House of Braganza
The Most Serene House of Braganza, or the Brigantine Dynasty known in the Empire of Brazil as the Most August House of Braganza, is a dynasty of emperors, kings and dukes of Portuguese origin, a cadet branch of the House of Aviz. The house was founded by Afonso I, 1st Duke of Braganza, illegitimate son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the House of Aviz, would grow into one of the wealthiest and most powerful noble houses of the Iberian Peninsula of the Renaissance period; the Braganzas came to rule the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves after deposing the Philippine Dynasty in the Restoration War, resulting in the Duke of Braganza becoming King John IV of Portugal, in 1640. The Braganzas ruled Portugal and the Portuguese Empire from 1640 and with the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, in 1815, the subsequent independence of the Empire of Brazil, in 1822, the Braganzas came to rule as the monarchs of Brazil; the House of Braganza produced 15 Portuguese monarchs and all 4 Brazilian monarchs, numerous consorts to various European kingdoms, such as Catherine of Braganza and Maria Isabel of Braganza, as well as sometime candidates for the thrones of Poland and Greece, Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém and Pedro, Duke of Braganza and numerous other notable figures in the histories of Europe and the Americas.
The Braganzas were deposed from their thrones in Europe and the Americas at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries, when Emperor Pedro II was deposed in Brazil, in 1889, when King Manuel II was deposed in Portugal, in 1910. Following the reign of King John VI of Portugal, the Braganzas were split into three main branches of the family: the Brazilian branch, headed by King John VI's eldest son, Emperor Pedro I of Brazil, the Constitutional branch, headed by Emperor Pedro I's eldest daughter, Queen Maria II of Portugal, the Miguelist branch, headed by King John VI's second eldest son, King Miguel I of Portugal; the Brazilian branch, following 1921, became the House of Orléans-Braganza, whose leadership is disputed by two branches of its own: the Vassouras branch, headed by Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza, the Petrópolis branch, headed by Prince Pedro Carlos of Orléans-Braganza. The Constitutional branch died out with the death of King Manuel II in 1932, passing its claim to the Portuguese throne to the Miguelist Branch, by way of Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza.
The claim to the Portuguese Crown, thus to the leadership of the House of Braganza, passed to Duarte Nuno's son, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, the most recognized pretender to the Portuguese throne. The House of Braganza originated with Afonso I, an illegitimate son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the House of Aviz, Inês Pires. Though Afonso was illegitimate, his father valued and cared for him a great deal, demonstrated by his arrangement of Afonso's marriage to Beatriz Pereira de Alvim, daughter of Nuno Álvares Pereira, Portugal's most important general and a personal friend of King John I; as well as increasing his social status by his marriage into a well-established house, Afonso became the eighth Count of Barcelos, an honour ceded to him by his father-in-law, made the seventh count by John I. With his newly consolidated place in the nobility of Portugal, Afonso commenced what would be a successful political and social career. In 1415 he took part in the Conquest of Ceuta, alongside his father, his brothers, the leading members of the nobility and military.
By the time of his father's death in 1433, Afonso had won favour with his brother, King Duarte I and the rest of high Portuguese society. With his brother's premature death in 1438, a regency was established for Afonso's nephew, the 6 year old King Afonso V, under the leadership of the king's mother, Leonor of Aragon, Afonso's brother, Infante Pedro, Duke of Coimbra; the Duke of Coimbra's regency, soon proved unpopular and Afonso became the King's preferred advisor. On 30 December 1442, the Duke of Coimbra, still the King's regent and thus acting in his name, created Afonso as the Duke of Braganza, as a gesture of good will and reconciliation between the two brothers. Afonso's elevation to the dukedom, the highest level of nobility, marked the foundation of the House of Braganza, to become a key family in Portuguese history; as a result of the hard work and success of Afonso I, his children all secured successful positions and lived privileged lives. Afonso I's first son, Afonso of Braganza, was a prominent member of the nobility, having been ceded, by his grandfather, Nuno Álvares Pereira, the lucrative and powerful title of Count of Ourém, in 1422.
