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Military district

Military districts are formations of a state's armed forces which are responsible for a certain area of territory. They are more responsible for administrative than operational matters, in countries with conscript forces handle parts of the conscription cycle. Navies have used a similar model, with organizations such as the United States Naval Districts. A number of navies in South America used naval districts at various points in time. Algeria is divided into six numbered military regions, each with headquarters located in a principal city or town; this system of territorial organization, adopted shortly after independence, grew out of the wartime wilaya structure and the postwar necessity of subduing antigovernment insurgencies that were based in the various regions. Regional commanders control and administer bases and housing, as well as conscript training. Commanders of army divisions and brigades, air force installations, naval forces report directly to the Ministry of National Defence and service chiefs of staff on operational matters.

Algeria had formed France's tenth military region. Military region commanders in 2003 included Brahim Fodel Chérif, Kamel Abderrahmane (2nd Military Region, Abcène Tafer, Abdelmadjid Sahed (4th Military Region, Chérif Abderrazak and Ali Benali. There were 76 northern military districts or military regions, or war areas, which were the largest formations of the National Revolutionary Army, under the Military Affairs Commission, chaired by Chiang Kai-shek during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. During the Second Sino-Japanese War the National Revolutionary Army organized itself into twelve Military Regions; the military regions of the People's Liberation Army were divided into military districts and military sub-districts, under the command of the Central Military Commission. In February 2016, the 7 military regions were changed to 5 theater commands: Eastern Theater Command Southern Theater Command Western Theater Command Northern Theater Command Central Theater Command Under the Third Republic, a military region comprised several departments which supported an army corps.

For many years up to 21 military regions were active. With the evolution of administrative organization, France was divided into regional administrative districts; the military organisation combined the administrative organization and in each CAR corresponded a territorial military division. On the defence side, these military divisions have been grouped into military regions, their number varied depending on the period. The current number is six. During World War II, Germany used the system of military districts to relieve field commanders of as much administrative work as possible and to provide a regular flow of trained recruits and supplies to the Field Army; the method they adopted was to separate the Field Army from the Home Command and to entrust the responsibilities of training, conscription and equipment to that command. The Commander of the Infantry Corps with the identical number commanded the Wehrkreis in peacetime, but command of the Wehrkreis passed to his second-in command at the outbreak of war.

In peacetime, the Wehrkreis was the home to the Infantry Corps of the same number and all subordinate units of that Corps. Until 2013 the German Armed Forces had four military districts – Wehrbereichskommando as part of the Streitkräftebasis or Joint Service Support Command; each WBK controlled several Landeskommandos due to the federal structure of Germany who have taken over functions carried out by the Verteidigungsbezirkskommandos or Military Region Commands as. These command authorities are in charge of all military facilities. Now the Landeskommmandos are led by the National Territorial Command called Kommando Territoriale Aufgaben der Bundeswehr; the Indonesian Army uses military districts, known as Komando Daerah Militer or KODAM. It was created by General Soedirman as a system called "Wehrkreise", adapted from the German system during World War II; the system was ratified in "Surat Perintah Siasat No.1", signed by General Soedirman on November 1948. Military regional commands functioned as a means of circles of defense, or regional defense, to defend the designated islands/provinces under Indonesian territory.

Each MRC commander had full authority to begin operations with assets available in the district. MRC commanders have autonomy over its military structures and organizations. Current Indonesian Military Regional commands are: Kodam Jaya HQ in Jakarta Kodam Iskandar Muda HQ in Banda Aceh Kodam I/Bukit Barisan HQ in Medan Kodam II/Sriwijaya HQ in Palembang Kodam III/Siliwangi HQ in Bandung Kodam IV/Diponegoro HQ in Semarang Kodam V/Brawijaya HQ in Surabaya Kodam VI/Mulawarman HQ in Balikpapan Kodam IX/Udayana HQ in Denpasar Kodam XII/Tanjungpura HQ in Pontianak Kodam XIII/Merdeka HQ in Manado Kodam XIV/Hasanuddin HQ in Makassar Kodam XVI/Pattimura HQ in Ambon Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih HQ in Jayapura Kodam XVIII/Kasuari HQ in Sorong A Regional Command in Kazakhstan operates in a similar fashion to Russian military di

Crank (novel)

Crank is a novel by Ellen Hopkins published in 2004. It is based loosely on the real life addictions of her daughter to crystal meth; the book is required reading in "many high schools, as well as many drug and drug court programs". However, the book has been banned in many locations due to complaints that the book's depictions of drug use, adult language, sexual themes are inappropriate for some readers. Crank takes place the summer before and during the protagonist Kristina's junior year of high school, she decides to visit her father for three weeks. Her father is home, leaving her a lot of time alone. Kristina meets a boy named Adam in Albuquerque. Adam convinces Kristina to try crank, or "the monster", but Kristina runs away the first time she tries it, she is attacked by three men. An antagonist, Adam's girlfriend, sees him comforting Kristina and jumps off of a balcony in a suicide attempt. Kristina feels guilty about Lince; when the three weeks are over, Kristina goes back to Reno, where her mother's house is.

