The Military Cross is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and other ranks of the British Armed Forces, awarded to officers of other Commonwealth countries. The MC is granted in recognition of "an act or acts of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy on land" to all members of the British Armed Forces of any rank. In 1979, the Queen approved a proposal that a number of awards, including the Military Cross, could be recommended posthumously; the award was created on 28 December 1914 for commissioned officers of the substantive rank of Captain or below and for Warrant Officers. The first 98 awards were gazetted on 1 January 1915, to 71 officers, 27 warrant officers. Although posthumous recommendations for the Military Cross would be unavailable until 1979, the first awards included seven posthumous awards, with the word ‘deceased’ after the name of the recipient, from recommendations, raised before the recipients died of wounds or lost their lives from other causes.
Awards are announced in the London Gazette, apart from most honorary awards to allied forces in keeping with the usual practice not to gazette awards to foreigners. From August 1916, recipients of the Cross were entitled to use the post-nominal letters MC, bars could be awarded for further acts of gallantry meriting the award, with a silver rosette worn on the ribbon when worn alone to denote the award of each bar. From September 1916, members of the Royal Naval Division, who served alongside the army on the Western Front, were made eligible for military decorations, including the Military Cross, for the war's duration. Naval officers serving with the division received eight second award bars. In June 1917, eligibility was extended to temporary majors, not above the substantive rank of captain. Substantive majors were made eligible in 1953. In 1931, the award was extended to equivalent ranks in the Royal Air Force for actions on the ground. After the Second World War, most Commonwealth countries created their own honours system and no longer recommended British awards.
The last Military Cross awards for the Canadian Army were for Korea. The last four Australian Army Military Cross awards were promulgated in the London Gazette on 1 September 1972 for Vietnam as was the last New Zealand Army Military Cross award, promulgated on 25 September 1970. Canada and New Zealand have now created their own gallantry awards under their own honours systems. Since the 1993 review of the honours system, as part of the drive to remove distinctions of rank in awards for bravery, the Military Medal the third-level decoration for other ranks, has been discontinued; the MC now serves as the third-level award for all ranks of the British Armed Forces for gallantry on land, not to the standard required to receive the Victoria Cross or the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross. The Military Cross has the following design: 44 mm maximum width. Ornamental silver cross with straight arms terminating in broad finials, suspended from a plain suspension bar. Obverse decorated with the Royal Cypher in centre.
Reverse is plain. From 1938 until 1957 the year of award was engraved on lower limb of cross, since 1984 it has been awarded named to the recipient; the ribbon width is 32 mm and consists of three equal vertical moire stripes of white and white. Ribbon bar denoting a further award is plain silver, with a crown in the centre. Since 1914 over 52,000 Military Crosses and 3,717 bars have been awarded; the dates below reflect the relevant London Gazette entries: In addition 375 MCs have been awarded since 1979, including awards for Northern Ireland, the Falklands and the wars in the Persian Gulf and Afghanistan. The above table includes awards to the Dominions:In all, 3,727 Military Crosses have been awarded to those serving with Canadian forces, including 324 first bars and 18 second bars. A total of 2,930 were awarded to Australians, in addition to four second bars. Of these, 2,403 MCs, 170 first Bars and four second Bars were for World War I. Over 500 MCs were awarded to New Zealanders during World War I and over 250 in World War II.
The most recent awards were for service in Vietnam. The honorary MC awards were made to servicemen from fifteen Allied countries in World War I, nine in World War II. During World War I, Acting Captain Francis Wallington of the Royal Field Artillery was the first person to be awarded the MC and three bars when he was invested with his third bar on 10 July 1918. Three other officers were subsequently awarded a third bar, Percy Bentley, Humphrey Arthur Gilkes and Charles Gordon Timms, all of whose awards appeared in a supplement to the London Gazette on 31 January 1919. For their key roles during World War I, the cities of Verdun and Ypres were awarded the Military Cross, in September 1916 and February 1920 respectively. In May 1920, Field Marshal French presented the decoration to Ypres in a special ceremony in the city. During World War II Captain Sam Manekshaw, Indian Army, was leading a counter-offensive operation against the invading Japanese Army in Burma. During the course of the offensive, he was hit by a burst of machine-gun fire and wounded in the stomach.
