London and North Eastern Railway
The London and North Eastern Railway was the second largest of the "Big Four" railway companies created by the Railways Act 1921 in Britain. It operated from 1 January 1923 until nationalisation on 1 January 1948. At that time, it was divided into the new British Railways' Eastern Region, North Eastern Region, the Scottish Region; the company was the second largest created by the Railways Act 1921. The principal constituents of the LNER were: Great Eastern Railway Great Central Railway Great Northern Railway Great North of Scotland Railway Hull and Barnsley Railway North British Railway North Eastern RailwayThe total route mileage was 6,590 miles; the North Eastern Railway had the largest route mileage of 1,757 miles, whilst the Hull and Barnsley Railway was 106.5 miles. It covered the area east of London, it included the East Coast Main Line from London to Edinburgh via York and Newcastle upon Tyne and the routes from Edinburgh to Aberdeen and Inverness. Most of the country east of the Pennines was including East Anglia.
The main workshops were in Doncaster, with others at Darlington and Stratford, London. The LNER inherited four of London's termini: Fenchurch Street (ex-London and Blackwall Railway. In addition, it ran suburban services to Broad Moorgate; the LNER owned: 7,700 locomotives, 20,000 coaching vehicles, 29,700 freight vehicles, 140 items of electric rolling stock, 6 electric locomotives and 10 rail motor cars 6 turbine and 36 other steamers, river boats and lake steamers, etc. In partnership with the London and Scottish Railway, the LNER was co-owner of the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway, the UK's biggest joint railway, much of which competed with the LNER's own lines; the M&GNJR was incorporated into the LNER in 1936. In 1933, on the formation of the London Passenger Transport Board, the LNER acquired the remaining operations of the Metropolitan Railway Company; the LNER was the majority partner in the Cheshire Lines Committee and the Forth Bridge Railway Company. It depended on freight from heavy industry in Yorkshire, the north east of England and Scotland, its revenue was reduced by the economic depression for much of the early part of its existence.
In a bid to improve financial efficiency, staffing levels reduced from 207,500 in 1924 to 175,800 in 1937. For investment to retain freight traffic, new marshalling yards were built in Whitemoor in Cambridgeshire, Hull in Yorkshire to attempt to retain freight traffic. Sir Ralph Wedgwood introduced a Traffic Apprenticeship Scheme to attract graduates, train young managers and provide supervision by assistant general manager Robert Bell for career planning; the company adopted a regional managerial system, with general managers based in London and Edinburgh, for a short time, Aberdeen. For passenger services, Sir Nigel Gresley, the Chief Mechanical Engineer built new powerful locomotives and new coaches. Developments such as the streamlined Silver Jubilee train of 1935 were exploited by the LNER publicity department, embedded the non-stop London to Edinburgh services such as the Flying Scotsman in the public imagination; the crowning glory of this time was the world record speed of 126 miles per hour achieved on a test run by LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard.
In 1929, the LNER chose the typeface Gill Sans as the standard typeface for the company. Soon it appeared on every facet of the company's identity, from metal locomotive nameplates and hand-painted station signage to printed restaurant car menus and advertising posters; the LNER promoted their rebranding by offering Eric Gill a footplate ride on the Flying Scotsman express service. Gill Sans was retained by the Railway Executive in 1949 and was the official typeface until British Rail replaced it in the mid 1960s with Rail Alphabet. Continental shipping services were provided from Harwich Parkeston Quay; the company took up the offer in 1933 of government loans at low interest rates and electrified the lines from Manchester to Sheffield and Wath yard, commuter lines in the London suburban area. The LNER inherited: 8 canals, including the Ashton, Macclesfield, Nottingham & Grantham, Peak Forest Docks and harbours in 20 locations, including Grimsby, Hull, Middlesbrough, some eastern Scottish ports, Harwich and London Other wharves, piers 2 electric tramways 23 hotels A 49% stake in the haulage firm Mutter, Howey & Co.
