A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country. A representative of his government, he officially has diplomatic functions which are seen as a form of indirect rule. Residents could be posted with shadowy governments, even after the Congress of Vienna restored the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1815, the British posted a mere Resident to Florence. Some official representatives of European colonial powers, while in theory diplomats, a trusted Resident could even become the de facto prime minister to a native ruler. In other respects they acted as an ambassador of their own government, instead of being a representative to a single ruler, a Resident could be posted to more than one native state, or to a grouping of states which the European power decided for its convenience. This could create a geographical unit, as in Residency X in some parts of the British Indian Empire. Similar positions could carry alternative titles, such as Political Agent and Resident Commissioner, a Residents real role varied enormously, depending upon the underlying relationship between the two parties and even upon the personalities of the Resident and the ruler.
In French protectorates, such as those of Morocco and Tunisia, the Residents of the governments of the United Kingdom and the dominions to a variety of protectorates include, In the Sultanate of Zanzibar, the second homeland of the Omani dynasty, since 1913. From 1913 to 1961 the Residents were the Sultans vizier, there were Consuls and Consuls-general until 1963. In present-day Kenya, in the Sultanate of Witu, after the British took over the protectorate from the German Empire, which had itself posted a Resident. In British Cameroon, since 1916, in 1949 restyled Special Resident for Edward John Gibbons, in kwaZulu, which since 1843 was under a British protectorate, after it became the Zulu Native Reserve or Zululand Province on 1 September 1879, two British Residents. In the Dutch East Indies, Dutch residents and lower ranks such as assistant residents were posted alongside a number of the native princes in present Indonesia. For example, on Sumatra, there were Dutch Residents at Palembang, at Medan in Deli sultanate, another was posted with the Sultan of and on Ternate, france maintained Residents, the French word being Résident.
However the Jacobine tradition of state authority didnt agree well with indirect rule. Many were part of a white colonial hierarchy, rather than truly posted with a ruler or chieftain. A single post of Resident was created in Côte dIvoire, the Resident-Superior of Cambodia answered to the Governor-General of Indochina, however. In the German colonies, the title was Resident, the post was called Residentur. e, such function could be performed under another title, such as Commissioner or High Commissioner. John Bridger Philby August 1924 – March 1939 Henry Cox March 1939 –17 June 1946 Alec Seath Kirkbride Also after World War II, in the colony of Western Australia regional administration was conducted under instruction of the Governor in Council by Government Residents
Nuncio is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or international organization. A nuncio is appointed by and represents the Holy See, and is the head of the mission, called an Apostolic Nunciature. The Holy See is legally distinct from the Vatican City or the Catholic Church, a nuncio is usually an archbishop. A papal nuncio is equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary. A nuncio performs the functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges. Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party, the representative of the Holy See in some situations is called a Delegate or, in the case of the United Nations, Permanent Observer. In the Holy See hierarchy, these usually rank equally to a nuncio, in addition, the nuncio serves as the liaison between the Holy See and the Church in that particular nation, supervising the diocesan episcopate and has an important role in the selection of bishops.
The name nuncio is derived from the ancient Latin word, before 1829, Internuncio was the title applied instead to the ad interim head of a mission when one Nuncio had left office and his replacement had not yet assumed it. A legate a latere is a papal representative or a representative for a special purpose. Apostolic delegates have the ecclesiastical rank as nuncios, but have no formal diplomatic status. Archbishop Pio Laghi, for example, was first apostolic delegate, pro-nuncio, to the United States during the Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Apostolic delegates are sent to regions such as the West Indies and the islands of the Pacific. Alterations in the credentials of a head of mission not involving any change of class shall not affect his precedence and this article is without prejudice to any practice accepted by the receiving State regarding the precedence of the representative of the Holy See. A Holy See Representative is accredited to an organisation where other states dispatch a Permanent Representative
High commissioner (Commonwealth)
In the Commonwealth of Nations, a high commissioner is the senior diplomat in charge of the diplomatic mission of one Commonwealth government to another. Instead of an embassy, the mission is generally called a high commission. For example, when Cyprus came under British administration in 1878 it remained nominally under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, another example were the high commissioners for Palestine. As diplomatic residents were appointed to native rulers, high commissioners could likewise be appointed as British agents of indirect rule over native states. The first high commissioner of India to London was appointed in 1920, he had no political role, the first agent of the Indian government was appointed to South Africa in 1927. The high commissioner to New Zealand ex officio is the governor of the Pitcairn Islands, the first dominion high commissioner was appointed by Canada as its envoy in London. Macdonald, from 1869 to 1874 and was given the title of Financial Commissioner from 1874 until 1880, the Canadian government appointed Alexander Tilloch Galt as the first high commissioner of Canada to the United Kingdom in 1880.
