University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee
The University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee is a public urban research university located in Milwaukee, United States. It is the largest university in the Milwaukee metropolitan area and a member of the University of Wisconsin System, it is one of the two doctoral degree-granting public universities and the second largest university in Wisconsin. The University consists of 14 schools and colleges, including the only graduate school of freshwater science in the U. S. the first CEPH accredited dedicated school of public health in Wisconsin, the State's only school of architecture. As of the 2015-2016 school year, the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee had an enrollment of 27,156, with 1,604 faculty members, offering 191 degree programs, including 94 bachelor's, 64 master's and 33 doctorate degrees; the university is categorized as an R1: Doctoral Universities – Highest research activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2015, the university had research expenditure of $62 million.
The university's athletic teams are called the Panthers. A total of 15 Panther athletic teams compete in NCAA Division I. Panthers have won the James J. McCafferty Trophy as the Horizon League's all-sports champions seven times since 2000, they have earned 133 Horizon League titles and made 40 NCAA tournament appearances as of 2016. In 1885, the Wisconsin State Normal School opened for classes at 18th and Wells in downtown Milwaukee. Over the next 42 years, the Milwaukee State Normal School saw seven different presidents, the addition of music and liberal arts programs and rapid growth from an initial enrollment of 76. In 1919, the School moved from downtown to the current location near the lakefront when a new building, now Mitchell Hall, was completed. In 1927, the Milwaukee normal school changed its name to Wisconsin State Teachers College-Milwaukee in an effort by the State Normal School Regents to refocus on the instruction of teachers; the college became one of the nation's top teacher's training colleges in the 1940s.
In 1951, the Legislature empowered all state colleges to offer liberal arts programs. The Milwaukee State Teachers College subsequently became Wisconsin State College–Milwaukee, but was still casually referred to as "Milwaukee State," as it had been throughout its previous incarnations. University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee was founded with the belief that Milwaukee needed a great public university to become a great city. In 1955, the Wisconsin state legislature passed a bill to create a large public university that offered graduate programs in Wisconsin's largest city. In 1956, Wisconsin State College-Milwaukee merged with the University of Wisconsin–Extension's Milwaukee division to form the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee; the new university consisted of the WSC campus near the lakefront and the University of Wisconsin extension building in downtown Milwaukee. The first commencement of the new University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee was held on June 16, 1957. On June 13, 1958, Socialist mayor Frank P. Zeidler was the first person to receive an honorary doctorate from the university.
In 1964, the campus of the neighboring private women's institution, Milwaukee-Downer College, was purchased by the state to expand the UWM campus. The university had purchased the former campuses and buildings of the former Milwaukee-Downer Seminary and Milwaukee University School along Hartford Avenue. From 1956 to 1971, UW–Milwaukee, UW–Madison, the latter's affiliated 10 freshman-sophomore centers and statewide extensions were part of the original University of Wisconsin System. In 1971, the state legislature merged this entity with the Wisconsin State Universities to form a united University of Wisconsin System under a single board of regents. In 1988, the UW System designated eight Centers of Excellence at UWM. In 1994, UWM was designated a Research II University by the Carnegie Foundation. UWM has expanded to 12 schools and colleges and now offers 84 undergraduate programs and 48 graduate programs, including 22 doctoral degree programs, with a university-wide focus on academic research and community service.
In 2005, UW–Milwaukee surpassed UW–Madison in the number of Wisconsin resident students and became the university with the largest enrollment of Wisconsin residents. In 2006, UW–Milwaukee was ranked as the ninth best "Saviors of Our Cities" by the New England Board of Higher Education, because of its strong positive contribution of careful strategic planning and thoughtful use of resources that have strengthened the economy and quality of life of Milwaukee, was voted by the public as one of the top ten "Gems of Milwaukee". In 2008 and 2009, the school saw the establishments of the School of Public Health and the School of Freshwater Sciences. In 2010, UW–Milwaukee purchased its neighboring Columbia St. Mary's Hospital complex. In the early 2011, UW-Milwaukee closed the land purchase for its Innovation Park in Wauwatosa; the university consists of 14 colleges and schools, 70 academic centers and laboratory facilities. It offers a total of 191 degree programs, including 94 bachelor's, 64 master's and 33 doctorate degrees.