Kristina is now addicted to crank. In Reno, now calling herself Bree, meets the characters Brendan and Chase at a water-park, they exchange numbers, they both promise her crank. Chase and Kristina begin to get closer to one another, they begin dating, though not exclusively. Kristina goes asking for more crank. Brendan drives them both out into the woods, where they get high together, he starts to take off her clothes; when she says no, he becomes violent, claiming that he has "waited weeks", so she should "put up and shut up". He starts ripping her clothes off and rapes her. Afterwards, Brendan makes her pay for the drugs. At home Kristina, still high and shaken up from the rape, writes a letter to Adam telling him she was raped. Soon though she abandons her letter and calls Chase to come over while her parents are out. Chase comes over and she tells him about Brendan before trying to persuade him to have sex with her. Chase says no. However, she does end up having sex with him in the novel. Kristina gets caught hitchhiking by a cop and goes to Juvenile hall, where she gets a direct connection to a meth lab in Mexico through an inmate.

Once she is released from Juvenile hall, Kristina uses her mom's Visa card to pay for the illegal narcotic, she takes her new supply to her druggie friends on "The Avenue". At this part of the novel, Kristina has become a drug dealer, which she describes as making her more "popular". Kristina now has a large amount of crank on her hands, so she is getting high more often; this leads to her becoming more irritable, causing her relationship with her mom to become more strained. Kristina is not showing up to classes, because she is spending all of her time getting high and dealing drugs on "The Avenue"; the story continues with Kristina discovering. Kristina spends the following days going through the symptoms of drug withdrawal. During this time in the novel, she believes that Chase is the father, having had sex with Chase a couple of weeks after being raped. After going to Planned Parenthood, she realizes Brendan is the father. At this point in the novel, Kristina begins to struggle with deciding if she should go through with the pregnancy because she "Feared the uncertainty of choosing parenthood" and "Doubted could give baby away".

Kristina decides to have an abortion, but after feeling "A flutter in belly," the child moving, she decides to keep her baby. After making this decision, Kristina tells her mother and stepfather about her pregnancy, although she does not reveal who the father is; the novel continues with Kristina giving birth to a baby boy, described as'healthy'. The narrative is trying to stop. Kristina Snow is the main character who gets addicted to crystal meth Adam is a boy from Albuquerque, he introduces Kristina to meth. Marie is Kristina's mother, she is described by Kristina as rigid and clean-cut, does not share a good relationship with her daughter. Scott is Kristina's stepdad who feels responsible for Kristina, he is described as "tall and great looking for 40". In the book he is described as smelling "depressingly clean". Chase is one of Kristina's love interests, he is intelligent and kind. Trent is Robyn's younger brother, he is gay and has been bullied because of his sexual orientation. Sarah is Kristina's childhood friend.

She is Irish, smart and has red hair and freckles. Crank was inspired by the life of Ellen Hopkins's daughter, addicted to meth. In an email from the author, Ellen Hopkins said her daughter had been clean for four years, as of 2017, but has spent 18 months in prison. Although the novel is fiction and is only "loosely based" on Ellen Hopkins daughter's own story, it is according to Ellen Hopkins, 60% fact; the novel Crank is written in a form of free verse. Her poetry has been called "interior". Critics note that Ellen Hopkins's "hypnotic and jagged free verse", plays with the spacing of the words on the page, forming her signature "mirror poems"; the narrative perspective of her work has been described as "combin outside analysis with first hand perspectives from behind the characters."Addiction, the consequences of one's choices, coming of age have all been noted as major themes in the

Irina Nakhova

Irina Isayevna Nakhova is a Russian artist. Her father, Isai Nakhov, is a philologist. At 14 years old her mother took her to Victor Pivovarov's Atelier. Pivovarov played an important role in her life and became her mentor. In 2015, Nakhova became the first female artist to represent Russia in its pavilion at the Venice Biennial, she is represented by Nailya Alexander Gallery in New York City. Nakhova lives and works in Moscow and New Jersey, she works with different mediums like fine art, sounds and inflatable materials. She is a Laureate of the Kandinsky 2013 Award. Nakhova graduated from the Graphic Design Department of the Moscow Polygraphic Institute in 1978, she was a member of the Union of Artists of the USSR from 1986 to 1989 and, alongside her friends and colleagues Ilya Kabakov, George Kisevalter, Vladimir Sorokin, Dmitrii Prigov, Andrei Monastyrsky, is considered one of the founding members of Moscow Conceptualism. Nakhova received international recognition as a young artist for Rooms, the first "total installation" in Russian art, located in the Moscow apartment where she still lives today.