New Zealand appointed a commissioner in 1905, in place of a resident agent-general which have been appointed since 1871. Australia did the same in 1910, and South Africa in 1911, the British government continued not to appoint high commissioners to the Dominions, holding that the British government was already represented by the relevant governor-general or governor. The practice became the norm throughout the Commonwealth, the first British high commissioner to a dominion was appointed in 1928 to Canada. South Africa received a British high commissioner in 1930, Australia in 1936, the first high-ranking official envoy from one dominion to another was appointed by South Africa to Canada in 1938. Yet, because of various complications, only in 1945 was South African envoy to Canada designated officially as high commissioner. New Zealand appointed a commissioner to Canada in 1942. As sixteen Commonwealth members, known as the Commonwealth realms, share the same monarch as head of state, in diplomatic usage, a high commissioner is considered equivalent in rank and role to an ambassador.
The difference in accreditation is reflected in the titles of envoys to foreign and Commonwealth states. For historical reasons, high commissioners are appointed even in the case of republics in the Commonwealth, in this case, letters of commission are usually issued by one head of state and presented to the other. g. The British high commissioner in Suva, Fiji, is accredited as high commissioner to Kiribati, Tuvalu. Zimbabwe, as a Commonwealth country, traditionally had high commissioners in other Commonwealth countries, when it withdrew from the Commonwealth, it changed the style of its high commissions to embassies
The Russo-Japanese War was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea, Russia sought a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean for their navy and for maritime trade. Vladivostok was operational only during the summer, whereas Port Arthur, since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Japan feared Russian encroachment on its sphere of influence. Russia had demonstrated an expansionist policy in the Siberian Far East from the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century, through threat of Russian expansion, Japan offered to recognize Russian dominance in Manchuria in exchange for recognition of Korea as being within the Japanese sphere of influence. Russia refused and demanded Korea north of the 39th parallel to be a buffer zone between Russia and Japan. The Japanese government perceived a Russian threat to its strategic interests, after negotiations broke down in 1904, the Japanese Navy opened hostilities by attacking the Russian Eastern Fleet at Port Arthur, China, in a surprise attack.
The war concluded with the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by US President Theodore Roosevelt, the complete victory of the Japanese military surprised world observers. The consequences transformed the balance of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japans recent entry onto the world stage and it was the first major military victory in the modern era of an Asian power over a European one. Scholars continue to debate the historical significance of the war, after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the Meiji government endeavored to assimilate Western ideas, technological advances and ways of warfare. By the late 19th century, Japan had transformed itself into an industrial state. The Japanese wanted to be recognized as equal with the Western powers, the Meiji restoration had always been intended to make Japan a modernized state, not a Westernized one, and Japan was always an imperialist power, looking towards overseas expansionism. By the 1890s it had extended its realm across Central Asia to Afghanistan, the Russian Empire stretched from Poland in the west to the Kamchatka Peninsula in the east.