Major General D. T. Cowan spotted Manekshaw holding on to life and was aware of his valour in face of stiff resistance from the Japanese. Fearing the worst, Major General Cowan pinned his own Military Cross ribbon on to Manekshaw saying, "A dead person cannot be awarded a Military Cross." The first posthumous Military Cross was that awarded to Captain Herbert Westmacott, Grenadier Guards for ga
Portrait of Henry Peirse is a painting completed by the Italian painter Pompeo Batoni and housed in the Pinacoteca of the Gallerie Nazionali di Arte Antica in Rome, Italy. The portrait of Henry Peirse is dated at the base of the balustrade; the work derives from the collection of Sir Henry de la Poer Beresford Peirse, a descendant of the depicted gentleman. The portrait was commissioned by the gentleman during a visit to Rome; the painting was acquired by the state in 1970. Behind Peirse, to the right is the statue of the Ludovisi Ares and to the left, a large decorative urn. At his feet is an architectural fragment, his pet dog angles for attention. Batoni profited from painting a number of such portraits with similar elements for other travelers, including a Portrait of John Chetwynd-Talbot on display at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles; the style of Batoni's work reflects a transition from the decorative and dramatic Baroque to a more serene Neoclassicism quoting from Ancient Classic sculpture
Marshall Mount is a suburb of Wollongong in New South Wales, Australia. It is located between the larger centres of Albion Park. In 1829 Henry Osborne, a wealthy Irish immigrant, was granted 2,560 acres in the Dapto district known as Marshall Mount, where he settled with his wife Sarah Osborne in 1833. By the 1840s Henry had added to his estate by securing Charles Throsby Smith's "Calderwood" 1,280 acres, Elyard's "Avondale", William Browne's "Athanlin", Brook's "Exmouth" and numerous smaller grants. Marshall Mount was expanded to reach from Mullet Creek in the north to the Macquarie Rivulet in the south. In 1841, Marshall Mount House was completed as the Osborne's new residence and in 1843, Osborne held a cattle show at his property which led to the founding of the Illawarra Agricultural Association. By the 1850s the Osbornes had become one of the most powerful families in the region, in 1851 Henry Osborne was elected to the Legislative Council as member for East Camden, representing his constituency in the first Legislative Assembly.
A school opened at Marshall Mount in 1859, after the death of Henry Osborne in the same year, Marshall Mount road became a public thoroughfare. Marshall Mount remained the property of Osborne's descendants until 1890, when Hamilton Osborne sold twenty-two lots of property to new owners. Marshall Mount is an agricultural/rural district and it had a population of 142 at the 2016 census. Under the West Dapto Local Environmental Plan, Marshall Mount is being considered for residential development by the NSW State Government. Marshall Mount is the site of the Marshall Mount Old Time Dance, a fortnightly gathering run by the Marshall Mount Progress Association; the Marshall Mount Public School and Schoolmaster's Residence, opened in 1859, are still standing on Marshall Mount Road and offer an example of typical architectural style of the period. Marshall Mount House, a colonial-style built on the original site of the Osborne residence, has been a heritage listed building since 1978, due to the significance of its original owner
The Sacramento Philharmonic is a symphony orchestra in the Sacramento region, established in 1997 after the disbandment of the Sacramento Symphony that same year. Led by Maestro Michael Morgan, the orchestra performs at the Community Center Theatre and at the Mondavi Center at the University of California, Davis The Sacramento Symphony was established in 1948 and became a large regional orchestra made up of local professional musicians. However, starting in 1986 and continuing through the mid-1990s, the Sacramento Symphony had severe administrative difficulties and ran into significant operating deficits filing for bankruptcy. Despite several moderate bail-outs from businesses, the general public and local government, in 1997 the Sacramento Symphony closed its doors. Directors included Fritz Berens, who helped found the Sacramento Youth Symphony, Harry Newstone, who oversaw the move from the Memorial Auditorium and the Hiram Johnson High School Auditorium to the new Community Center, Carter Nice and Geoffrey Simon.
Established the same year as the Symphony shut down, the new Sacramento Philharmonic, composed entirely of the same orchestra members, featured a smaller schedule. The Philharmonic, with the support of Sacramento County, sought to avoid the unfortunate fate of the defunct Symphony and requested several market studies from national firms to help determine the potential for professional orchestral music in the Sacramento region. With a similar population to Cleveland, which has a world-famous orchestra in the highest calibre, the potential, as determined by the studies, seemed positive. In 2013, the Sacramento Philharmonic merged with the Sacramento Opera to form the Sacramento Region Performing Arts Alliance. A year after the merger, the new group announced it would sit out the 2014–15 season due to financial problems and disagreements between leaders of the two separate organizations. In April 2015, the organization announced; the group promoted its return with a series of surprise flash-mob style performances at locations throughout the city.
1999 article at SFCV
The China pavilion at Expo 2010 in Pudong, colloquially known as the Oriental Crown, was the largest national pavilion at the Shanghai Expo and the largest display in the history of the World Expo. It was the most expensive pavilion at the Shanghai Expo costing an estimated US$220 million; the pavilion showcased China's civilisation and modern achievements by combining traditional and modern elements in its architecture and exhibits. After the end of the Expo 2010, the building was converted to a museum. On October 1, 2012, it was reopened as the largest art museum in Asia; the building is located halfway along the Expo Axis on its eastern side in Zone A of the Expo Park. The pavilion lies directly to the east of the Theme pavilions and to the north of the Hong Kong and Macau pavilions; the chosen design was selected from a range of 344 design proposals put forward by architects from all over the world. The chief architect of the pavilion was 72-year-old He Jingtang, the director of the Architectural Academy of the South China University of Technology.
