Foreign relations of the Holy See
It remains such, and indeed one observer has said that its interaction with the world has, in the period since World War II, been at its highest level ever. The diplomatic activities of the Holy See are directed by the Secretariat of State, the Holy See recognizes all UN member states, except for China and North Korea. The Holy See recognizes the State of Palestine, the only other non-UN member it recognizes besides for Taiwan, since medieval times the episcopal see of Rome has been recognized as a sovereign entity. Earlier, there were papal representatives to the Emperors of Constantinople, beginning in 453, in the eleventh century the sending of papal representatives to princes, on a temporary or permanent mission, became frequent. In the fifteenth century it became customary for states to accredit permanent resident ambassadors to the Pope in Rome, the first permanent papal nunciature was established in 1500 in Venice. Their number grew in the course of the century to thirteen. With the First World War and its aftermath the number of states with diplomatic relations with the Holy See increased, for the first time since relations were broken between the Pope and Queen Elizabeth I of England, a British diplomatic mission to the Holy See was opened in 1914.
In the same period, the Holy See concluded a total of twenty-nine concordats and other agreements with states, including Austro-Hungary in 1881, Russia in 1882 and 1907, two of these concordats were registered at the League of Nations at the request of the countries involved. While bereft of territorial sovereignty, the Holy See accepted requests to act as arbitrator between countries, including a dispute between Germany and Spain over the Caroline Islands. The Lateran Treaty of 1929 and the founding of the Vatican City State was not followed by any great immediate increase in the number of states with which the Holy See had official relations and this came later, especially after the Second World War. The Holy See, as a sovereign entity and full subject of international law. It had the territory of the States of the Church under its direct sovereign rule since centuries before that time, currently it has the territory of the State of the Vatican City under its direct sovereign rule. The Holy See currently has diplomatic relations with 180 sovereign states and in addition with the sovereign entity Order of Malta, the Holy See has established official diplomatic relations with the State of Palestine.
By agreement with the government of Vietnam, it has a non-resident papal representative to that country and it has official formal contacts, without establishing diplomatic relations, Afghanistan, Somalia and Saudi Arabia. He was expelled, after which the Holy See sent its representative to Taipei instead, Relations of a special nature had previously been in place with Russia similar to those that continue to exist with the Palestinian Liberation Organization. It is a guest of honour to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security, since 6 April 1964, the Holy See has been a permanent observer state at the United Nations. Although the Holy See is closely associated with Vatican City, the independent territory over which the Holy See is sovereign, the Holy See, not Vatican City, maintains diplomatic relations with states, and foreign embassies are accredited to the Holy See, not to Vatican City State. The same authority is extended under international law over the Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See in a foreign country
A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a new Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope. The pope is considered by Roman Catholics to be the successor of Saint Peter. The conclave has been the procedure for choosing the pope for almost a thousand years, conclaves are now held in the Sistine Chapel of the Apostolic Palace. Since the Apostolic Age, the Bishop of Rome, like other bishops, was chosen by the consensus of the clergy, the body of electors was more precisely defined when, in 1059, the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of electors. Since then, other details of the process have developed, in 1970, Pope Paul VI limited the electors to cardinals under 80 years of age. A two-thirds supermajority vote is required to elect the new pope, the procedures relating to the election of the pope have undergone almost two millennia of development. As the Christian communities became established they started to elect bishops, chosen by the clergy and laity of the community with the assistance of the bishops of neighbouring dioceses.
St. Cyprian says that Pope Cornelius was chosen Bishop of Rome by the decree of God and of His Church, by the testimony of all the clergy, by the college of aged bishops. As was true for bishops of dioceses, the clergy of the Diocese of Rome was the electoral body for the Bishop of Rome. Instead of casting votes, the bishop was selected by consensus or by acclamation. The candidate would be submitted to the people for their approval or disapproval. This lack of precision in the election procedures occasionally gave rise to rival popes or antipopes. The right of the laity to refuse the person elected was abolished by a Synod held in the Lateran in 769, the pope was subjected to oaths of loyalty to the Holy Roman Emperor, whose task it was to provide security and public peace in Rome. The cardinal bishops were to meet first and discuss the candidates before summoning the cardinal priests, through much of the Middle Ages and Renaissance there were a small number of cardinals, down to as few as seven under either Pope Alexander IV or Pope John XXI.
