The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, standardised as 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959. With qualifiers, "mile" is used to describe or translate a wide range of units derived from or equivalent to the Roman mile, such as the nautical mile, the Italian mile, the Chinese mile; the Romans divided their mile into 5,000 Roman feet but the greater importance of furlongs in pre-modern England meant that the statute mile was made equivalent to 8 furlongs or 5,280 feet in 1593. This form of the mile spread to the British-colonized nations some of which continue to employ the mile; the US Geological Survey now employs the metre for official purposes but legacy data from its 1927 geodetic datum has meant that a separate US survey mile continues to see some use. While most countries replaced the mile with the kilometre when switching to the International System of Units, the international mile continues to be used in some countries, such as Liberia, the United Kingdom, the United States, a number of countries with fewer than one million inhabitants, most of which are UK or US territories, or have close historical ties with the UK or US.
The mile was abbreviated m. in the past but is now sometimes written as mi to avoid confusion with the SI metre. However, derived units, such as miles per hour or miles per gallon, continue to be universally abbreviated as mph and mpg, respectively; the modern English word mile derives from Middle English myle and Old English mīl, cognate with all other Germanic terms for "miles". These derived from the nominal ellipsis form of mīlle passus or mīlia passuum, the Roman mile of one thousand paces; the present international mile is what is understood by the unqualified term "mile". When this distance needs to be distinguished from the nautical mile, the international mile may be described as a "land mile" or "statute mile". In British English, the "statute mile" may refer to the present international miles or to any other form of English mile since the 1593 Act of Parliament, which set it as a distance of 1,760 yards. Under American law, the "statute mile" refers to the US survey mile. Foreign and historical units translated into English as miles employ a qualifier to describe the kind of mile being used but this may be omitted if it is obvious from the context, such as a discussion of the 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary describing its distances in terms of "miles" rather than "Roman miles".
The mile has been variously abbreviated—with and without a trailing period—as m, M, ml, mi. The American National Institute of Standards and Technology now uses and recommends mi to avoid confusion with the SI metre and millilitre. However, derived units such as miles per hour or miles per gallon continue to be abbreviated as mph and mpg rather than mi/h and mi/gal. In the United Kingdom road signs use m as the abbreviation for mile though height and width restrictions use m as the abbreviation for the metre, which may be displayed alongside feet and inches; the BBC style holds that "There is no acceptable abbreviation for'miles'" and so it should be spelled out when used in describing areas. The Roman mile consisted of a thousand paces as measured by every other step—as in the total distance of the left foot hitting the ground 1,000 times; the ancient Romans, marching their armies through uncharted territory, would push a carved stick in the ground after each 1,000 paces. Well-fed and harshly driven Roman legionaries in good weather thus created longer miles.
The distance was indirectly standardised by Agrippa's establishment of a standard Roman foot in 29 BCE, the definition of a pace as 5 feet. An Imperial Roman mile thus denoted 5,000 Roman feet. Surveyors and specialised equipment such as the decempeda and dioptra spread its use. In modern times, Agrippa's Imperial Roman mile was empirically estimated to have been about 1,617 yards in length. In Hellenic areas of the Empire, the Roman mile was used beside the native Greek units as equivalent to 8 stadia of 600 Greek feet; the mílion continued to be used as a Byzantine unit and was used as the name of the zero mile marker for the Byzantine Empire, the Milion, located at the head of the Mese near Hagia Sophia. The Roman mile spread throughout Europe, with its local variations giving rise to the different units below. Arising from the Roman mile is the milestone. All roads radiated out from the Roman Forum throughout the Empire – 50,000 miles of stone-paved roads. At every mile was placed a shaped stone, on, carved a Roman numeral, indicating the number of miles from the center of Rome – the Forum.
Hence, one always knew. The Italian mile was traditionally considered a direct continuation of the Roman mile, equal to 1000 paces, although its actual value over time or between regions could vary greatly, it was used in international contexts from the Middle Ages into the 17th century and is thus known as the "geographical mile", although the geographical mile is now a separate standard unit. The Arabic mile was not the common Arabic unit of length; the Arabic mile was, used by medieval geographers and scientists and constituted a kind of precursor to the nautical or geographical mile. It extended the Roman mile to fit an astronomical approximation of 1 arcminute of latitude measured directly north-and-south along a meridian. Although
"Never Going Back Again" is a song written by Lindsey Buckingham, first released by Fleetwood Mac on their eleventh studio album Rumours. It was released as the B-side to the Top Ten single "Don't Stop" in the US and of the "You Make Loving Fun" single in the UK, it was the B-side of "Dreams" in the Netherlands. It has been covered including Colin Reid and Matchbox Twenty. Music historian George Case described "Never Going Back Again" as a "gorgeous" song with "bubbly SoCal philosophies about relationships." It is one of several songs on Rumours that Buckingham wrote in the wake of the breakup of his relationship with fellow Fleetwood Mac member Stevie Nicks. He recalls it being one of the last songs written for the album, after he had started a rebound relationship with another woman. Buckingham regards it as a sweet and naive song and doesn't consider the lyrics to be deep, he has described it as a "miniature perception of things." It reflects a desire not to repeat previous mistakes. Buckingham accompanies himself on acoustic guitar played using a Travis picking technique.