With its construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway to the port of Vladivostok, in the Tsushima incident of 1861 Russia had directly assaulted Japanese territory. Between the Meiji Restoration and its participation in World War I, the first war Japan fought was the First Sino-Japanese War, fought in 1894 and 1895. The war revolved around the issue of control and influence over Korea under the rule of the Joseon dynasty, from the 1880s onward, there had been vigorous competition for influence in Korea between China and Japan. The Korean court was prone to factionalism, and was divided by a reformist faction that was pro-Japanese. In 1884, a coup attempt was put down by Chinese troops. A peasant rebellion led by the Tonghak religious movement led to a request by the Korean government for the Qing dynasty to send in troops to stabilize the country
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In this sense, officers are not enlisted, but hold appointments from their government that typically remain in force indefinitely unless resigned, the proportion of officers varies greatly. Officers typically make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel, in 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, and the senior 13. 7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, however, armed forces have generally had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers, in the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12. 5%. Within a nations armed forces, armies tend to have a proportion of officers. For example,13. 9% of British army personnel and 22. 2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, having officers is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though these officers need not have obtained an official commission or warrant.
Commissioned officers are typically the only persons, in an armed forces environment, a superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, who is a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se, many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning, even from the enlisted ranks. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel, the IDF often sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers, the first, and primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. The third route is similar to the second, in that they convert from an enlisted to a commission, but these are taken from the highest ranks of SNCOs.
LE officers, whilst holding the same Queens Commission, generally work in different roles from the DE officers, in the infantry, a number of Warrant Officer Class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 30-week period at RAF College Cranwell, Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a grueling 15-month course. The courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, etiquette, until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least socially mobile, AOCS also included the embedded Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate and Naval Aviation Cadet programs. NAVCADs were personnel who held associates degrees, but lacked bachelors degrees, nAVCADs would complete the entire AOCS program, but would not be commissioned until completion of flight training and receiving their wings.
After their initial tour, they would be assigned to a college or university full-time for no more than two years in order to complete their bachelors degree
United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
USS Freedom (LCS-1)
USS Freedom is the lead ship of the Freedom class of littoral combat ships. She is the vessel of the United States Navy to be so named for the concept of freedom. She is the design produced by the Lockheed Martin consortium. She is designed for a variety of missions in shallow waters, capable against submarines, small ships and humanitarian relief, the ship is a semi-planing monohull design capable of over 40 knots. Commissioned in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on 8 November 2008, USS Freedom is home-ported in San Diego, USS Freedom is designed to be a fast and networked surface combatant for missions such as anti-mine warfare, anti-submarine warfare, surface warfare and humanitarian relief. The ship is a semi-planing steel monohull with an aluminum superstructure, the friction stir welded aluminum deckhouse is very flat which, combined with an angular design, makes it difficult for radar systems to detect. The ship is 377 feet in length, displaces 3,500 metric tons fully loaded, the flight deck is 1.5 times the size of that of a standard surface ship, and uses a Trigon traversing system to move helicopters in and out of the hangar.
The ship has two ways to launch and recover various mission packages, a ramp and a starboard side door near the waterline. The mission module bay has a 3-axis crane for positioning modules or cargo, the fore deck has a modular weapons zone which can be used for a 57 mm gun turret or missile launcher. A Rolling Airframe Missile launcher is mounted above the hangar for short-range defense against aircraft and cruise missiles, the core crew will be 40 sailors, usually joined by a mission package crew and an aviation detachment for a total crew of about 75. Automation allows a crew, which greatly reduces operating costs. Four 750 kilowatts Fincantieri Isotta-Fraschini diesel generators provide 3 megawatts of power to power the ship systems. Freedom has relaxed stability so it can change course. The operational concept is in support of the U. S. Navys Maritime Strategy. Principal capabilities include shallow-water anti-submarine warfare, mine countermeasures and defense against attacking small boats, LCS ships are to be networked to share tactical information with other units.