Difficult travel further reduced the number arriving at the conclave, with a small electorate an individual vote was significant, and was not easily shaken from familial or political lines. Conclaves could last months and even years, lengthy elections resumed and continued to be the norm until 1294, when a Benedictine hermit was elected Pope Celestine V. Celestine reinstated the strict conclave, but soon resigned the papacy. Beginning with Pope John XXIIIs attempts to broaden the representation of nations in the College of Cardinals, though this remains the theoretical limit, John Paul II exceeded this for short periods of time with knowledge of impending retirements. Originally, lay status did not bar election to the Bishop of Rome, Bishops of dioceses were sometimes elected while still catechumens, such as the case of St. Ambrose
An appeal may be had to the Pope himself, who is the supreme ecclesiastical judge. The Catholic Church has a legal system, which is the oldest in the West still in use today. The court is named Rota because the judges, called auditors, the Rota was established in the 13th century. The Pope appoints the auditors of the Rota and designates one of them the dean, on Saturday, September 22,2012, Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation as Dean, for reasons of age, of Bishop Antoni Stankiewicz, and appointed in his place Msgr. Pio Vito Pinto, until serving as a prelate Auditor of the Court of first instance, the Rota issues its decrees and sentences in Latin. The auditors of the Rota are selected from among recognized ecclesiastical judges serving various Dioceses around the world, the Rotas official records begin in 1171. Until the Risorgimento and the loss of the Papal States in 1870, until the 14th century the court was formally known as the Apostolic Court of Audience. Its first usage in a bull is in 1418.
It is possible that the term Rota comes from the wheel that was centered in the marble floor of Avignon. The Rota serves as a tribunal of first instance in cases such as any contentious case in which a Bishop of the Latin Church is a defendant. If the case can still be appealed after a Rotal decision, the Rota is the highest appeals court, or Supreme court, for all judicial trials in the Catholic Church. The Roman Rota proceedings are governed by a set of rules. Only advocates who are registered in a specific list are allowed to represent the parties before the Tribunal, since Pope Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio Quaerit semper the Rota has had exclusive competence to dispense from marriages ratum sed non consummatum. The Dean of the Rota, even if not already consecrated a Bishop, is to be addressed as Your Excellency, all Prelate Auditor Judges of the Rota are styled, Most Reverend Monsignor. The active auditors of the Rota, with their dates of appointment by the Pope, domenico Teti, Dean of the Roman Rota Tribunal of the Roman Rota Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts GCatholic.
org Herbermann, Charles, ed. Sacra Romana Rota
Dominique François Joseph Mamberti is the Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura in the Roman Curia. He was elevated to the cardinalate by Pope Francis in 2015, Dominique Mamberti was born in Marrakesh, Morocco, on 7 March 1952 and was ordained a priest of the Diocese of Ajaccio, France, on 20 September 1981. He has academic degrees in civil and canon law, Mamberti is considered an expert on Latin America, the United Nations, the Middle East and Islam. On 18 May 2002, Pope John Paul II appointed him Titular Archbishop of Sagona and Apostolic Nuncio to Sudan and he received episcopal consecration from Cardinal Secretary of State Angelo Sodano on 3 July 2002. On 19 February 2004, he was appointed Apostolic Nuncio to Eritrea and he was appointed Secretary for Relations with States by Pope Benedict XVI on 15 September 2006. This post is generally seen as the equivalent of Foreign Minister of the Holy See, in 2007 Archbishop Mamberti was awarded the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic.
In September 2007, Mamberti orchestrated the first official visit between an Arab Head of State, Sudans President Omar el-Bashir and Pope Benedict, the visit took place at the Popes Summer residence, Castel Gondolfo. Shortly after this event, the King of Saudi Arabia met the Pope. This marked the beginning of a new period of Catholic-Muslim relations and he met with President Raul Castro, saying afterward that bilateral relations are cordial, continuing and on the rise. The visit of Mamberti showed the development of relations between the state and the Catholic Church in Cuba, the governments note said. Archbishop Dominique Mamberti did not say whether the Vatican explicitly supported the Palestinians U. N. initiative, one of them has already been created, while the other has not yet been established, although nearly 64 years have passed. The Holy See is convinced if we want peace, it is necessary to adopt courageous decisions. At the opening of the UN General Assembly in September 2012, Mamberti said that law is solidly based upon the dignity and nature of humanity—in other words.