He was an accomplished diplomat, served as the king's representative at the Council of Basel in 1436, the Council of Florence in 1439. In 1451, the Count of Ourém was made Marquis of Valença and escorted Infanta Leonor of Portugal to her husband Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1458, he participated in the capture and conquest of Alcácer-Ceguer; the Marquis of Valença, died in 1460, one year before his father and therefore did not succeed him. Afonso I's first daughter, Isabel of Braganza, married Infante João, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz, thus relinking the House of Braganza to the Royal House of Portugal. Isabel's strategic marriage proved successful, produced four children, whose descendants would be some of the most important in Iberian history. Afonso I's last child and successor, Fernando I, Duke of Braganza, continued his legacy of prominence in the mil
Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil
The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil occurred with the strategic retreat of Queen Maria I of Portugal, Prince Regent John referred to as Dom João or Dom João VI, the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807. The Braganza royal family departed for the Portuguese colony of Brazil just days before Napoleonic forces invaded Lisbon on December 1; the Portuguese crown remained in Brazil from 1808 until the Liberal Revolution of 1820 led to the return of John VI of Portugal on April 26, 1821. For thirteen years, Rio de Janeiro, functioned as the capital of the Kingdom of Portugal in what some historians call a "metropolitan reversal", i.e. a colony exercising governance over the entirety of the empire. The period in which the court was located in Rio brought significant changes to the city and its residents, can be interpreted through several perspectives, it had profound impacts on Brazilian society, economics and politics. The transfer of the king and the royal court "represented the first step toward Brazilian independence, since the king opened the ports of Brazil to foreign shipping and turned the colonial capital into the seat of government."
In 1807, at the outset of the Peninsular War, Napoleonic forces invaded Portugal due to the Portuguese alliance with Great Britain. The prince regent of Portugal at the time, John VI, had formally governed the country on behalf of Maria I of Portugal since 1799. Anticipating the invasion of Napoleon's army, John VI ordered the transfer of the Portuguese royal court to Brazil before he could be deposed. Setting sail for Brazil on November 29, the royal party navigated under the protection of the British Royal Navy, eight ships of the line, five frigates, four smaller vessels of the Portuguese Navy, under the command of Admiral Sir Sidney Smith. On December 5 halfway between Lisbon and Madeira, Sidney Smith, along with Britain's envoy to Lisbon, Lord Strangford, returned to Europe with part of the British flotilla. Graham Moore, a British sailor and career officer in the Royal Navy, continued escorting the Portuguese royal family to Brazil with the ships Marlborough, London and Monarch. On January 22, 1808, John and his court arrived in Brazil.
There, Prince John signed the "Abertura dos Portos" law which allowed commerce between Brazil and "friendly nations". This was beneficial for Great Britain and can be seen as one of many ways Prince John found to reward the British Empire for their assistance; this new law, broke the colonial pact that had permitted Brazil to maintain direct commercial relations with Portugal only. This transformed the Brazilian economy, subsequently, its demographics and society. Secret negotiations at London in 1807 by Portuguese ambassador Domingos António de Sousa Coutinho guaranteed British military protection in exchange for British access to Brazil's ports and to Madeira as a naval base. Coutinho's secret negotiations paved the way for Prince John's law to come to fruition in 1808. On, in attempts to modernize the economy and diversify the production of the colony, Dom João allowed for the establishment of manufacturing industries in 1808 through the signing of the "Alvará de Liberdade para as Indústrias".
This meant. In this decree, Dom João said that in an attempt to promote national wealth and recognize that manufacturing, industrial labor, multiplication of labor promote means of subsistence for subjects, Brazil should invest in those sectors effective immediately, he abolished any prohibition to industrial development. This attracted investment from Great Britain and, in a way, did expand the demand for labor; when the Portuguese court arrived in Rio de Janeiro on March 7, 1808, Brazil was sparsely populated, with a little over 3 million inhabitants. Around one-third of the colony’s population consisted of enslaved peoples, most having been captured and shipped from Africa; the indigenous population at the time was of around 800,000 people, having been reduced and isolated during the first 300 years of exploration and colonization. Population density was concentrated along the Atlantic coastline. Rio de Janeiro, around the start of the 19th century, was experiencing a sizeable population boom.