He drew further inspiration from session guitarist Ry Cooder. To capture the optimal sound, producer Ken Caillat asked Buckingham if they could restring his acoustic guitar every 20 minutes, which Buckingham agreed to. Though Caillat pitied the guitar techs job of restringing the acoustic guitar three times an hour for "the entire day", he approved of Buckingham's "magnificent" instrumental passages."Never Going Back Again" is set in a 44 signature at a moderate tempo of 88 beats per minute. Buckingham's guitar is in drop D tuning with a capo on the fourth fret. Buckingham's voice spans from a C#3 to A#4; when overdubbing his vocals, Buckingham realized that he had played his acoustic guitar part in the wrong key, so he had to record the song from scratch the following day. The working title for the song was "Brushes" because it was recorded with just Buckingham playing acoustic guitar and Mick Fleetwood playing a snare drum using drum brushes. In the final release, the snare drum was removed.
However, the drums and lead guitar part removed from the original release was restored as a bonus track for the DVD-audio release of Rumours. The alternate mix, created by Caillat, was received well by Fleetwood, who encouraged Caillat to put place "Brushes" in the running order for the 2004 remaster of Rumours. According to Billboard Magazine reviewer Christopher Walsh, these parts represent "a pleasant surprise that adds to the song's emotional punch." Rolling Stone critic John Swenson describes "Never Going Back Again" as "the prettiest thing on," noting that the "delightful" vocal "belies the bad-news subject matter." Stylus Magazine critic Patrick McKay regards it as one of the "strongest tracks" on Rumours. Spin critic Chuck Eddy described "Never Going Back Again" as "an arty trance." Cath Carroll praises "Never Going Back Again" as "a melodically uncluttered song with a simple chorus and a sharp resolve that says everything in a few elegant phrases.""Never Going Back Again" has appeared on several Fleetwood Mac compilation albums, including 25 Years – The Chain in 1992 and The Very Best of Fleetwood Mac in 2002.
It has appeared on several live albums. An edited, twelve seconds shorter version appeared on some vinyl and CD releases. Lindsey Buckingham – acoustic guitar, vocals Matchbox Twenty covered "Never Going Back Again" on Legacy: A Tribute to Fleetwood Mac's Rumours; the Matchbox Twenty version is set in a minor key. Billboard Magazine critic Steve Knopper describes this version as "gloomy." Billboard writer Chuck Taylor describes this version as updating the original version's "unassuming demeanor with a subtly aggressive chug-along rock pulse." According to Matchbox Twenty drummer Paul Doucette, the band intended to play around with the song before coming up with their dark interpretation of what Doucette calls "a sad record when you think about it." Doucette felt that the version they came up with "turned out great." Matchbox Twenty lead vocalist Rob Thomas stated that "we took drums from'Tusk' and put them in there and at the end, turned it into'The Chain.' We used all minor chords and made it real brooding."Guitarist Colin Reid covered "Never Going Back Again" on his 2001 album Tilt, with Eddi Reader providing the vocals.
AllMusic critic Ronnie D. Lankford Jr. described this version as "lovely," stating that it "offer a fresh take on a overplayed classic."The guitar part from "Never Going Back Again" was used in a 2014 television commercial for Bank of America. Everclear singer Art Alexakis sampled "Never Going Back Again" for the song "Kill Jerry Garcia" on the 1990 album Deep in the Heart of the Beast in the Sun by pre-Everclear band Colorfinger. Danish experimental pop band Slaraffenland covered "Never Going Back Again", inserting free-form jazz figures and changing the instrumentation while keeping the "sunny" sound of the original. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics "Never Going Back Again" at Discogs
The 2010 South Kyrgyzstan riots were clashes between ethnic Kyrgyz and Uzbeks in southern Kyrgyzstan in the cities of Osh and Jalal-Abad, in the aftermath of the ouster of former President Kurmanbek Bakiyev on 7 April. It is part of the larger Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010. Violence that started between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks on 19 May in Jalal-Abad escalated on 10 June in Osh; the spreading of the violence required the Russian-endorsed interim government led by Roza Otunbayeva to declare a state of emergency on 12 June, in an attempt to take control of the situation. Uzbekistan launched a limited troop incursion early on, but withdrew and opened its borders to Uzbek refugees; the clashes killed nearly 420 people Uzbeks, displaced another 80,000. After national delimitation in the Soviet Union, the peoples of Central Asia began a process of ethnogenesis in which they began to define themselves as "Kyrgyz", "Kazakhs", or "Turkmen", rather than with reference to their religion or locality; the people defined by Soviet ethnographers as Kyrgyz were nomadic, the people defined as Uzbek, sedentary.