He called the UN delegates attention to the language of the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, international law will earn recognition and respect, he said, if it is recognised as protecting every person and nation, not favouring the powerful. In a separate address in early October 2012, Mamberti spoke of the theme of the assembly was the Adjustment or settlement of disputes or situations by peaceful means. All interested parties should not only facilitate the mission of the envoy of the United Nations and the Arab League. On January 16,2013, Mamberti gave an interview to Vatican Radio about the Catholic Churchs autonomy and he defended the right to a conscience clause for Christian employers who refused services to homosexuals. Mamberti said that the Holy See is “deeply concerned” with the suffering of Christians in the region, Christian communities are suffering unjustly, they are scared, and many Christians have been forced to emigrate, he said
Pope Francis is the 266th and current Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as Bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He chose Francis as his name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Born in Buenos Aires, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technologist and he was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentinas provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II and he led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina, and the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on Gods mercy, concern for the poor, populist causes and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He maintains that the church should be open and welcoming.
He does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology, Francis maintains the traditional views of the church regarding abortion, contraception, ordination of women, and priestly celibacy. He opposes consumerism, irresponsible development, and supports taking action on climate change, in international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the U. S. and Cuba. Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in Flores and he was the eldest of five children of Mario José Bergoglio and Regina María Sívori. Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro in Italys Piedmont region, Regina Sívori was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian origin. Mario Josés family left Italy in 1929, to escape the fascist rule of Benito Mussolini, María Elena Bergoglio, the Popes only living sibling, confirmed that their emigration was not for economic reasons. His other siblings were Alberto Horacio, Oscar Adrián and Marta Regina, two great-nephews and Joseph, died in a traffic collision.
In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles and he attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N°27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after a past President of Argentina, and graduated with a chemical technicians diploma. He worked for a few years in that capacity in the section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory where his boss was Esther Ballestrino. Before joining the Jesuits, Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors, in the only known health crisis of his youth, at the age of 21 he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts. He had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards, Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of San Lorenzo de Almagro football club. Bergoglio is a fan of the films of Tita Merello, Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood while he was on his way to celebrate the Spring Day. He passed by a church to go to confession, and was inspired by the priest
The Lateran Treaty was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the Roman Question. They are named after the Lateran Palace, where they were signed on February 11,1929, the Italian parliament ratified them on June 7,1929. Italy was under a Fascist government, but the democratic governments have all upheld the treaty. It recognized the Vatican as an independent state, with Prime Minister Benito Mussolini agreeing to give the church financial refund, in 1947, the Lateran Pacts were incorporated into the democratic Constitution of Italy. The Lateran Pacts are often presented as three treaties, a 27-article treaty of conciliation, a 3-article financial convention, and a 45-article concordat, the website of the Holy See presents the pacts as two, making the financial convention an annex of the treaty of conciliation. Peters Basilica did not come to pass, the nascent Kingdom of Italy invaded and occupied Romagna in 1860, leaving only Latium in the Popes domains.
Latium, including Rome itself, was occupied and annexed in 1870, for the following sixty years, relations between the Papacy and the Italian government were hostile, and the status of the Pope became known as the Roman Question. The agreements were signed in the Lateran Palace, hence the name by which they are known, the agreements included a political treaty which created the state of the Vatican City and guaranteed full and independent sovereignty to the Holy See. The Pope was pledged to perpetual neutrality in international relations and to abstention from mediation in a controversy unless specifically requested by all parties. The attached financial agreement was accepted as settlement of all the claims of the Holy See against Italy arising from the loss of power of the Papal States in 1870. To commemorate the conclusion of the negotiations, Mussolini commissioned the Via della Conciliazione. The Constitution of the Italian Republic, adopted in 1947, states that relations between the State and the Catholic Church are regulated by the Lateran Treaties, in 1984, an agreement was signed, revising the concordat.
As of 2013, there are ten other groups with access. The revised concordat regulated the conditions under which civil effects are accorded to church marriages, in 2008, it was announced that the Vatican would no longer immediately adopt all Italian laws, citing conflict over right-to-life issues following the trial and ruling of the Eluana Englaro case. Italys anti-Jewish laws of 1938 prohibited marriages between Jews and non-Jews, including Catholics, the Vatican viewed this as a violation of the Concordat, which gave the church the sole right to regulate marriages involving Catholics. Article 34 of the Concordat had specified that marriages performed by the Catholic Church would always be considered valid by civil authorities, the Holy See understood this to apply to all Catholic Church marriages in Italy regardless of the faith of those being married. Properties of the Holy See List of Sovereigns of the Vatican City State Reichskonkordat, Christianity In a Revolutionary Age A History of Christianity in the 19th and 20th Century, Vol 4 The 20th Century In Europe pp 32–35,153,156,371 Riccards, Michael.