In 1988, Nakhova was one of the youngest artists included in Sotheby's first auction in Moscow. The "groundbreaking" auction, titled "Avant-Garde and Soviet Art", realized more than $3,000,000 USD and marked a major step forward in the opening of Russian art to Western European and American markets. Nakhova's work caught the attention of American gallerist Phyllis Kind, who gave the artist three solo shows in New York in the early 1990s, Nakhova's first exhibitions in the United States. From 1994 to 1997 she was a professor in a university in Detroit in the US. In 2011, Nakhova was featured as a special guest of the Fourth Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art at the Moscow Museum of Modern Art; as part of a large-scale retrospective of Nakhova's work, her seminal installation Room No. 2 was a result of her frustration from the oppressive Soviet regime, located in her Moscow apartment where she lives today. In 2013, Nakhova was awarded the Kandinsky Prize in the category of Project of the Year, one of the highest honors in contemporary Russian art, for her work Untitled.

Nakhova described Untitled as "my reckoning with history as comprehended through the history of my family – my grandma, executed grandpa, dad and my past self. This is my attempt to understand the inexplicable state of affairs that has reigned in my country for the last century, to understand through private imagery how millions of people were erased from history and forgotten. In 2015, Nakhova was chosen to represent Russia in its pavilion at the Venice Biennale, she was the first female artist to represent Russia in a solo pavilion. "Based on a dialogue with the pavilion structure itself, designed by Aleksei Shchusev in 1914, The Green Pavilion relates to installation art as much as it does to architecture," writes Stella Kesaeva, President of Stella Art Foundation, in the catalogue for the installation. "As with Zakharov's project, the architectural features of the pavilion comprise an important component of Nakhova's installation. This time, an opening has again been created between the first and second floors of Schusev's building, plus the exterior is painted green.

The result: the Russian Pavilion takes on the appearance of a romantic gazebo, while concealing within itself the spatial metaphor of Kazimir Malevich's Black Square. Another installation presented in this pavilion was her project „rooms“ which were a complex of five different spaces between art and the viewers point of view. " Nakhova’s work has been shown in over thirty solo exhibitions and numerous major group exhibitions worldwide. Major exhibitions include Post Pop: East Meets West. Nakhova's work has be shown in over ten group exhibitions; these include, Thinking Pictures: Moscow Conceptual Art in the Dodge Collection. Zimmerli Art Museum, Rutgers University, Post Pop: East Meets West, Saatchi Gallery, Adresse provisoire pour I’art contemporain russe. Musée de la, her work can be found in private museum collections such as Tate Modern, London. She has taught contemporary art at Wayne State University, Carnegie Mellon University, Princeton University, the International Summer Academy of Fine Arts, among other institutions.

Nakhova's work is in public and private collections throughout France, Great Britain, Spain, Sweden and the United States. In Russia, her work can be found at the Moscow Museum of Modern Art, the National Centre for Contemporary Arts, The State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Nakhova's work is part of the Norton and Nancy Dodge Collection of Soviet Nonconfor


Tiste is a municipality in the district of Rotenburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany. Tiste belonged to the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, established in 1180. In 1648 the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen, first ruled in personal union by the Swedish Crown - interrupted by a Danish occupation - and from 1715 on by the Hanoverian Crown. In 1807 the ephemeral Kingdom of Westphalia annexed the Duchy, before France annexed it in 1810. In 1813 the Duchy was restored to the Electorate of Hanover, which - after its upgrade to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814 - incorporated the Duchy in a real union and the Ducal territory, including Tiste, became part of the new Stade Region, established in 1823

Battle of Çamurlu

The Battle of Çamurlu was fought on July 5, 1413, between Musa Çelebi and Mehmed Çelebi, both sons of Bayezid I, as the last conflict of the Ottoman civil war known as the Ottoman Interregnum. The battle decided which son of Bayezid I would reunite the Ottoman Empire, with Mehmed Çelebi becoming Mehmed I of the Ottoman Empire. After suppressing Cüneyt Bey's revolt, Mehmed Çelebi gathered his troops at Ankara. With his Dulkadirid father-in-law, he began planning an invasion of Rumelia to defeat his brother, Musa. On his march to Bursa, Mehmed gained contingents of troops from western Anatolia. Upon reaching the straits, Mehmed's army was given passage by ships loaned from Manuel II Palaiologos, who supplied Mehmed with some troops. Mehmed marched his army from Constantinople to Edirne, he marched onto Kosovo to join forces with his ally Serbian ruler Stefan Lazarević, along with receiving information from Ewrenos concerning possible defections during the battle. Both armies met near modern-day Samokov, to the south east of Sofia, Bulgaria.