Freedom will be based in San Diego with two crews which will alternate four-month tours of sea duty. The Congressional Budget Office estimates that fuel will account for only 8 percent to 18 percent of the total costs for Freedom. The construction contract was awarded to Lockheed Martins LCS team in May 2004 and her keel was laid down on 2 June 2005, by Marinette Marine in Marinette, Wisconsin
The armed forces of a country are its government-sponsored defense, fighting forces, and organizations. They exist to further the foreign and domestic policies of their body and to defend that body. Armed force is the use of armed forces to achieve political objectives, the study of the use of armed forces is called military science. Broadly speaking, this involves considering offense and defense at three levels, operational art, and tactics, all three levels study the application of the use of force in order to achieve a desired objective. In most countries the basis of the forces is the military. However, armed forces can include other paramilitary structures, the obvious benefit to a country in maintaining armed forces is in providing protection from foreign threats and from internal conflict. In recent decades armed forces personnel have used as emergency civil support roles in post-disaster situations. On the other hand, they may harm a society by engaging in counter-productive warfare. Expenditure on science and technology to develop weapons and systems sometimes produces side benefits, although some claim that greater benefits could come from targeting the money directly
United Press International
At its peak, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. It was headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955, at the time of his retirement, UP had 2,900 clients in the United States, and 1,500 abroad. In 1958 it became United Press International after absorbing the International News Service, at its peak, UPI had more than 2,000 full-time employees, and 200 news bureaus in 92 countries, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. With the rising popularity of news, the business of UPI began to decline as the circulation of afternoon newspapers, its chief client category. Its decline accelerated after the 1982 sale of UPI by the Scripps company, the E. W. Scripps Company controlled United Press until its absorption of William Randolph Hearsts smaller competing agency, INS, in 1958 to form UPI. With the Hearst Corporation as a minority partner, UPI continued under Scripps management until 1982, since its sale in 1982, UPI has changed ownership several times and was twice in Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization.
With each change in ownership came deeper service and staff cutbacks and changes of focus, since the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its one-time major rival, the AP, UPI has concentrated on smaller information market niches. It no longer services media organizations in a major way, in 2000, UPI was purchased by News World Communications, an international news media company founded in 1976 by Unification Church leader Sun Myung Moon. It now maintains a website and photo service and electronically publishes several information product packages. It sells a premium service, which has deeper coverage and analysis of emerging threats, the security industry, UPIs content is presented in text and photo formats, in the English and Arabic languages. UPIs main office is in the Miami metropolitan area and it maintains office locations in five countries and uses freelance journalists in other major cities. Beginning with the Cleveland Press, publisher E. W. Scripps created the first chain of newspapers in the United States, Scripps hoped to make a profit from selling that news to papers owned by others.
At that time and until World War II, most newspapers relied on news agencies for stories outside their geographic areas. Despite strong newspaper industry opposition, UP started to sell news to the new and competitive radio medium in 1935, years before competitor AP, controlled by the newspaper industry, Scripps United Press was considered a scrappy alternative news source to the AP. UP reporters were called Unipressers and were noted for their aggressive and competitive streak. UP became a training ground for generations of journalists. Walter Cronkite, who started with United Press in Kansas City, gained fame for his coverage of World War II in Europe and that was part of the spirit. But we knew we could do a good job despite that
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. International treaties are negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. The scholarly discipline of diplomatics, dealing with the study of old documents, derives its name from the same source, but its modern meaning is quite distinct from the activity of diplomacy. Some of the earliest known records are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and the Amurru rulers of Canaan during the 14th century BC. Following the Battle of Kadesh in c, Relations with the government of the Ottoman Empire were particularly important to Italian states. The maritime republics of Genoa and Venice depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, interactions between various merchants and clergy men hailing from the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft. Eventually the primary purpose of a diplomat, which was originally a negotiator and it became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire.
One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture. One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War. However, a deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, and signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state. The treaty was renewed no less than nine times, but did not restrain some Xiongnu tuqi from raiding Han borders. The Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty looked to the Chinese capital of Changan as the hub of civilization, the Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 when the Tang seemed on the brink of collapse. After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia, after several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang finally made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841.
Both diplomats secured the borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography. There was a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China. After warring with the Lý Dynasty of Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia and Persia, starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC. Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century, Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Since the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese became heavily invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Arabia, East Africa