The construction of the China pavilion began on 18 December 2007 and was completed in November 2009. On 8 February 2010, the completion of construction was commemorated by 1,000 people including the pavilion's designers and construction workers. Construction milestones: The 63-metre high pavilion, the tallest structure at the Expo, is dubbed "The Oriental Crown" because of its resemblance to an ancient Chinese crown, it was meticulously designed with profound symbolism. The architectonic feature of the building was inspired by the Chinese roof bracket known as the dougong as well as the Chinese ding vessel; the dougong is a traditional wooden bracket used to support large overhanging eaves which dates back nearly 2,000 years. It symbolizes the unique charm of the unity and strength; the ding was a vessel used by Chinese emperors to make offers to the gods. It represents the union between earth; the China pavilion's four giant columns resemble the legs of a ding vessel while the inverted pyramid body resembles the bowl of a vessel.
The rooftop of the building is in the shape of a grid-like pattern reminiscent of Jiugongge when view from the air. Jiugongge was the basis of urban planning in ancient China; the exterior is painted in seven subtle shades of Chinese red, symbolizing Chinese culture and good fortune. The different shades combine to illustrate the concept "unity with difference"; the overhanging columns of the main China pavilion and exterior of the Chinese joint provincial pavilion are decorated with Diezhuan characters, calligraphic characters used on official seals. The characters for north, south and west are engraved on the red China pavilion, while 24 Chinese solar terms are carved into the silver facade of the provincial pavilion; the structure was built with a strong emphasis on sustainable and energy-saving practices with the exterior offering thermal insulation and natural ventilation. The inverted pyramid design and the lower courtyard offers a large overhang for self-shading. There is a 0.36 mega-watt solar energy system on the rooftop while the thermal panels and insulating glasses on the exterior are energy-saving initiatives.
A high-tech rooftop garden surrounding the China pavilion and on top of the Chinese Joint Provincial pavilion is known as "New Jiuzhou Qing Yan" The 27,000-square metre traditional garden contains modern landscaping techniques and technology including rainwater harvesting techniques and is decorated with distinctly Chinese-style landscaping inspired by the Jiuzhou Qing Yan in the Yuanmingyuan. It was designed to emulate natural Chinese landscapes with Chinese wisdom and oriental charm in mind; the garden provides space for public crowd evacuation. It uses nine landscaping features to symbolize nine characteristic topographies of China, human habitat, lakes, seas, alpine meadows and deserts; the theme of the pavilion during the Expo was "Chinese Wisdom in Urban Development". To enter the pavilion visitors must ascend the giant staircase on the north-facing side; the sheltered courtyard space within the four main columns provides a large open space for waiting crowds. The pavilion display highlights is divided into three parts: "The Footprints", "The Dialogue" and "The Vision".
Visitors are taken by lift to the uppermost level for the first exhibition before working their way down the building for the subsequent segments. This first part highlights the wisdom of Chinese urban practices in Chinese history, from the achievements of China's reforms in the late 1970s to the urban experiences of imperial China; this hall features iconic symbols of a city. In this exhibition, two seven-minute films are alternately shown in the 1,071 square metre 700-seat theatre of the pavilion; the films are shown on three 22m-long by 7.5m-high projection screens and a 24m-diameter overhead dome. Both films reflect the urban impact of China's economic transformation. Thematic movie 1: "The Road to our Beautiful Life" directed by Lu Chuan highlights the developments of modern China in the last 30 years through the eyes of four generations of the same family; the film begins with a countryside scene showing an elderly father and his young adult son facing each other. The father is from a humble peasant background and symbolizes tradition and the patriarch of the family.
The son walks away and begins to sprint around the rural landscape towards the city, soon to be followed by numerous others. Although the son grew up
The Suzuki X-90 is a front engine, rear or four wheel drive, two door, two seater SUV manufactured and marketed by Suzuki for the model years of 1995 to 1997. Related to the Suzuki Vitara, the X-90 featured a T Section removable roof. Replacing the Samurai in the market in the United States, Suzuki began marketing the X-90 in Japan by the end of 1995, in western markets in April 1996; the X-90 used a 1.6 L I4 sixteen valve engine which produced 95 hp and was available with four wheel drive or rear wheel drive, either a five speed manual or automatic transmission. The X-90 featured dual air bags, anti lock brakes, optional air conditioning, one dealer installed six disc CD changer; the suspension used MacPherson struts and coil springs in front and coil springs with wishbone and trailing links in the rear. A space saver spare wheel is stored in the trunk and space behind the two seats offers further cargo area; the X-90 debuted as a concept car at the 1993 Tokyo Motor Show. Suzuki presented the production vehicle in 1995, began marketing the X-90 by the end of that year in Japan, with international markets the following year.
1,348 were sold in Japan, 7,205 X-90s were imported into the United States. More than half in the United States were sold in 1996, with sales of 2,087 the next year and 477 in 1998. During 1996, 484 vehicles were imported into Australia; the X-90 was imported into Europe. By the middle of 1997, the retail pricing had dropped by 25%. No further imports occurred, the last of the vehicles sold in 1999; the X-90 was the base vehicle for Red Bull's advertising vehicles, which featured a 1.5 m mockup of the company's product can mounted over the trunk. In October 2013, Top Gear Magazine placed the X-90 on its list of "The 13 worst cars of the last 20 years." Dutch, English and French X-90 site