Musa appeared to be winning the battle despite the defection of Pasha Yigit and Sinan Bey of Trikkala. However, the tide of the battle turned in favor of Mehmed, with the help of Serb and Byzantine troops, Musa Çelebi fled. Following the battle, Musa Çelebi was strangled; this battle re-established the unity of the Ottoman state, under the control of Mehmed I

John Maxwell (British Army officer)

General Sir John Grenfell Maxwell, was a British Army officer and colonial governor. He served in the Mahdist War in the Sudan, the Second Boer War, in the First World War, but he is best known for ordering the execution of the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland, he retired in 1922. Maxwell was born at Aigburth, Liverpool, on 11 July 1859 to a family of Scottish Protestant heritage, he attended school at Cheltenham College, studied at the Royal Military College, from 1878, was commissioned into the 42nd foot in 1879. In 1882 Maxwell was part of Wolseley's expeditionary force to Egypt, he rose to captaincy and served with the famous Black Watch in the Anglo-Egyptian War of 1882. For his part in the storming of the rebel fortifications at Tel-El-Kabir, he won his first decoration and Khedive's star, he was first mentioned in despatches as an assistant provost-marshal and as camp commandant during his campaign with the Nile expedition in 1884 and 1885. He played an active role with the Egyptian frontier forces and won a Distinguished Service Order in the engagement at Giniss, he was present in the battle at Bemazaih in 1888 where he was made brevet lieutenant colonel.

He served in the Battle of Omdurman leading the 2nd Brigade. He led the march on the Khalifa's palace. In 1897 he was appointed Governor of Nubia and in 1898 was appointed Governor of Omdurman. Maxwell served in South Africa during the Second Boer War, he departed Southampton in the SS Mexican in February 1900, arrived in Cape Town the following month to take up a staff appointment as a special service officer. He commanded the 14th Brigade on Lord Roberts' march to Pretoria, after the successful occupation of that city was appointed Military Governor of Pretoria and the Western Transvaal in 1900, serving as such until March 1902, when he relinquished the office to allow for gradual extension of civilian rule; as governor he filled a difficult post "with great tact and ability... gained the confidence and esteem of the general public" according to a contemporary news report. After leaving Pretoria he held a command in the Western district, before returning to the United Kingdom in July 1902, following the end of the war the previous month.

In his final despatch from South Africa in June 1902, Lord Kitchener, Commander-in-Chief of the forces during the latter part of the war, described Maxwell as an officer with "an energetic mind, a sound judgment, coupled with his kindly and considerate disposition, have enabled him to render valuable service". For his service in the war, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in the April 1901 South African Honours list and a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1902 Coronation Honours list, but was only invested to both orders after his return home, by King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 24 October 1902. After his return, Maxwell was appointed Chief Staff Officer of the Third Army Corps stationed in Ireland, with the temporary rank of brigadier General on the Staff; as such he was based at army headquarters at the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham from September 1902 until 1904. He became General Officer Commanding British Troops in Egypt in 1908 and was deployed on the Western Front in the First World War until he returned to his role as General Officer Commanding British Troops in Egypt in late 1914 and, in that capacity held the Suez Canal against the Ottoman Raid on the Suez Canal.

Maxwell is best known for his controversial handling of the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland. After it broke out on 24 April 1916, Martial law was declared for the city and county of Dublin by the Lord Lieutenant Lord Wimborne, but the British government at the same time took measures to allow for the court martial of persons breaching the Defence of the Realm Act, passed 8 August 1914. Maxwell arrived in Ireland on Friday 28 April as "military governor" with "plenary powers" under Martial law, replacing Lovick Friend as the primary British military commander in Ireland. Afterwards, he set about dealing with the rebellion under his understanding of Martial law. During the week of 2–9 May, Maxwell was in sole charge of trials and sentences by "field general court martial", in which trials were conducted without defence counsel or jury members and in camera, he had 183 civilians tried, 90 of whom were sentenced to death. Fifteen were shot between 12 May. However, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith and his government became concerned with the speed and secrecy of events, intervened in order to stop more executions.

In particular, there was concern that DORA regulations for general courts martial were not being applied. These regulations called for a full court of thirteen members, a professional judge, a legal advocate, for the proceedings to be held in public, provisions which could have prevented some of the executions. Maxwell admitted in a report to Asquith in June that the impression that the leaders were killed in cold blood and without a trial had resulted in a "revulsion of feeling" that had emerged in favour of the rebels, was the result of the confusion between applying DORA as opposed to Martial law; as a result, Maxwell had the remaining death sentences commuted to penal servitude. Although Asquith had promised to publish the court martial proceedings, the transcripts were not made public until 1999. In 1916 Maxwell was assigned to be General Officer Commanding-in-Chief for Northern Command at York, he was promoted in June 1919 to full general and he retired in 1922. He died on 21 February 1929 and his memorial is in the crypt of York Minster.

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