Over the 18th century, the population had increased tenfold due to the discovery of gold and diamonds and the migration of 800,000 individuals that ensued. In addition, it is estimated that 2 million enslaved Africans were brought to Brazil to work in mines and power the sugar industry. Brazilians were illiterate and lacking several basic needs, including medical care and public health services. Only 2.5% of free men were literate. These changes made the city crammed, the population was displeased, rudimentary colonial administrations were not enough to ensure progress; the small city of Rio de Janeiro was not prepared to welcome the Portuguese court. While the royal family was greeted with cheer and festivities that lasted for weeks, 10,000 houses were branded with the letters ‘PR’ standing for príncipe regente or prince regent, which meant that the homeowners had to evacuate to allow for the nobility to move in. In an silent form of protest, Brazilians gave another meaning to the letters, they started to read ‘PR’ as ponha-se na rua, a phrase that directly translates into to “put yourselves out on the street.”
Another example of implicit forms of protest or negative reactions of the relocation of the court was the intensified presence of caricaturized depictions of Dom João and Carlota. Making its way through popular discourse and taking stereotypical exaggerations that built up Brazilian folklore, Dom
Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, was a leading member of the Brazilian revolutionary movement known as Inconfidência Mineira, whose aim was full independence from Portuguese colonial power and creation of a Brazilian republic. When the separatists' plot was uncovered by authorities, Tiradentes was arrested and publicly hanged. Since the advent of the Brazilian Republic, Xavier has been considered a national hero of Brazil and patron of the Military Police. Xavier was born to a poor family in Pombal, Ritápolis, near Minas Gerais, he was moved to Vila Rica after his parents' deaths. He was raised by a tutor, a surgeon, his lack of formal education didn't stop him from working in several fields, including dental medicine: "Tiradentes" means "tooth puller", a pejorative denomination adopted during the trial against him. He practiced other varied professions, like miner. Xavier used knowledge he acquired about minerals while working as a miner to enter the public service as a terrain surveyor.
He joined the Minas Gerais Dragoon Regiment, where he was given command of a detachment and sent on missions to cities along "Caminho Novo", a road between Vila Rica and Rio de Janeiro through which gold was sent to the coast to be shipped to Portugal. Over time, witnessing the transit of goods along Caminho Novo, Xavier started to perceive the massive exportation of gold and other valuable resources to the metropolis as exploitation to which Brazilians were subjected, he grew dissatisfied with his low rank and a dismissal from his commanding post. His trips to Rio put him in contact with people who had lived in Europe and brought liberal ideas from there. In 1788, Xavier met José Alvares Maciel, a son of Vila Rica's army's commandant who had just returned from England. Contrasting British industrial progress with Brazilian colonial poverty, the two decided to create a group of freedom aspirants. Led by clerics and other Brazilians with some social presence, like Cláudio Manuel da Costa, Tomás Antônio Gonzaga and Alvarenga Peixoto, the group propagated their ideas among the people.
At the time, Portugal's demand for gold was high. However, productivity of Brazilian mines was declining; the colony was failing to meet the quinto – the quota of gold demanded by the Crown – and pressure from the metropolis rose. This culminated in the creation of the derrama, a confiscatory tribute that, in turn, further stirred seditious sentiments. Influenced by the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the American Revolution, Xavier joined a number of like-minded citizens in the Inconfidência Mineira, a revolutionary movement, they envisioned an independent Brazilian republic, with São João del Rei as its capital and the conversion of Vila Rica to a university town. The proposed flag for the new republic had a green triangle over a white background, surrounded by the Latin motto "Libertas Quae Sera Tamen". Xavier's plan was to take to the streets of Vila Rica and proclaim a Brazilian Republic on the day of the derrama, in February 1789, when tax was due to Portugal and the sentiment of revolt among Brazilians would be stronger.