The School of Freshwater Sciences is the only graduate school of freshwater science in the U. S. and the third in the world. The Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health is the first CEPH accredited dedicated school of public health in Wisconsin; the School of Architecture and Urban Planning, the Col
German Americans are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry. With an estimated size of 44 million in 2016, German Americans are the largest of the ancestry groups reported by the US Census Bureau in its American Community Survey; the group accounts for about one third of the total ethnic German population in the world. None of the German states had American colonies. In the 1670s, the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the British colonies, settling in Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia. Immigration continued in large numbers during the 19th century, with eight million arrivals from Germany. Between 1820 and 1870 over seven and a half million German immigrants came to the United States. By 2010, their population grew to 49.8 million immigrants, reflecting a jump of 6 million people since 2000. There is a "German belt" that extends all the way across the United States, from eastern Pennsylvania to the Oregon coast. Pennsylvania has the largest population of German-Americans in the U.
S. and is home to one of the group's original settlements, founded in 1683 and the birthplace of the American antislavery movement in 1688, as well as the revolutionary Battle of Germantown. The state of Pennsylvania has 3.5 million people of German ancestry. They were pulled by the attractions of land and religious freedom, pushed out of Germany by shortages of land and religious or political oppression. Many arrived seeking religious or political freedom, others for economic opportunities greater than those in Europe, others for the chance to start fresh in the New World; the arrivals before 1850 were farmers who sought out the most productive land, where their intensive farming techniques would pay off. After 1840, many came to cities. German Americans established the first kindergartens in the United States, introduced the Christmas tree tradition, introduced popular foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers to America; the great majority of people with some German ancestry have become Americanized and can hardly be distinguished by the untrained eye.
German-American societies abound, as do celebrations that are held throughout the country to celebrate German heritage of which the German-American Steuben Parade in New York City is one of the most well-known and is held every third Saturday in September. Oktoberfest celebrations and the German-American Day are popular festivities. There are major annual events in cities with German heritage including Chicago, Milwaukee, San Antonio, St. Louis; the Germans included many quite distinct subgroups with differing cultural values. Lutherans and Catholics opposed Yankee moralizing programs such as the prohibition of beer, favored paternalistic families with the husband deciding the family position on public affairs, they opposed women's suffrage but this was used as argument in favor of suffrage when German Americans became pariahs during World War I. On the other hand, there were Protestant groups that emerged from European pietism such as the German Methodist and United Brethren; the first English settlers arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, were accompanied by the first German American, Dr. Johannes Fleischer.
He was followed in 1608 by three carpenters or house builders. The first permanent German settlement in what became the United States was Germantown, founded near Philadelphia on October 6, 1683. Large numbers of Germans migrated from the 1680s to 1760s, with Pennsylvania the favored destination, they migrated to America for a variety of reasons. Push factors involved worsening opportunities for farm ownership in central Europe, persecution of some religious groups, military conscription. Immigrants paid for their passage by selling their labor for a period of years as indentured servants. Large sections of Pennsylvania, Upstate New York, the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia attracted Germans. Most were German Reformed. German Catholics did not arrive in number until after the War of 1812. In 1709, Protestant Germans from the Pfalz or Palatine region of Germany escaped conditions of poverty, traveling first to Rotterdam and to London. Anne, Queen of Great Britain, helped; the trip was long and difficult to survive because of the poor quality of food and water aboard ships and the infectious disease typhus.
Many immigrants children, died before reaching America in June 1710. The Palatine immigration of about 2100 people who survived was the largest single immigration to America in the colonial period. Most were first settled along the Hudson River in work camps. By 1711, seven villages had been established in New York on the Robert Livingston manor. In 1723 Germans became the first Europeans allowed to buy land in the Mohawk Valley west of Little Falls. One hundred homesteads were allocated in the Burnetsfield Patent. By 1750, the Germans occupied a strip some 12 miles long along both sides of the Mohawk River; the soil was excellent. Herkimer was the best-known of the German settlements in a region long known as the "German Flats", they kept to themselves, married their own, spoke German, attended Lutheran churches, retained their own customs and foods. They emphasized farm owner
Humboldt University of Berlin
Humboldt University of Berlin is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany. It was established by Frederick William III on the initiative of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Ernst Daniel Schleiermacher as the University of Berlin in 1809, opened in 1810, making it the oldest of Berlin's four universities. From 1810 until its closure in 1945, it was named Friedrich Wilhelm University. During the Cold War the university found itself in East Berlin and was de facto split in two when the Free University of Berlin opened in West Berlin; the university received its current name in honour of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in 1949. The university is divided into nine faculties, including its medical school shared with the Free University of Berlin, has a student enrollment of around 32,000 students, offers degree programmes in some 189 disciplines from undergraduate to postdoctorate level, its main campus is located on the Unter den Linden boulevard in central Berlin.
