Worf, son of Mogh is a fictional character in the Star Trek franchise. He appears in the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation and seasons four through seven of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine as well as the feature films Star Trek Generations, Star Trek: First Contact, Star Trek: Insurrection, Star Trek: Nemesis. Worf is the first Klingon main character to appear in Star Trek, has appeared in more Star Trek franchise episodes than any other character, he is portrayed by actor Michael Dorn. Worf was not intended to be a regular character, as Gene Roddenberry wanted to avoid "retreads of characters or races featured prominently in the original Star Trek series". Accordingly, the June 1, 1987 cast portrait did not include Worf. Several "tall, black actors" auditioned for Worf before Michael Dorn came along, walking into the audition in character and not smiling. Not only did the Worf character become a regular on The Next Generation, he was continued on the Deep Space Nine series for several more years and talk of a spin-off Worf show continued into the 2010s.
He made his debut in 1987 in Encounter at Farpoint, last appeared in character in 2002. Dorn as Worf made 282 on screen appearances, the most appearances of any actor in the Star Trek franchise to-date. Worf's family ties are revealed across several hundred episodes and the movies. An important aspect to understanding Worf is that he was adopted by Federation parents, so he has both adoptive and biological family, he has a total of two brothers each with a unique backstory, as well as two adoptive human parents, one son. Important Star Trek episodes for Worf family include "The Bonding", "Sins of the Father", "Family", "Reunion", "Homeward", "You Are Cordially Invited" The House of Mogh was a family of high social and political rank, for a time represented on the Klingon High Council. In Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, Colonel Worf appears as the legal advocate of Captain James T. Kirk and Dr. Leonard McCoy after they are accused of killing Chancellor Gorkon of the Klingon High Council.
He was a member of the Klingon delegation at Camp Khitomer. Although not explicitly stated, he was intended to be Worf's grandfather. Worf has a son named Alexander with a half-human half-Klingon woman named K'Ehleyr, a character introduced in "The Emissary", however she is killed in "Reunion", a "sequel" to that episode and part of the Worf story arc, leaving Worf as a single parent. Worf fathers a son with K'Ehleyr, Alexander has to live aboard Enterprise-D when K'Ehleyr is killed. After TNG ends, Worf gets moved to the Deep Space Nine space station where he marries the Trill symbiont Jadzia Dax. On DS9 Worf misses the Enterprise-D "family" that he had bemoaning the cut-rate work ethic and unfriendliness on the wayward outpost; the episode "Sins of the Father" introduces Worf's long lost brother Kurn, an orphan of the House of Mogh. His adoptive parents have Nikolai Rozhenko whom Worf grew up with. Nikolai and Worf interact in "Homeward" where it is revealed that Worf will have a nephew or niece.
In "The Bonding" Worf adopts an orphan boy into the House of Mogh. In the first Star Trek written by famous screen writer Ron Moore, the orphan Jeremy has a has a special Klingon ceremony to be adopted into Worf's family. Since Worf leaves for Martok's house taking Alexander and Kurn is brain wiped, Jeremy would have been left as the last remaining member of House of Mogh. Worf was born in 2340 on Qo'noS as the son of Mogh. Five years his parents moved to the Khitomer colony. Worf's parents were killed during a surprise attack by the Romulans on the Khitomer outpost; the colony's distress call was answered by the Federation starship USS Intrepid. Chief Petty Officer Sergey Rozhenko found Worf in the rubble and took him in after failing to find any living relatives. Rozhenko and his wife Helena raised him on a small farm colony on the planet Gault, a world of about 20,000 inhabitants all of them human. Worf has a human brother, with whom he quarreled, he spent time on Earth in his parents' native city of Minsk recommending it to Miles O'Brien as one of his favorite places on Earth.