Joaquim Silvério dos Reis, one of the conspirators, exposed the plot in exchange for a tax waiver. The governor of Minas Gerais ordered the imprisonment of the rebels. A trial was carried, lasting three years. Xavier was sentenced to death, along with ten other inconfidentes. Queen Maria I of Portugal commuted the sentences of capital punishment to perpetual banishment for all convicts, except those whose activities involved aggravated circumstances; such was the case of Xavier. He was imprisoned in Rio hanged on April 21st, 1792. Afterwards, his body was quartered and the pieces were sent to Vila Rica, to be displayed in places where he used to propagate his liberal ideas. Xavier began to be considered a national hero by the republicans in the late 19th century. After the institution of the Republic, in 1889, the anniversary of his death became a national holiday, his moniker, "Tiradentes", became the namesake of a city in the state of Minas Gerais, of city squares in Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Ouro Preto, as well as of a major avenue in the Dominican Republic.
Zica family, descendants of Tiradentes Maxwell, Kenneth R, Conflicts and Conspiracies: Brazil & Portugal 1750-1808 ISBN 0-521-20053-9 Museu da Inconfidência Tiradentes at about.com Tiradentes at e-Biografias
The National Gendarmerie is one of two national police forces of France, along with the National Police. It is a branch of the French Armed Forces placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior—with additional duties to the Ministry of Defense, its area of responsibility includes smaller towns and suburban areas, while the Police Nationale—a civilian force—is in charge of cities and downtowns. Due to its military status, the Gendarmerie fulfills a range of military and defense missions; the Gendarmes have a cybercrime division. It has a strength of more than 100,000 personnel as of 2014; the Gendarmerie is heir to the Maréchaussée, the oldest police force in France, dating back to the Middle Ages. It has influenced the culture and traditions of gendarmerie forces all around the world—and in the former French colonial empire; the Gendarmerie is the direct descendant of the Marshalcy of the ancien regime, more known by its French title, the Maréchaussée. During the Middle Ages, there were two Grand Officers of the Kingdom of France with police responsibilities: The Marshal of France and the Constable of France.
The military policing responsibilities of the Marshal of France were delegated to the Marshal's provost, whose force was known as the Marshalcy because its authority derived from the Marshal. The marshalcy dates back to the Hundred Years War, some historians trace it back to the early twelfth century. Another organisation, the Constabulary, was under the command of the Constable of France; the constabulary was regularised as a military body in 1337. In 1415 the Maréchaussée fought in the Battle of Agincourt and their commander, the "Prévôt des Maréchaux", Gallois de Fougières, was killed in battle, his existence was rediscovered in 1934. Gallois de Fougières was officially recorded as the first known gendarme to have died in the line of duty and his remains are now buried under the monument to the gendarmerie in Versailles. Under King Francis I, the Maréchaussée was merged with the Constabulary; the resulting force was known as the Maréchaussée, or, the Constabulary and Marshalcy of France. Unlike the former constabulary the new Maréchaussée was not a militarized force.
In 1720, the Maréchaussée was attached to the Household of the King, together with the "gendarmerie" of the time, not a police force at all, but a royal bodyguard. During the eighteenth century, the marshalcy developed in two distinct areas: increasing numbers of Marshalcy Companies, dispersed into small detachments, were stationed around the French countryside providing law and order, while specialist units provided security for royal and strategic sites such as palaces and the mint While its existence ensured the relative safety of French rural districts and roads, the Maréchaussée was regarded in contemporary England, which had no effective police force of any nature, as a symbol of foreign tyranny. English visitors to France saw their armed and uniformed patrols as royal soldiers with an oppressive role. In 1789, on the eve of the French Revolution, the Maréchaussée numbered 3,660 men divided into small brigades, their limited numbers and scattered deployment rendered the Maréchaussée ineffective in controlling the "Great Fear" of July-August 1789.