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz president Askar Akayev suppressed Kyrgyz ethnic nationalism, favoring Pan-Islamic and Pan-Turkic unity until he was overthrown in the 2005 Tulip Revolution. In June 1990, a violent land dispute between the Kyrgyz and Uzbeks erupted in the city of Osh. A group of Kyrgyz demanded. Uzbek activists objected and violent clashes between the two ethnic groups ensued; until groups of Kyrgyz came from the surrounding villages, the Uzbeks had the upper hand. A state of emergency and curfew were introduced and the border between the Uzbek and Kyrgyz republics was closed. Soviet troops were deployed to stop the violence. Order was not restored until August. Official estimates of the death toll range from over 300 to more than 600. Unofficial figures range up to more than 1,000. In southern Kyrgyzstan, ethnic Uzbeks have been active in the local economy in trade and services, more also in agriculture. In Kyrgyz public opinion, wealthy Uzbek Kyrgyzstani leaders such as Qodirjon Botirov have attempted to turn this economic clout into political power, promoting a militant Uzbek nationalism which demands official Uzbek language status in Kyrgyzstan, a number of seats reserved for Uzbeks in the Kyrgyz parliament.
The Kyrgyz think that Uzbeks are "growing wealthy off the backs of the pauperized Kyrgyz" and seeking to destroy Kyrgyzstan's unity with their calls for linguistic and political autonomy. At the same time, the cities of Kyrgyzstan have received a mass influx of young Kyrgyz people from rural areas who, having difficulty finding work and permanent housing, are to become involved in criminal gangs. Decisions about ethnic problems are not taking place at the government level, as their existence is not recognized and, moreover all administrative positions are held by ethnic Kyrgyz. Many Uzbeks say. Many Kyrgyz in the south supported Bakiyev after he was overthrown. Bakiyev is in exile in Belarus. Bakyt Beshimov noted that after 7 April uprising the interim government was unable to control the situation in Kyrgyzstan, paving the way for major disturbances. "Ruthless" struggle for power was noted by him as a major cause. Many Kyrgyz feel that their sovereignty is threatened by their neighbor Uzbekistan, Kyrgyz media reports on Uzbekistan's supposed desire to protect Uzbek people abroad.
Kyrgyzstan has a long disputed border with the country, over which Uzbekistan has unilaterally erected a barrier. The Uzbek National Security Service has been known to perform deadly intelligence operations in Kyrgyzstan, there is Kyrgyz fear about infiltration from the militant Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan; some sources claimed the riots were orchestrated from outside forces. There were multiple reports of organized groups of gunmen in ski masks, believed to be from neighboring Tajikistan, shooting both Uzbeks and Kyrgyz to ignite the riots. However, the head of Kyrgyzstan security forces denied such claims of the media; the interim Kyrgyz government led by Roza Otunbayeva claimed that the former president, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, his connections were behind the riots, although no proof of this claim was presented. Kyrgyz deputy Prime Minister Almazbek Atambayev has claimed that the riots were paid for with $10 million from Bakiyev's son, Maxim Bakiyev; some have called for Russian involvement, but the Kremlin refused to get involved with forces at the request of the interim government.
On 14 May, media outlets broadcast a tapped telephone conversation between Communist Party leader Iskhak Masaliyev and other politicians. They discussed organizing mass protests in southern Kyrgyzstan; the people included Bakiyev's adviser Usen Sydykov a powerful politician in Kyrgyzstan. The Kyrgyzstan security forces arrested the two. Masaliyev had just arrived from Moscow; the arrest fueled speculation. Elmira Nogoybayeva, the head of the Kyrgyz Polis Asia Analytic Center, noted in May that Russia and its ally Kazakhstan launched a consistent mass media campaign to discredit the image of Kyrgyzstan. On 14 June 2010, Eurasian expert Giorgi Kvelashvili stated that Moscow's actions appeared to be part of a larger calculated plan. International organizations have not supported the view that the June events were orchestrated from outside. According to Human Rights Watch " violence in southern Kyr