The university is known worldwide for pioneering the Humboldtian model of higher education, which has influenced other European and Western universities, the university has been called "the mother of all modern universities."As of 2017, the university has been associated with 55 Nobel Prize winners, is considered one of the best universities in Europe as well as one of the most prestigious universities in the world for arts and humanities. It was regarded as the world's preeminent university for the natural sciences during the 19th and early 20th century, is linked to major breakthroughs in physics and other sciences by its professors such as Albert Einstein. Former faculty and notable alumni include eminent philosophers, artists, politicians, mathematicians and Heads of State; the University of Berlin was established on 16 August 1809, on the initiative of the liberal Prussian educational politician Wilhelm von Humboldt by King Friedrich Wilhelm III, during the period of the Prussian Reform Movement.
The university was located in a palace constructed from 1748-1766 for the late Prince Henry, the younger brother of Frederick the Great. After his widow and her ninety-member staff moved out, the first unofficial lectures were given in the building in the winter of 1809. Humboldt faced great resistance to his ideas, he submitted his resignation to the King in April 1810, was not present when the school opened that fall. The first students were admitted on 6 October 1810, the first semester started on 10 October 1810, with 256 students and 52 lecturers in faculties of law, medicine and philosophy under rector Theodor Schmalz; the university celebrates 15 October 1810 as the date of its opening. From 1828 to 1945, the school was named the Friedrich Wilhelm University, in honor of its founder. Ludwig Feuerbach one of the students, made a comment on the university in 1826: "There is no question here of drinking and plesant communal outings. Compared to this temple of work, the other universities appear like public houses."The university has been home to many of Germany's greatest thinkers of the past two centuries, among them the subjective idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the absolute idealist philosopher G.
W. F. Hegel, the Romantic legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the objective idealist philosopher Friedrich Schelling, cultural critic Walter Benjamin, famous physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck; the founders of Marxist theory Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels attended the university, as did poet Heinrich Heine, novelist Alfred Döblin, founder of structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure, German unifier Otto von Bismarck, Communist Party of Germany founder Karl Liebknecht, African American Pan Africanist W. E. B. Du Bois and European unifier Robert Schuman, as well as the influential surgeon Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in the early half of the 1800s; the structure of German research-intensive universities served as a model for institutions like Johns Hopkins University. Further, it has been claimed that "the'Humboldtian' university became a model for the rest of Europe with its central principle being the union of teaching and research in the work of the individual scholar or scientist."
In addition to the strong anchoring of traditional subjects, such as science, philosophy, history and medicine, the university developed to encompass numerous new scientific disciplines. Alexander von Humboldt, brother of the founder William, promoted the new learning. With the construction of modern research facilities in the second half of the 19th Century teaching of the natural sciences began. Famous researchers, such as the chemist August Wilhelm Hofmann, the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, the mathematicians Ernst Eduard Kummer, Leopold Kronecker, Karl Weierstrass, the physicians Johannes Peter Müller, Albrecht von Graefe, Rudolf Virchow and Robert Koch, contributed to Berlin University's scientific fame. During this period of enlargement, the university expanded to incorporate other separate colleges in Berlin. An example would be the Pépinière and the Collegium Medico-chirurgicum. In 1717, King Friedrich I had built a quarantine house for Plague at the city gates, which in 1727 was rechristened by the "soldier king" Friedrich
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction between interpreting. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the languages into which they have translated; because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. More the rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated "language localization"; the English word "translation" derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, "across" + ferre, "to carry" or "to bring".
Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": in this case, of a text from one language to another. The Germanic languages and some Slavic languages have calqued their words for the concept of "translation" on translatio; the Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of "translation" from an alternative Latin word, itself derived from traducere. The Ancient Greek term for "translation", μετάφρασις, has supplied English with "metaphrase" —as contrasted with "paraphrase". "Metaphrase" corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to "formal equivalence". Speaking, the concept of metaphrase—of "word-for-word translation"—is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language carries more than one meaning. "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities.