During the revolutionary period, the Maréchaussée commanders placed themselves under the local constitutional authorities. Despite their connection with the king, they were therefore perceived as a force favouring the reforms of the French National Assembly; as a result, the Maréchaussée Royale was not disbanded but renamed as the gendarmerie nationale. Its personnel remained unchanged, the functions of the force remained much as before. However, from this point, the gendarmerie, unlike the Maréchaussée became a military force. During the revolutionary period, the main force responsible for policing was the National Guard. Although the Maréchaussée had been the main police force of the ancien regime, the gendarmerie was a full-time auxiliary to the National Guard militia. In 1791 the newly named gendarmerie nationale was grouped into 28 divisions, each commanded by a colonel responsible for three départements. In turn, two companies of gendarmes under the command of captains were based in each department.
This territorial basis of organisation continued throughout the 20th centuries. Under Napoléon, the numbers and responsibilities of the gendarmerie, renamed gendarmerie impériale, were expanded. In contrast to the mounted Maréchaussée, the gendarmerie comprised both foot personnel. In 1804 the first Inspector General of Gendarmerie was appointed and a general staff established—based in the rue du Faubourg-Saint-Honoré in Paris. Subsequently, special gendarmerie units were created within the Imperial Guard, for combat duties in French occupied Spain. Following the Second Restoration of 1815, the gendarmerie was reduced in numbers to about 18,000 and reorganised into departmental legions. Under King Louis Phillippe a "gendarmerie of Africa" was created for service in Algeria and during the Second Empire the Imperial Guard Gendarmerie Regiment was re-established; the majority of gendarmes continued in what was now the established role of the corps—serving in small sedent
Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority. Abdications have played various roles in the succession procedures of monarchies. While some cultures have viewed abdication as an extreme abandonment of duty, in other societies, abdication was a regular event, helped maintain stability during political succession. Abdications have either occurred by force or voluntarily; some rulers are ruled to have abdicated in absentia, vacating the physical throne and thus their position of power, although these judgments were pronounced by successors with vested interest in seeing the throne abdicated, without or despite the direct input of the abdicating monarch. Due to the ceremonial nature of the regnant in many constitutional monarchies, many monarchs have abdicated due to old age, such as the monarchs of Spain and the Netherlands; the word abdication is derived from the Latin abdicatio meaning to renounce. In its broadest sense abdication is the act of renouncing and resigning from any formal office, but it is applied to the supreme office of state.
In Roman law the term was applied to the disowning of a family member, such as the disinheriting of a son. Today the term applies to monarchs, or to those who have been formally crowned. An elected or appointed official is said to resign rather than to abdicate. A notable exception is the voluntary relinquishing of the office of Bishop of Rome by the Pope, called Papal resignation or Papal renunciation. In certain cultures, the abdication of a monarch was seen as a profound and shocking abandonment of royal duty; as a result, abdications only occurred in the most extreme circumstances of political turmoil or violence. For other cultures, abdication was a much more routine element of succession. Among the most notable abdications of antiquity are those of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the Dictator, in 79 BC; the most notable abdication in recent history is that of King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom and the Dominions. In 1936 Edward abdicated to marry American divorcée Wallis Simpson, over the objections of the British establishment, the governments of the Commonwealth, the Royal Family and the Church of England.
It was the first time in history that the British or English crown was surrendered voluntarily. Richard II of England, for example, was forced to abdicate after power was seized by his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, while Richard was abroad. During the Glorious Revolution in 1688, James II of England and VII of Scotland fled to France, dropping the Great Seal of the Realm into the Thames, the question was discussed in Parliament whether he had forfeited the throne or had abdicated; the latter designation was agreed upon in spite of James's protest, in a full assembly of the Lords and Commons it was resolved "that King James II having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of the kingdom, by breaking the original contract between king and people, and, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons, having violated the fundamental laws, having withdrawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the government, that the throne is thereby vacant." The Scottish parliament pronounced a decree of deposition.
In Scotland, Queen of Scots, was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son, James VI. Today, because the title to the Crown depends upon statute the Act of Settlement 1701, a royal abdication can be effected only by an Act of Parliament. To give legal effect to the abdication of King Edward VIII, His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 was passed. In Japanese history, abdication was used often, in fact occurred more than death on the throne. In those days, most executive authority resided in the hands of regents, the Emperor's chief task was priestly, containing so many repetitive rituals that it was deemed the incumbent Emperor deserved pampered retirement as an honored retired emperor after a service of around ten years. A tradition developed that an Emperor should accede to the throne young; the high-priestly duties were deemed possible for a walking child. Thus, many Japanese Emperors have acceded as children, some only 8 years old. Childhood helped the monarch to endure tedious duties and to tolerate subjugation to political power-brokers, as well as sometimes to cloak the powerful members of the imperial dynasty.
