SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Military history of Canada

The military history of Canada comprises hundreds of years of armed actions in the territory encompassing modern Canada, interventions by the Canadian military in conflicts and peacekeeping worldwide. For thousands of years, the area that would become Canada was the site of sporadic intertribal conflicts among Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the 17th and 18th centuries, Canada was the site of four colonial wars and two additional wars in Nova Scotia and Acadia between New France and New England. In 1763, after the final colonial war—the Seven Years' War—the British emerged victorious and the French civilians, whom the British hoped to assimilate, were declared "British Subjects". After the passing of the Quebec Act in 1774, giving the Canadians their first charter of rights under the new regime, the northern colonies chose not to join the American Revolution and remained loyal to the British crown; the Americans launched invasions in 1775 and 1812. On both occasions, the Americans were rebuffed by Canadian forces.

After Confederation, amid much controversy, a full-fledged Canadian military was created. Canada, remained a British dominion, Canadian forces joined their British counterparts in the Second Boer War and the First World War. While independence followed the Statute of Westminster, Canada's links to Britain remained strong, the British once again had the support of Canadians during the Second World War. Since Canada has been committed to multilateralism and has gone to war within large multinational coalitions such as in the Korean War, the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, the Afghan war. Indigenous warfare tended to be over tribal independence and personal and tribal honour—revenge for perceived wrongs committed against oneself or one's tribe. Before European colonization, indigenous warfare tended to be formal and ritualistic, entailed few casualties. There is some evidence of much more violent warfare the complete genocide of some First Nations groups by others, such as the total displacement of the Dorset culture of Newfoundland by the Beothuk.

Warfare was common among indigenous peoples of the Subarctic with sufficient population density. Inuit groups of the northern Arctic extremes did not engage in direct warfare because of their small populations, relying instead on traditional law to resolve conflicts; those captured in fights were not always killed. Slavery was hereditary, the slaves being prisoners of war and their descendants. Slave-owning tribes of the fishing societies, such as the Tlingit and Haida, lived along the coast from what are now Alaska to California. Among indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, about a quarter of the population were slaves; the first conflicts between Europeans and indigenous peoples may have occurred around 1000 CE, when parties of Norsemen attempted to establish permanent settlements along the northeastern coast of North America. According to Norse sagas, the skraelings of Vinland responded so ferociously that the newcomers withdrew and gave up their plans to settle the area. Prior to French settlements in the St. Lawrence River valley, the local Iroquoian peoples were completely displaced because of warfare with their neighbours the Algonquin.

The Iroquois League was established prior to major European contact. Most archaeologists and anthropologists believe that the League was formed sometime between 1450 and 1600. Existing indigenous alliances would become important to the colonial powers in the struggle for North American hegemony during the 17th and 18th centuries. After European arrival, fighting between indigenous groups tended to be bloodier and more decisive as tribes became caught up in the economic and military rivalries of the European settlers. By the end of the 17th century, First Nations from the northeastern woodlands, eastern subarctic and the Métis had adopted the use of firearms, supplanting the traditional bow; the adoption of firearms increased the number of fatalities. The bloodshed during conflicts was dramatically increased by the uneven distribution of firearms and horses among competing indigenous groups. Two years after the French founded Port Royal in 1605, the English began their first settlement, at Jamestown, Virginia, to the south.

By 1706, the French population was around 16,000 and grew due to a multitude of factors. This lack of immigration resulted in New France having one-tenth of the British population of the Thirteen Colonies by the mid 1700s. La Salle's explorations had given France a claim to the Mississippi River valley, where fur trappers and a few colonists set up scattered settlements; the colonies of New France: Acadia on the Bay of Fundy and Canada on the St. Lawrence River were based on the fur trade and had only lukewarm support from the French monarchy; the colonies of New France grew given the difficult geographical and climatic circumstances. The more favourably located New England Colonies to the south developed a diversified economy and flourished from immigration. From 1670, through the Hudson's Bay Company, the English laid claim to Hudson Bay and its drainage basin, operated fishing settlements in Newfoundland; the early military of New France consisted of a mix of regular soldiers from the French Army (Carig

East Ella

East Ella is a small suburb to the west of the Eastern England city of Kingston upon Hull. East Ella was an area of common land to the east of the nearby village of Anlaby and the west of Hull. Like Anlaby Common, East Ella was once common land near the start of the large city of Hull. By the 1890s the Hull and West Riding Junction Railway had been constructed, east-west, across the land, construction of terraced and court housing had taken place north-west of Spring Villa, on the north side of Anlaby Road; the railway built a locomotive works, sidings in the north-eastern part of the common. By 1910 the locomotive works and sidings had been expanded, by the mid 1920s the housing estate of Anlaby Park had been built as a private development on the grounds of Spring Villa, as well as the Almhouses Lee's Rest Houses. A large fire destroyed the White City stadium in 1938. Remaining parts of the pleasure ground were demolished in 1945, East Ella house in around 1951. Temporary housing was constructed on the grounds in the post Second World War period.

The area is home to many apartment blocks including Lindsey Place. The old Eastfield School has been demolished and has made way for the high-tech Eastfield school on the same plot of land

Zhu Hengjia

Zhu Hengjia, the 12th Prince of Jingjiang. He was a 10th generation descendant of Zhu Shouqian, 12th descendant of Zhu Xinglong, brother of Hongwu Emperor, his son was Shitao, a Chinese landscape painter and poet during the early part of the Qing Dynasty. He had claiming himself as regent of Ming dynasty but was defeated. After Zhu Yousong was defeated, Zhu Hengjia declared himself as Regent at Guangxi under support of Yang Guowei, General soldiers of Guangxi, officer Gu Yi and the others, he changed his era name as Hongwu, the year he "reigned" became "278th year of Hongwu reign". After Qu Shisi knew he arrogated as regent, he ordered the officials of Guangxi not to obey his orders and ordered a general named Chen Bangzhuan for defending him. Due to Ju Shisi had not obeyed Zhu Hengjia, Zhu Hengjia went to Wuzhou captured him and arrested him at Guilin. At the same time, Zhu Yujian has enthroned as Longwu Emperor and Ju Shisi ordered his men to congratulate and requested Zhu Yujian to seize Zhu Hengjia.

After Ding Kuichu attacked at Wuzhou, Zhu Hengjia escaped to Guilin. He released Ju Shisi, to hope Ju will help him but Ju Shisi captured him. Zhu Hengjia was escorted to Fujian and was killed. There are many different records about Zhu Hengjia's end: "Hengjia, Yang Guowei and Gu Yi got captured and escorted to Fujian, Yang and Gu got killed and Hengjia died in the prison." "Hengjia died due to sick." "Hengjia and Guowei got captured and escorted to Fuzhou, they got killed" "The Prince of Tang demoted Hengjia, the Prince of Jingjiang as commoner. Ding Kuichu escorted Hengjia, Yang Guowei, Gu Yi and Shi Qiwen to the quinsay at Jianning, the Emperor meeting with Prince of Huai and Prince of Chu, they agreed to do not demoting him and placed him at Lianjiang."