Vicars of Christ, Popes and Politics in the Modern World, under His Very Windows, The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy
Giuseppe Bertello is a Catholic prelate and Cardinal currently serving as the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and President of the Governorate of Vatican City State. Bertello was ordained a priest on 29 June 1966 by Bishop Albino Mensa and he earned a licence in pastoral theology and a doctorate in canon law. He went on to attend the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy where he studied diplomacy and he entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See in 1971, and worked until 1973 in the nunciature to the Sudan, which was the apostolic delegation for the Red Sea region. From 1973 to 1976, he was secretary at the nunciature to Turkey and he was secretary in the nunciature to Venezuela from 1976 to 1981, and served with the rank of auditor in the Office of the Organization of the United Nations in Geneva from 1981 to 1987. On 17 October 1987, Pope John Paul II named him Titular Archbishop of Urbs Salvia and appointed him Apostolic Nuncio to Ghana, Togo and he was consecrated on 28 November by Cardinal Secretary of State Agostino Casaroli, with Bishops Albino Mensa and Luigi Bettazzi as the principal co-consecrators.
On 12 January 1991, he was transferred to Rwanda, where he witnessed the buildup to the Tutsi Genocide in 1994 and he was the fist diplomatic figure to withdraw when the genocide erupted following the assassination of President Habyarimana on the 6th April. In March 1995, John Paul II appointed him to the post of Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations in Geneva from 1997, with the same role at the World Trade Organization. Upon his appointment Bertello negotiated the ingress of the Holy See as permanent observer, in the World Trade Organization, on 27 December 2000, the Pope entrusted him with another task, that of Apostolic Nuncio to Mexico. On 30 July 2002, he received the Pope arriving on a visit in the country for the canonisation of Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin. In 2007, Bertello was appointed to the prestigious post of apostolic nuncio to Italy and the Republic of San Marino by Pope Benedict XVI. In 2007 he was awarded with the Grand Cross of the Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle, on 6 January 2012, Pope Benedict announced that Archbishop Bertello would be created cardinals.
He was created Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia on 18 February and he was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 2013 papal conclave that elected Pope Francis. On 13 April 2013 he was appointed to a group established by Pope Francis to advise him
Politics of Vatican City
The pope is elected in the Conclave, composed of all the cardinal electors, after the death or resignation of the previous Pope. The Conclave is held in the Sistine Chapel, where all the electors are locked in until the election for which a majority is required. Peters façade to introduce the new pope with the famous Latin sentence Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum, the term Holy See refers to the composite of the authority and sovereignty vested in the Pope and his advisers to direct the worldwide Roman Catholic Church. It is therefore distinct from the Vatican City state, which was created in 1929. It has formal relations with 179 nations. The State of Vatican City, for its part, is recognized under international law as a sovereign territory, unlike the Holy See, it does not receive or send diplomatic representatives, and the Holy See acts on its behalf in international affairs. As with almost all monarchies, the executive and judicial power of government reside in the crown, however, as with many monarchies, the pope exercises this power through other organs which act on his behalf and in his name.
The pope commonly delegates the internal administration of Vatican City to various bodies, the pope delegates legislative authority for the state to the unicameral Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. This commission was established in 1939 by Pope Pius XII and it consists of seven Cardinals appointed by the pope for five-year terms. Laws passed by the Commission must be approved by the pope through the Secretariat of State prior to being published, the President of the Pontifical Commission is the President of the Governorate of Vatican City, to whom the pope delegates executive authority for the state. The president is assisted by a Secretary General and a Vice Secretary General, each of these officers is appointed by the pope for a five-year term. Actions of the President must be approved by the Commission, various departments and offices report to the Governorate, handling such issues as communications, internal security, fire protection, and the Vatican Museums. The Corpo della Gendarmeria is the security and police force, not the Pontifical Swiss Guard.
The Pope is ex officio sovereign of the Vatican City State and he delegates executive authority to the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, who is ex officio President of the Governorate. The president is appointed by the Pope for a five-year term, Vatican City is a member of CEPT, International Grains Council, Intelsat, ITU and UPU. Vatican City does not have diplomatic relations with other states. Its foreign relations are managed by the Holy See, See Holy See#Relationship with the Vatican City and other territories. A unicameral Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, appointed by the Pope, operates as legislative branch, proposing law, the Councillors of the State give their consultation in the drafting of legislation
According to P. W. Brown the use of the term concordat does not appear until the pontificate of Pope Martin V in a work by Nicholas de Cusa, entitled De Concordantia Catholica. The first concordat dates from 1098, and from to the beginning of the First World War the Holy See signed 74 concordats, due to the substantial remapping of Europe that took place after the war, new concordats with legal successor states were necessary. The post-World War I era saw the greatest proliferation of concordats in history, although for a time after the Second Vatican Council, which ended in 1965, the term concordat was dropped, it reappeared with the Polish Concordat of 1993 and the Portuguese Concordat of 2004. A different model of relations between the Vatican and various states is still evolving in the wake of the Second Vatican Councils Declaration on Religious Liberty, from a Church–State perspective, the contentions regarding Concordats involves two perspectives. This is the concept of Libertas ecclesiae. e, purely political in nature, and depending on the negotiations agreed upon in the concordat, some religious groups face the threat of being marginalized.