Worf did not take the Rozhenkos' last name, preferring to be addressed by the Klingon designation "Worf, son of Mogh". However, his son Alexander Rozhenko, raised by the Rozhenkos after his mother K'Ehleyr died, did use their surname. Although Worf was raised by humans, he considered himself a Klingon at heart and studied the ways of his people; as an adult, his mannerisms and personality, as well as his innate sense of honor, became more Klingon than human. Worf's brother Kurn a year old at the time of the Khitomer attack, had been left behind on the Klingon homeworld Qo'noS by his parents. Lorgh, a friend to House of Mogh, was charged with the care of the younger son expecting Mogh's stay at the Khitomer outpost to be short-term. Lorgh adopted Kurn after the attack, but informed Klingon authorities that he had died with the rest of the family. Kurn was not revealed as being alive. In 2357, Worf entered Starfleet Academy, he graduated in 2361 and was commissioned with the rank of Ensign, becoming the first Klingon officer in Starfleet.
Although Worf took immense pride and a sense of honor from serving in Starfleet, most other Klingons shunned and belittled his choice of vocation. In 2359, he became
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Natasha "Tasha" Yar is a fictional character that appeared in the first season of the American science fiction television series Star Trek: The Next Generation. Portrayed by Denise Crosby, Yar is chief of security aboard the Starfleet starship USS Enterprise-D and carries the rank of lieutenant; the character's concept was based upon the character of Vasquez from the film Aliens. Following further development she became known first as Tanya, Tasha. Crosby had auditioned for the role of Deanna Troi, while Rosalind Chao became a favorite for Tasha. After Marina Sirtis auditioned for the role, the series' creator Gene Roddenberry decided to switch the roles for the actresses, with Sirtis becoming Troi and Crosby becoming Yar. Chao would appear on the series in a recurring role as Keiko O'Brien; the character first appeared in the series' pilot episode, "Encounter at Farpoint". After Crosby decided to leave the series, Yar was killed in the episode "Skin of Evil" near the end of the series' first season.
She was written back into the series for a guest appearance in the third season episode "Yesterday's Enterprise", in which her character was still alive in an alternate timeline, again in the final episode of the series "All Good Things...", which included events set prior to the pilot. She was described as a forerunner to other strong women in science fiction, such as Kara Thrace from the 2004 version of Battlestar Galactica, while providing a step between the appearances of female characters on The Original Series to the command positions they have on Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Voyager. Questions were raised over the sexuality of the character, it was thought that the events in the episode "The Naked Now" were designed to establish her heterosexuality; the manner of her first death was received with negative reviews. One critic called it typical of the death of a Star Trek security officer, the scene was included in a list of tasteless sci-fi deaths. Inspired by Vasquez in Aliens, the character was named "Macha Hernandez" and was the tactical officer of the Enterprise.
This had been changed by the first casting call—issued on December 10, 1986—when she was given the position of security chief. The producers considered Jenette Goldstein, who had played Vasquez, for the role, but writer Dorothy Fontana pointed out that the actress "is not Latina, she is petite, blue-eyed, freckle-faced". The character was subsequently renamed "Tanya" around March 13. By the time that the writers' and directors' guide for the series was published, dated March 23, 1987, the character was named Natasha "Tasha" Yar, her surname was suggested by Robert Lewin, drawing inspiration from the Babi Yar atrocities in Ukraine during the Second World War. Her biography stated that she was 28 years old, confirmed her Ukrainian descent, she was planned to have a friendship with teenager Wesley Crusher, was described in the guide as "treat this boy like the most wonderful person imaginable. Wes is the childhood friend that Tasha never had."In April 1987, Lianne Langland, Julia Nickson, Rosalind Chao, Leah Ayres and Bunty Bailey were each listed as being in contention for the role.