The ancient Greeks distinguished between paraphrase. This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden, who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, "counterparts," or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language: When appear... graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. But since... What is beautiful in one is barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author's words:'tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense. Dryden cautioned, against the license of "imitation", i.e. of adapted translation: "When a painter copies from the life... he has no privilege to alter features and lineaments..."This general formulation of the central concept of translation—equivalence—is as adequate as any, proposed since Cicero and Horace, who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome and cautioned against translating "word for word".
Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, adapters in various periods, translators have shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—"literal" where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" as determined from context. In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes, hence word order—when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voice, or vice versa; the grammatical differences between "fixed-word-order" languages and "free-word-order" languages have been no impediment in this regard. The particular syntax characteristics of a text's source language are adjusted to the syntactic requirements of the target language; when a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language.
Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are "untranslatable" among the modern European languages. A greater problem, however, is translating terms relating to cultural concepts that have no equivalent in the target language. For full comprehension, such situations require the provision of a gloss; the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those lang
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language. This includes literature written in Germany, the German parts of Switzerland and Belgium, South Tyrol in Italy and to a lesser extent works of the German diaspora. German literature of the modern period is in Standard German, but there are some currents of literature influenced to a greater or lesser degree by dialects. Medieval German literature is literature written in Germany, stretching from the Carolingian dynasty; the Old High German period is reckoned to run until about the mid-11th century. Middle High German starts in the 12th century; the Baroque period was one of the most fertile times in German literature. Modern literature in German begins with the authors of the Enlightenment; the Sensibility movement of the 1750s–1770s ended with Goethe's best-selling Die Leiden des jungen Werther. The Sturm und Drang and Weimar Classicism movements were led by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. German Romanticism was the dominant movement of the late early 19th centuries.
Biedermeier refers to the literature, the visual arts and interior design in the period between the years 1815, the end of the Napoleonic Wars, 1848, the year of the European revolutions. Under the Nazi regime, some authors went into exile and others submitted to censorship; the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to German language authors thirteen times, or the third most after English and French language authors, with winners including Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Günter Grass. Periodization is not an exact science but the following list contains movements or time periods used in discussing German literature, it seems worth noting that the periods of medieval German literature span two or three centuries, those of early modern German literature span one century, those of modern German literature each span one or two decades. The closer one nears the present, the more debated the periodizations become. Medieval German literature Old High German literature Middle High German literature Late medieval German literature/Renaissance Early Modern German literature Humanism and Protestant Reformation Baroque Enlightenment Modern German literature 18th- and 19th-century German literature Empfindsamkeit / Sensibility Sturm und Drang / Storm and Stress German Classicism Weimar Classicism or, depending on Schiller's or Goethe's death German Romanticism Biedermeier Young Germany Poetic Realism Naturalism 20th-century German literature 1900–1933 Fin de siècle Symbolism Expressionism Dada New Objectivity 1933–1945 National Socialist literature Exile literature 1945–1989 By country Federal Republic of Germany German Democratic Republic Austria Switzerland Other By thematic or group Post-war literature Group 47 Holocaust literature Contemporary German literature Medieval German literature refers to literature written in Germany, stretching from the Carolingian dynasty.
The Old High German period is reckoned to run until about the mid-11th century, though the boundary to Early Middle High German is not clear-cut. The most famous work in OHG is the Hildebrandslied, a short piece of Germanic alliterative heroic verse which besides the Muspilli is the sole survivor of what must have been a vast oral tradition. Another important work, in the northern dialect of Old Saxon, is a life of Christ in the style of a heroic epic known as the Heliand. Middle High German proper runs from the beginning of the 12th century, in the second half of the 12th century, there was a sudden intensification of activity, leading to a 60-year "golden age" of medieval German literature referred to as the mittelhochdeutsche Blütezeit; this was the period of the blossoming of MHG lyric poetry Minnesang. One of the most important of these poets was Walther von der Vogelweide; the same sixty years saw the composition of the most important courtly romances. These are written in rhyming couplets, again draw on French models such as Chrétien de Troyes, many of them relating Arthurian material, for example, Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The third literary movement of these years was a new revamping of the heroic tradition, in which the ancient Germanic oral tradition can still be discerned, but tamed and Christianized and adapted for the court. These high medieval heroic epics are written in rhymed strophes, not the alliterative verse of Germanic prehistory; the Middle High German period is conventionally taken to end in 1350, while the Early New High German is taken to begin with the German Renaissance, after the invention of movable type in the mid-15th century. Therefore, the literature of the late 14th and the early 15th century falls, as it were, in the cracks
University of Giessen
University of Giessen, official name Justus Liebig University Giessen, is a large public research university in Giessen, Germany. It is named after its most famous faculty member, Justus von Liebig, the founder of modern agricultural chemistry and inventor of artificial fertiliser, it covers the areas of arts/humanities, dentistry, law, science, social sciences, veterinary medicine. Its university hospital, which has two sites and Marburg, is the only private university hospital in Germany; the University of Giessen is among the oldest institutions of higher educations in the German-speaking world. It was founded in 1607 as a Lutheran university in the city of Giessen in Hesse-Darmstadt because the all-Hessian Landesuniversität had become Reformed. Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, whence the university got its original name "Ludoviciana," founded his own institution of higher education in Giessen, which as a Lutheran institution had the primary function of ensuring the education of pastors and civil servants.