All Japanese empresses and dozens of Emperors abdicated and lived the rest of their lives in pampered retirement, wielding influence behind the scenes with more power than they had had while on the throne. Several Emperors abdicated while still in their teens; these traditions show in Japanese folklore, theater and other forms of culture, where the Emperor is described or depicted as an adolescent. Before the Meiji Restoration, Japan had eleven reigning empresses. Over half of Japanese empresses abdicated once a suitable male descendant was considered to be old enough to rule. Since the Meiji Restoration and the subsequent reorganization of imperial succession, no Emperor has abdicated and all have died o
Civil Police (Brazil)
In Brazil, the Civil Police is the name of the investigative state police forces. The Civil Police are agencies of the public administration of the states and of the Federal District of Brazil, whose function is, in accordance with article 144 of the Federal Constitution of 1988, the exercise of the public security for the preservation of the public order, of the safety of the people and the patrimony; each of the state and the of Federal District has its own "Civil Police Department", which carries out detective work and criminal investigation, acting as a state bureau of investigation, while the "Military Police" carries out preventive police duties. It aims at the exercise of functions of judiciary police and the exercise of activities of administrative and security police, which are indispensable to the preservation of the juridical order, to the harmonic life of the community, to guarantee citizens' rights and liberty; the Civil Police of Brazil had origin in the General Intendancy of Police, created in Rio de Janeiro in 1808.
With the transference of the Portuguese Royal Family to Brazil in 1808, the Police started to be regulated, have structure and important social role. The Police General Intendancy of the Court and the State of Brazil was created by charter of D. João VI on May 10 of that year, centralizing the police attributes of competence belonging to several authorities such as Ouvidor Geral, the alcaydes, the quadrilheiros and the road and assaults captains; the first Police General Superintendent was Councilor Paulo Fernandes Viana who organized the police administration in Rio de Janeiro city as it used to be in Lisbon. The Police General Intendancy went through the phase of the Brazilian politic emancipation movement which culminated on September 7, 1822. Civil Police had been developing for all country during the governments Imperial and Republican. Today, the constitutional existence of the Civil Police and its attributions elapse of article 144, IV and 144 § 4°, of the Federal Constitution. 27 Civil Police Forces in Brazil, one for each State of the federacy exist.
They are directed by a Head of Police, chosen amongst the Commission agents of Police of career. The services of judiciary police are given through the Police stations of Police, agencies that have jurisdiction on small cities or quarters of the great cities. Police Superior CouncilA collegiate organ CabinetDirect assistance of the Police Chief Planning and Police Operations DepartmentOperational planning General Office of PoliceFiscalization Police State AcademyProfessional formation Police DepartmentsOperational organs Administration DepartmentAdministrative support Technical-Scientific DepartmentTechnical-scientific support Special Investigations Department, the information organ of the states police, is responsible for the complex police investigations; the function of Judiciary Police is exercised through the police inquiry, included in the Brazilian prosecution law in order to investigate the penal infractions and their responsibility. When concluded the inquiry is sent to the criminal judge.