Chao was a favorite candidate, while Denise Crosby was described as "the only possibility" for the character of Deanna Troi. The production staff were not keen on having two actresses in the bridge crew roles with similar physical types and hair colors, so the team took account of the casting of the two roles together; the writers and directors guide described Yar as having a muscular but feminine body type, being sufficiently athletic to defeat most other crew members in martial arts. After Crosby and Marina Sirtis had each auditioned for Troi and Yar Gene Roddenberry decided to switch the actresses and cast Crosby as Tasha Yar, he felt. Before the end of the first season, Crosby asked to be released from her contract as she was unhappy that her character was not being developed, she said "I was miserable. I couldn't wait to get off that show. I was dying". Roddenberry agreed to her request and she left on good terms; the final episode she filmed was "Symbiosis", completed after Yar's death in "Skin of Evil".
Her last scene was during the final act of the episode, in which a holographic farewell recording of her is played for the bridge crew. After her departure, archive footage of Crosby as Yar was used in the episodes "The Schizoid Man" and "Shades of Gray". Crosby was happy to return in "Yesterday's Enterprise" due to the strength of the script, saying that "I had more to do in that episode than I'd had to do before". Prior to the episode being aired, the media had to be reassured that Yar was not returning in a dream sequence. Following her appearance in that episode, Crosby pitched the idea of Yar's daughter, Sela, to the producers, she made her first appearance in this role in the two-part "Redemption" and appeared once more in another two-part episode, "Unification". Denise returned twice more in the non-canon Star Trek universe. In 2007, she appeared as an ancestor of Tasha Yar, Jenna Yar, in "Blood and Fire", an episode of the fan-produced series Star Trek: New Voyages. Tasha Yar was written into Star Trek Online as part of the third anniversary celebration in 2013.
Denise Crosby recorded audio for the game, in scenes set after those in "Yesterday's Enterprise". Natasha Yar's origins are explained in the season four episode "Legacy", she was born on the planet Turkana IV in 2337. She had a younger sister named Ishara, born five years after her. Shortly after Ishara's birth, the girls' parents were killed and they were taken in by other people. However, they were subsequently abandoned and Tasha was require
Marc Alaimo is an American actor, known for his villainous roles. He is best known for his role as recurring villain Gul Dukat in the TV series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Alaimo has been playing characters in television shows since 1971, he has appeared as villains, in shows such as The Doctors, Gunsmoke, The Bionic Woman and Hutch, Knight Rider, The Greatest American Hero, The Incredible Hulk, Quantum Leap, Family Guy, Texas Ranger, Wonder Woman, The Rockford Files, Hill Street Blues, The A-Team. Alaimo has appeared in some feature films including the 1984 science fiction movie The Last Starfighter, the Leslie Nielsen film Naked Gun 33⅓: The Final Insult, Tango & Cash, the 1988 film The Dead Pool, he appeared as Curtis Block in the television movie Case Closed and as a security officer on Mars in the Arnold Schwarzenegger movie Total Recall. He played several characters starting in the first season, he has the distinction of two firsts on Star Trek: TNG, playing the first Romulan, Commander Tebok, in the 1988 episode "The Neutral Zone", the first Cardassian, Gul Macet, in the 1991 episode, "The Wounded".