For example, in Spain, although the Constitution guarantees religious freedom, yet in practice, in recent years, debate has occurred regarding whether the Spanish government should maintain a concordat with the Vatican. The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly had taken Church properties and issued the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Many religious had either gone into exile or been executed during the Reign of Terror, the Church gave up any claims to lands confiscated after 1790, but secured the right to public worship, subject to any public safety concerns on the part of the local prefect. Napoleon was able to pacify French Catholics, while limiting the Papacys influence in France, while the Concordat restored some ties to the papacy, it largely favored the state. Within a year Napoleon unilaterally amended the agreement with the Organic Articles legislating religious practice, when the political will is present, such concordat privileges can be extended by domestic legislation.
Thus, a shrine within the walls of a cinema, holiday resort, shop. In June 2007 Neelie Kroes, the European Commissioner for Competition announced an investigation of this, then, in August, the deputy finance minister in Romano Prodi’s fragile center-left coalition said the issue needed to be tackled in the next years budget. However, after that nothing more about this was heard from the Barroso Commission, the Slovak concordat ensures that church offertories are not subject to taxation or to the requirement of public accountability. This is the case in Côte dIvoire, where far larger sums are involved, houphouët-Boigny claimed that these funds came from his private fortune. A Vatican official is reported to have called the agreement over the set up to administer these funds a delicate matter. In Colombia there was a crisis between state and church in 1994 when Attorney-General Gustavo de Greiff accused several Bishops of having contacts with the FARC guerrillas. The following is a sortable list of the concordats and other bilateral agreements concluded by the Holy See and the sacred, examining Canadas legal response to the clash of public safety and religious freedom.
Touro Law Center, International Law Review, Vol.13, the tides of Vatican influence in Italian reproductive matters, from abortion to assisted reproduction
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is the oldest among the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. It was founded to defend the church from heresy and its headquarters are at the Palace of the Holy Office, just outside Vatican City. The congregation employs a board including cardinals, priests, lay theologians. The current Prefect is Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Müller and it served as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy and served as an important part of the Counter-Reformation. This body was renamed the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office in 1908 by Pope Saint Pius X, in many Catholic countries, the body is often informally called the Holy Office. The Congregations name was changed to Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on 7 December 1965 and this includes investigations into grave delicts, i. e. These crimes, in a motu proprio of 2001, Sacramentorum sanctitatis tutela, in effect, it is the promoter of justice who deals with, among other things, the question of priests accused of paedophilia.
Within the CDF are the International Theological Commission, the Pontifical Biblical Commission, the Prefect of the CDF is ex officio president of these commissions. Until 1968, the Pope himself held the title of prefect, instead, he appointed one of the cardinals to preside over the meetings, first as Secretary, as Pro-Prefect. Since 1968, the Cardinal head of the dicastery has borne the title of Prefect, from 1968 onwards, the title of Secretary refers to the second highest-ranking officer of the Congregation. The Congregation has a membership of some 18 other cardinals and a number of non-cardinal bishops, a staff of some 38 priests and lay men and women. The work of the CDF is divided into four sections, the doctrinal, matrimonial, Prefect, Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Müller Secretary, Archbishop Luis Ladaria Ferrer, S. J. Assistant Secretary, Archbishop Joseph Augustine Di Noia, O. P and they refused to recant the doctrines of the Community of the Lady of All Nations. The nuns are members of the Good Shepherd Monastery of Our Lady of Charity, sister Mary Theresa Dionne,82, one of 6, said they will still live at the convent property, which they own.
The sect believes that its 86-year-old founder, Marie Paule Giguere, is the reincarnation of the Virgin Mary, notification on the works of the Reverend Father Jon Sobrino, S. J. Notification regarding the book Jesus Symbol of God of the Reverend Father Roger Haight, notification on the book Toward a Christian Theology of Religious Pluralism by the Reverend Father Jacques Dupuis, S. J. Notification concerning some writings of Professor Dr. J, notification concerning the Text Mary and Human Liberation by the Reverend Father Tissa Balasuriya, O. M. I. Notification on the writings and activities of Mrs. M. I. P, essay on militant Ecclesiology by Leonardo Boff, O. F. M