Police Authority Delegated/Commissioner of Police Agents of the Authority Notary of Police Agent, Investigator or Inspector Police Specialists CSI - Crime Scene Investigator Note: In several Brazilian states, Police Specialists direct an unattended Police Department called "Scientific Police" or "Technical Police", responsible for criminal expertise at the respective state. Polícia Civil do Distrito Federal - Brasilia Polícia Civil do Estado do Acre Polícia Civil do Estado de Alagoas Polícia Civil do Estado do Amapá Polícia Civil do Estado do Amazonas Polícia Civil do Estado da Bahia Polícia Civil do Estado do Ceará Polícia Civil do Estado do Espírito Santo Polícia Civil do Estado de Goiás Polícia Civil do Estado do Maranhão Polícia Civil do Estado do Mato Grosso Polícia Civil do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul Polícia Civil do Estado de Minas Gerais Polícia Civil do Estado do Pará Polícia Civil do Estado da Paraíba Polícia Civil do Estado do Paraná Polícia Civil do Estado de Pernambuco Polícia Civil do Estado do Piauí Polícia Civil do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte Polícia Civil do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Polícia Civil do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Polícia Civil do Estado de Rondônia Polícia Civil do Estado de Roraima Polícia Civil do Estado de Santa Catarina Polícia Civil do Estado de São Paulo Polícia Civil do Estado de Sergipe Polícia Civil do Estado de Tocantins Taurus pistols Glock pistols Colt pistols Smith & Wesson pistols Heckler & Koch MP5 Colt M16A2 Heckler & Koch G3 Grupo de Operações Especiais CORE Civil Police of Rio de Janeiro State Civil Police of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Official web site, in Portuguese Civil Police of the Minas Gerais State Brazilian Federal Police Official web site, in Portuguese
Military Firefighters Corps
In Brazil, the Military Firefighters Corps is a military organization with the mission of civil defense and search and rescue inside the States of the Federation. Since 1915, it has been an auxiliary force of the Brazilian Army; the Military Firefighter Corps is part of the National Public Security and Social Defense System of Brazil. Members of the Corps, like the members of the Military Police, are designated as being part of the military of the States by the Federal Constitution; each State has its own Military Firefighters Corps, with different structures and uniforms. The first organization of firefighters was created by Emperor Pedro II in 1856; the Corps was not of a military character. It was only in 1880 that the Corps was militarized and it adopted a military hierarchy; because of cultural and linguistic affinities to France, the Military Firefighter adopted an organisation similar to that of the Sapeurs-pompiers of Paris. With the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889, the States that were financially better off were able to constitute their own Firefighters Corps.
On the other hand, the Firefighters Corps of the Federal Capital, was from the start autonomous, being created within the structure of the armed forces of the State, the former name of the current Brazilian military police. In 1915 Federal legislation authorized the incorporation of the militarized forces of the states into the Brazilian Army, in the event of national mobilization. In 1917 the Brigade of Police and the Firefighters Corps of the Federal Capital were considered part of the military reserve. In this period the Firefighters Corps, as members of the military forces of the States, fought in the main conflicts that resulted in present-day Brazil; this situation was altered again after the Revolutions of 1930 and the 1932. With the end of World War II, the fall of the Estado Novo, the forces in the States reverted to full State control. In 1967 the Inspectorate General of Military Police was created, reporting to the Ministry of War, responsible for coordinating and conducting control activities over the Military Police.
With the end of the Military Government and the institution of a new Constitution in 1988, the States were granted autonomy to administer their security forces as best suited them. The majority opted to separate the Firefighters Corps from the Military Police; the term "Military" was inserted in 1990 to distinguish the Military Firefighters Corps from organizations of civilian and voluntary firefighters. Starting 2013, the MFC has full operational duties over the civilian private firefighting academies in order to combat corruption in the civil fire services. In all of Brazil, the Emergency telephone number of the Military Firefighters Corps is one, three, it is a toll-free call. The Gymnastic belt is one of the essential elements of the uniforms of the Military Firefighters Corps. At first the belt was reinforced, made of cotton and leather, enabling it to serve as a climbing harness. Today it only serves as a ceremonial item. There are only two models of belts: 1 - Colonel Commandant 2 - Colonel Second Commandant The Inspectorate General of Military Police is a command element of the Brazilian Army, responsible for coordinating and conducting activities of control over the Military Police and Military Firefighters Corps of the States.
It is part of the Land Operations Command and its mission is: The establishment of principles and standards for the effective implementation of control and coordination of the Military Police under the command of the Army, through its Military Area Commands and other major military commands. Collaboration in studies aiming at rights and guarantees of the military forces of the States, the establishment of conditions commensurate mobilization. Brazilian Armed Forces Military Police