He played a poker player who speaks French to Data in the episode "Time's Arrow". In 1993, Alaimo began playing Cardassian character Gul Dukat in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Gul Dukat was a recurring character, who appeared in 37 episodes of that series, is his best-known character, he appeared in a season two episode of 21 Jump Street. Alaimo featured in the 2006 video game Call of Juarez, its 2009 prequel Call of Juarez: Bound in Blood, both times as the voice of the gunslinging Ray McCall. In 2010 he voiced The Dean in the Family Guy episode "The Splendid Source". Alaimo was born in Wisconsin, he has a son from his first marriage, Michael Antony Alaimo, a writer, story editor and producer known for The Closer, Major Crimes and Traveler. Alaimo has a daughter from his second marriage, Ariel Rose, an artist and stylist. Dr. Black, Mr. Hyde – Preston, the pusher Which Way Is Up? – Frankie Mean Dog Blues – Transfer Guard Hardcore – Ratan A Great Ride Seems Like Old Times – B. G. Grizzly II: The Concert – Luke The Last Starfighter – Hitchhiker Avenging Force – Charlie Lavall The Dead Pool – Embarcadero Bodyguard #2 Arena – Rogor Tango & Cash – Lopez Total Recall – Captain Everett Naked Gun 33⅓: The Final Insult – Trucker The Fence – Rudy Baralli Marc Alaimo on IMDb
Star Trek: The Next Generation
Star Trek: The Next Generation is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. It aired from September 28, 1987 to May 23, 1994 on syndication, spanning 178 episodes over the course of seven seasons; the third series in the Star Trek franchise, it is the second sequel to Star Trek: The Original Series. Set in the 24th century, when Earth is part of a United Federation of Planets, it follows the adventures of a Starfleet starship, the USS Enterprise-D, in its exploration of the Milky Way galaxy. After the cancellation of The Original Series in 1969, the Star Trek franchise had continued with Star Trek: The Animated Series and a series of films, all featuring the original cast. In the 1980s, franchise creator Roddenberry decided to create a new series, featuring a new crew embarking on their mission a century after that of The Original Series; the Next Generation featured a new crew that starred Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Jonathan Frakes as Commander William Riker, Brent Spiner as Lt. Commander Data, Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Worf, LeVar Burton as Lt. Commander Geordi La Forge, Marina Sirtis as counselor Deanna Troi, Gates McFadden as Dr. Beverly Crusher, a new Enterprise.
An introductory statement featured at the beginning of each episode's title sequence stated the ship's purpose in language similar to the opening statement of the original Star Trek series, but was updated to reflect an ongoing mission and to be gender-neutral: Space: the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise, its continuing mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no one has gone before. Roddenberry, Maurice Hurley, Rick Berman, Michael Piller, Jeri Taylor served as executive producers at various times throughout its production; the show was popular, reaching 12 million viewers in its 5th season, with the series finale in 1994 being watched by over 30 million viewers. TNG premiered the week of September 28, 1987, drawing 27 million viewers, with the two-hour pilot "Encounter at Farpoint". In total, 176 episodes were made, ending with the two-hour finale "All Good Things..." the week of May 23, 1994. The series was broadcast in first-run syndication with dates and times varying among individual television stations.
Several Star Trek series followed The Next Generation: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, Star Trek: Enterprise, Star Trek: Discovery. The series formed the basis for the seventh through the tenth of the Star Trek films, is the setting of numerous novels, comic books, video games. In its seventh season, Star Trek: The Next Generation became the first and only syndicated television series to be nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series; the series received a number of accolades, including 19 Emmy Awards, two Hugo Awards, five Saturn Awards, "The Big Goodbye" won a Peabody Award. Some of the highest rated episodes were the pilot, the finale, the two-part "Unification", "Aquiel", "A Matter of Time", "Relics". Four episodes featured actors DeForest Kelley, Mark Lenard, Leonard Nimoy, James Doohan from the original Star Trek reprising their original roles; the Star Trek franchise originated in the late 1960s, with the Star Trek television show which ran from 1966-1969.
Star Trek: The Next Generation would mark the return of Star Trek to live-action broadcast television. As early as 1972, Paramount Pictures started to consider making a Star Trek film because of the show's popularity in syndication. However, with 1977's release of Star Wars, Paramount decided not to compete in the science fiction movie category and shifted their efforts to a new Star Trek television series; the Original Series actors were approached to reprise their roles. By 1986, 20 years after the original Star Trek's debut on NBC, the franchise's longevity amazed Paramount Pictures executives. Chairman Frank Mancuso Sr. and others described it as the studio's "crown jewel", a "priceless asset" that "must not be squandered". The series was the most popular syndicated television program 17 years after cancellation, the Harve Bennett-produced, Original Series-era Star Trek films did well at the box office. William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy's salary demands for the film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home caused the studio to plan for a new Star Trek television series.
