engines improved performance, the aircraft was found to have handling problems at high angles of attack, where the aircraft was prone to spinning.

To solve these problems the aircraft's horizontal tail was lowered, with other changes including moving the aircraft's airbrakes and deepening the wing fences, with the modifications causing the aircraft to be redesignated SM-2A and SM-2B. The AM-5F still generated inadequate thrust and so the Mikulin engine design bureau developed a new engine to replace it, the AM-9B, rated at 25.5 kN dry and 31.87 kN with reheat. When fitted with the new engines, the SM-2B became the SM-9, first flying in this form on 5 January 1954; the SM-9's performance impressed the Soviet authorities, it was ordered into production as the MiG-19 on 17 February 1954, despite the fact that factory testing had only just started. The rush to get the MiG-19 into service resulted in initial production aircraft having a number of serious problems; the type suffered a number of in-flight explosions traced to poor insulation between the aircraft's engines and fuel tanks in the rear fuselage - overheating of these tanks could cause fuel explosions.

This was partly solved by fitting a metal heat shield between the engines and the tanks. The aircraft's elevators proved ineffective at supersonic speeds, an all-moving slab tail was tested by the second and third SM-9 prototypes, included in the major production type, the MiG-19S, which featured an improved armament. At the same time that the daylight escort fighter was developed from the SM-2 and SM-9 into the MiG-19 and Mig-19S, work went on in parallel to design and build a radar-equipped all-weather fighter, with the first prototype SM-7/1 flying for the first time on 28 August 1954; this prototype had a similar airframe to the first SM-9, including the conventional fixed horizontal tail, with the second and third SM-7s introducing similar changes to those tested on the SM-9 prototypes, including the slab tail. The all weather fighter entered production as the MiG-19P in 1955. Major differences from the MiG-19S included RP-1 Izumrud radar in the aircraft's nose, with small radomes in the centre and on the top lip of the air intake and an armament of two cannon in the aircraft's wing roots.

From 1957, production of all weather fighters switched to the missile equipped MiG-19PM, with an armament of four K-5M air-to-air missiles, with the cannon removed. In 1955, following American introduction of high-altitude reconnaissance balloons and overflights by British Canberra aircraft, which could not be intercepted by existing aircraft, together with intelligence reports of the development of the Lockheed U-2 with an greater ceiling, development began on a specialist high-altitude version of the Mig-19, the Mig-19SV, which entered limited production; this had more powerful engines and was lightened, with seatback armour and one of the guns removed, while flap settings were adjusted to give greater lift at higher altitudes and a new pressure suit was introduced. These changes increased the aircraft's ceiling from 17,500 m to 18,500 m; the prototype MiG-19SV was further modified with increased wingspan, giving a ceiling of 19,100 m, but this was still in

George Blackburn (baseball)

George W. Blackburn was a right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball who played for the Baltimore Orioles in the 1897 season. A native of Ozark, Missouri, he spent 17 years in baseball as a player and manager Blackburn posted a 2–2 record with a 6.82 earned run average in five pitching appearances with the Orioles, allowing 30 runs on 34 hits and 12 walks while striking out one batter in 33 innings of work. On July 16, 1897, Cap Anson of the Chicago Cubs became the first player in major league history to reach 3,000 hits when he singled off Blackburn. Blackburn pitched for 34 different minor league teams from 1892 through 1909 and managed six of its teams in 1896, 1903 and from 1907 to 1909, retiring at the age of 48, his date of death is missing

Shipley (1805 ship)

Shipley was launched in 1805 at Whitby. A privateer captured Shipley in 1806 on what was her maiden voyage, but the British Royal Navy recaptured her. Between 1817 and 1823, she made four voyages transporting convicts to New South Wales; the ship was wrecked in 1826. Captain John Wilson received a letter of marque for Shipley on 26 October 1805. Shipley entered the British Register of Shipping in 1806 with Wilson, Shipley & Co. owners, trade Liverpool-Dominica. Lloyd's List of 18 April 1806 reported that a 14-gun privateer had captured Shipley, but that Shipley had been recaptured and had arrived at Barbados. In February Shipley had encountered a French three-masted schooner privateer, the former HMS Demerara. Wilson and Shipley resisted for an hour and three-quarters until after he was wounded, as were the mate and the steward, she had had four men killed; the French plundered Shipley of her cargo. It was HMS Galatea. On 25 July Shipley Williams & Co. Shipley's owners, presented Wilson with a silver cup as a token of appreciation.

The cup's inscription names the French privateer as Hebe. Captain Edward Folder received a letter of marque on 14 June 1808. In 1810, Shipley was still sailing between Dominica. In 1812 Shipley had a new owner and was now a transport ship based out of London, her master was J. Hall. In 1816, Captain Lewis W. Moncrief assumed command of Shipley, he would remain her captain for her four voyages transporting convicts to New South Wales. On 18 December 1816, Shipley left Portsmouth bound for Port Jackson. A week earlier she had run into the transport Ocean, which had put into Portsmouth for repairs. Shipley was not much damaged. Shipley arrived at Port Jackson on 24 April 1817, she carried none of whom died on the voyage. Thirty one officers and other ranks of the 46th Regiment of Foot provided the guard. Shipley left on 8 June. Shipley left England on 19 July 1818 on her second voyage transporting convicts, she arrived at Port Jackson on 18 November. She had embarked 150 male convicts. Shipley left for England in March 1819.

She carried 226 officers and men from several regiments, as well as 34 children. For her third voyage transporting convicts, Shipley left the Downs on 5 June 1820, she arrived at Port Jackson on 26 September. She embarked 150 male convicts. Between 4 and 5 November 1821, gales hit many vessels were damaged or lost. Shipley, at Deal, lost two anchors. Still, she left for Port Jackson two days on her last voyage transporting convicts, she arrived at Port Jackson on 11 March 22. She had embarked male 150 convicts. On 23 -- 24 November 1824 gales again hit the British coasts. Shipley was at Portsmouth, bound for Valparaiso, she subsequently had to undergo repairs. Shipley was wrecked at Barbados. All 147 people on board were rescued. Lloyd's List reported that on 19 April 1826 the transport Shipley, from Cowes and Madeira, master, had struck upon Cobler's Reef, drifted over, was lost. However, all her crew and the troops aboard were saved. Citations References Bateson, Charles; the Convict Ships. Brown, Son & Ferguson.

OCLC 3778075. Farr, Grahame E. ed. Records of Bristol Ships, 1800-1838. Vol. 15. Hackman, Rowan Ships of the East India Company.. ISBN 0-905617-96-7 Williams, Gomer History of the Liverpool Privateers and Letters of Marque: With an Account of the Liverpool Slave Trade