Endowed with a charter issued by Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, on 19 May 1607, the university was allowed to proceed with instruction in October 1607. During the Thirty Years' War, when Hesse-Darmstadt was able to take the area around Marburg for itself, the University of Giessen ceased instruction and was moved back to its more long-standing location in Marburg; the Peace of Westphalia led to the restoration of the old location and in 1650 to the relocation of the university to Giessen. In the 17th and 18th centuries the Ludoviciana was a typical small state university that had the four common faculties; the instruction was reasonable, with about 20 to 25 professors teaching several hundred students, the latter of which were "Landeskinder." In the 18th century came gradual modernization of the curricula and reforms in the instruction, which were definitively influenced by the local lordly court in Darmstadt. The example for the reforms were both of the "model universities of the Enlightenment," the University of Halle, founded in 1694, more still Georgia Augusta, founded in Göttingen in 1734/37.
Indeed, all attempts at reform were from the start limited by the limited finances of Hesse-Darmstadt. The noteworthy creation of a Faculty of Economics was was born out of this financial hardship. In the Faculty of Economics, new practical subjects were brought together, which the university was supposed to make "expedient" and "profitable." After finishing studies in this Faculty, a number of these youths were able to gain recognition in the Faculties of Medicine and Philosophy. They established the unusually diverse course offerings that continue to exist to the modern day at the University of Giessen; the University of Giessen weathered the transition from the 18th to the 19th century unscathed and was still the only university of an enlarged territory, the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Alongside Jena, Giessen was the prototype for the politicized Vormärz university, the "Giessener Schwarzen" with Karl Follen and Georg Büchner, marked the revolutionary spirit of this decade. With the appointment of the 21-year-old Justus von Liebig in 1824 through the Grand Duchy — against the will of the university on the recommendation of Alexander von Humboldt — a new era in the natural sciences began, not only in Giessen.
Young, promising scientists created a new impulse in their respective areas of knowledge. At the turn of the 20th century, the Ludoviciana began to expand into a modern university. During this period, new clinics in human and veterinary medicine were established, the university library received its first proper building. With the creation of the university's central building and the adjacent newly constructed facilities for chemistry and physics a new cultural centre was established on what was the border of the city; the decisive backer of this project was the last Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig, to whom the university bestowed out of thankfulness the honorary title of "Rector Magnificentissimus." In 1902 the student body surpassed one thousand. For the first time included in the student body were women, who since 1900 were admitted as guest students and starting in 1908 were admitted for regular study. After the different Hessian states were united in 1929, both universities became public universities of that German state.
The University of Giessen now has 23,000 students and 8,500 employees, which together with the Giessen students of Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, makes Giessen the most student-dominated German city. Following is the growth in the student population of University of Giessen In the 2014/2015 winter semester the student population exceeded the mark of more than a total of 28,000 students and 7,000 first-semester students for the first time. Faculty 01 - Law Faculty 02 - Economics and Business Studies Faculty 03 - Social Sciences and Cultural Studies Faculty 04 - History and Cultural Studies Faculty 05 - Language, Culture Faculty 06 - Psychology and Sports Science Faculty 07 - Mathematics and Computer Science, Geography Faculty 08 - Biology and Chemistry Faculty 09 - Agricultural Sciences, Nutritional Sciences and Environmental Ma