Paramount executives worried that a new series could hurt the demand for the films, but decided that it would increase their appeal on videocassette and cable, that a series with unknown actors would be more profitable than paying the films' actors' large salaries. Roddenberry declined to be involved, but came on board as creator after being unhappy with early conceptual work. Star Trek: The Next Generation was announced on October 10, 1986, its cast in May 1987. Paramount executive Rick Berman was assigned to the series at Roddenberry's request. Roddenberry hired a number of Star Trek veterans, including Bob Justman, D. C. Fontana, Eddie Milkis and David Gerrold. Early proposals for the series included one in which some of the original series cast might appear as "elder statesmen", Roddenberry speculated as late as October 1986 that the new series might not use a spaceship, as "people might travel by some means" 100 years after the USS Enterpris
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to its orbital plane; the gravitational interaction between Earth and the Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes Earth's orientation on its axis, slows its rotation. Earth is the largest of the four terrestrial planets. Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water by oceans; the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth's magnetic field, a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms; some geological evidence indicates. Since the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties, geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely. Over 7.6 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival.
Humans have developed diverse cultures. The modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most spelled eorðe, it has cognates in every Germanic language, their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō. In its earliest appearances, eorðe was being used to translate the many senses of Latin terra and Greek γῆ: the ground, its soil, dry land, the human world, the surface of the world, the globe itself; as with Terra and Gaia, Earth was a personified goddess in Germanic paganism: the Angles were listed by Tacitus as among the devotees of Nerthus, Norse mythology included Jörð, a giantess given as the mother of Thor. Earth was written in lowercase, from early Middle English, its definite sense as "the globe" was expressed as the earth. By Early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, the earth became the Earth when referenced along with other heavenly bodies. More the name is sometimes given as Earth, by analogy with the names of the other planets.
House styles now vary: Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, with the capitalized form an acceptable variant. Another convention capitalizes "Earth" when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the, it always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as "what on earth are you doing?" The oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4.5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4.54±0.04 Bya the primordial Earth had formed. The bodies in the Solar System evolved with the Sun. In theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, the planets grow out of that disk with the Sun. A nebula contains gas, ice grains, dust. According to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial Earth taking 10–20 million years to form. A subject of research is the formation of some 4.53 Bya. A leading hypothesis is that it was formed by accretion from material loosed from Earth after a Mars-sized object, named Theia, hit Earth.
In this view, the mass of Theia was 10 percent of Earth, it hit Earth with a glancing blow and some of its mass merged with Earth. Between 4.1 and 3.8 Bya, numerous asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the Moon and, by inference, to that of Earth. Earth's atmosphere and oceans were formed by volcanic outgassing. Water vapor from these sources condensed into the oceans, augmented by water and ice from asteroids and comets. In this model, atmospheric "greenhouse gases" kept the oceans from freezing when the newly forming Sun had only 70% of its current luminosity. By 3.5 Bya, Earth's magnetic field was established, which helped prevent the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind. A crust formed; the two models that explain land mass propose either a steady growth to the present-day forms or, more a rapid growth early in Earth history followed by a long-term steady continental area. Continents formed by plate tectonics
Brian Boru was an Irish king who ended the domination of the High Kingship of Ireland by the Uí Néill. Building on the achievements of his father, Cennétig mac Lorcain, his elder brother, Brian first made himself King of Munster subjugated Leinster becoming High King of Ireland, he was the founder of the O'Brien dynasty. With a population of under 500,000 people, Ireland had over 150 kings, with greater or lesser domains; the Uí Néill king Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill, abandoned by his northern kinsmen of the Cenél nEógain and Cenél Conaill, acknowledged Brian as High King at Athlone in 1002. In the decade that followed, Brian campaigned against the northern Uí Néill, who refused to accept his claims, against Leinster, where resistance was frequent, against the Norse-Gaelic Kingdom of Dublin. Brian's hard-won authority was challenged in 1013 when his ally Máel Sechnaill was attacked by the Cenél nEógain king Flaithbertach Ua Néill, with the Ulstermen as his allies; this was followed by further attacks on Máel Sechnaill by the Dubliners under their king Sihtric Silkbeard and the Leinstermen led by Máel Mórda mac Murchada.
Brian campaigned against these enemies in 1013. In 1014, Brian's armies confronted the armies of Leinster and Dublin, with Norsemen fighting on both sides, at Clontarf near Dublin on Good Friday; the resulting Battle of Clontarf was a bloody affair, with Brian, his son Murchad, Máel Mórda among those killed. The list of the noble dead in the Annals of Ulster includes Irish kings, Norse Gaels and Scandinavians; the immediate beneficiary of the slaughter was Máel Sechnaill. The Norse-Gaels and Scandinavians produced works mentioning Brian, including Njal's Saga, the Orkneyinga Saga, the now-lost Brian's Saga. Brian's war against Máel Mórda and Sihtric was to be inextricably connected with his complicated marital relations, in particular his marriage to Gormlaith, Máel Mórda's sister and Sihtric's mother, in turn the wife of Amlaíb Cuarán, king of Dublin and York of Máel Sechnaill, of Brian, he was one of the 12 sons of Cennétig mac Lorcáin, king of Dál gCais and king of Tuadmumu, modern County Clare a sub-kingdom in the north of Munster.
Cennétig was described as rígdamna Caisil, meaning that he was either heir or candidate to the kingship of Cashel or Munster, although this might be a interpolation. Brian's mother was Bé Binn inion Urchadh, daughter of Urchadh mac Murchadh, king of Maigh Seóla in west Connacht; that they belonged to the Uí Briúin Seóla may explain why he received the name Brian, rare among the Dál gCais. Brian's family were descended from the Ui Tairdelbach branch of the Dal gCais; this branch had taken power from the more powerful Ui Óengusso branch which had traditionally supplied the Kings of the Dal gCais. This power shift occurred after the death of Ui Óengusso King Rebechan Mac Mothla who died as King of the Dal gCais in 934; the sons of Brian's grandfather Lorcan seized the opportunity and took power from the rival branch, with Brian's father Cennétig being the most successful of these. His father was the first King of the Dal gCais to lead an army beyond his own territory and lead an expedition as far north as Athlone.
By his death in 951 had been acknowledged as "King of Tuadmumu". His brother Mahon built on these achievements and was the first to capture Cashel and become King of Munster. Brian was born at a town in the region of Tuadmumu. Brian's posthumous cognomen "Bóruma" may have referred to "Béal Bóruma", a fort north of Killaloe, where the Dál gCais held sway. Another explanation, though a late interpretation, is that the nickname represented Old Irish bóruma "of the cattle tribute", referring to his capacity as a powerful overlord; the River Shannon served as an easy route by which raids could be made against the provinces of Connacht and Meath. Both Brian's father, Cennétig mac Lorcáin, his older brother Mathgamain conducted river-borne raids, in which the young Brian would undoubtedly have participated; this was the root of his appreciation for naval forces in his career. Thus an important influence upon the Dalcassians was the presence of the Hiberno-Norse city of Limerick on an isthmus around which the Shannon River winds.
The Norse had made many a raid themselves from the Shannon, the Dalcassians benefited from some interaction with them, from which they would have been exposed to innovations such as superior weapons and ship design, all factors that may have contributed to their growing power. When their father died, the kingship of Tuadmumu passed to Brian's older brother, and, when Mathgamain was killed in 976, Brian replaced him. Subsequently, he became the king of the entire kingdom of Munster. In 964, Brian's older brother, claimed control over the entire province of Munster by capturing the Rock of Cashel, capital of the ancient Eóganachta, the hereditary overlords or High Kings of Munster, but who in dynastic strife and with multiple assassinations had weakened themselves to the point they were now impotent. Earlier attacks from both the Uí Néill and Vikings were factors; this situation allowed the illegitimate but militarized Dál Cais to attempt to seize the provincial kingship. Mathgamain was never recognized and was opposed throughout his career in the 960s and 970s by Máel Muad mac Brain, a semi-outsider from the Cashel perspective but still a legitimate Eóganacht