Ltd. It took shares in a large number of bus companies, including for a time a majority stake in United Automobile Services Ltd. In Halifax and Sheffield, it participated in Joint Omnibus Committees with the LMS and the Corporation. In 1935, with the LMS, Wilson Line of Hull and others it formed the shipping company Associated Humber Lines Ltd. In 1938 it was reported that the LNER, with 800 mechanical horse tractors, was the world's largest owner of this vehicle type; the LNER operated a number of ships. The most common liveries were lined apple green on passenger locomotives and unlined black on freight locomotives, both with gold lettering. Passenger
New Works Programme
The New Works Programme of 1935–1940 was the major investment programme delivered by the London Passenger Transport Board known as London Transport, created in 1933 to coordinate underground train, tram and bus services in the capital and the surrounding areas. The programme was to develop many aspects of the public transport services run by the LPTB and the suburban rail services of the Great Western Railway and London and North Eastern Railway; the investment was backed by government assistance as well as by the issuing of financial bonds and was estimated to cost £42,286,000 in 1936. The Programme saw major reconstructions of many central area Underground stations, with escalators being installed to replace lifts; these included: Metropolitan line provision of additional parallel tracks between Harrow-on-the-Hill and Rickmansworth electrification of the tracks from Rickmansworth to Aylesbury and Chesham installation of colourlight signals on the line between Rickmansworth and Aylesbury and platform extensions for stations on this stretch of the line Bakerloo line new tunnels to form a branch from Baker Street to Finchley Road, where they connected with and took over the realigned slow tracks of the Metropolitan line to Wembley Park and the Stanmore branch new Bakerloo line stations at St. John's Wood and Swiss Cottage between Finchley Road and Baker Street, to replace three closing stations on the Metropolitan line Northern line transfer of the Metropolitan line's Great Northern & City branch to Northern line operation connection of the GN&C branch at Finsbury Park to the LNER's line to Edgware, High Barnet and Alexandra Palace construction of new tunnels from Archway to Highgate and East Finchley to connect to the Edgware and High Barnet branches extension from Edgware to Bushey Heath Central line relining of the tunnels and lengthening of station platforms between Shepherd's Bush and Liverpool Street to increase speeds and allow longer trains replacement of the line's non-standard track power supply with the Underground's normal fourth rail system western extension from North Acton to connect to and take over the GWR's suburban line to Denham eastern extension from Liverpool Street via Stratford to connect to and take over the LNER's lines to Epping and Hainault Rolling stock design and construction of a new fleet of trains, the 1938 stock, to operate on the Central line and Northern line extensions further conversion of existing locomotive-hauled "Dreadnaught" coaches to Electric Working for the newly electrified Metropolitan Mainline to Aylesbury.
Extra "T" stock driving motor coaches had been constructed to allow for this. This scheme was abandoned and new stock was designed; when rolled out, this was to be the A60 stock Design and construction of a new fleet of trains for the Hammersmith and City Line, the "O" stock Provision of similar new trains for the Metropolitan line to Uxbridge, the "P" stock Conversion of existing hand-worked-door stock to air-door operation and the construction of some new stock for the District line, the "Q" stock programme Infrastructure improvements to the power supply system from Lots Road Power Station improvements to and rebuilding of many busy central area stations including the installation of escalators to replace lifts On the city's roads, the Programme was to see the large-scale abandonment of trams and their replacement by trolleybuses, creating the world's largest trolleybus system at that date. Substantial and rapid progress was made on the network across the capital before the advent of World War II delayed prevented its completion.
The Central line tunnel relining works were completed in 1938 and the replacement of the line's power supply was completed in 1940. The Bakerloo line service to Stanmore started on 20 November 1939; the 1938 tube stock came into operation as intended although the extensions they were built for were not completed at once. Progress on the Northern line works enabled the extension from Archway to come into service as far as East Finchley on 3 July 1939, where interchanges were made with the LNER services. Underground services to High Barnet commenced on 14 April 1940. Highgate station came into use on 19 January 1941 and services started operating on the branch to Mill Hill East on 18 May 1941; this latter section was finished, exceptionally. The outstanding electrification works on the remainder of the LNER's branch from Finsbury Park to Highgate, from Highgate to Alexandra Palace and from Mill Hill East to Edgware were halted. Works on the extension beyond Edgware were stopped, although the construction of the new tube depot at Aldenham was completed and the buildings were used to construct Halifax bomber aircraft for the RAF.
Other parts of the land purchased for the Bushey Heath extension were farmed during the war to provide food for London Transport canteens. On the Central line, works on the eastern extension had progressed furthest with tunnels constructed to Leyton and from Leytonstone to Newbury Park; these were put into service as underground factories operated by Plessey. After the war, a prioritisation of the limited resources available to London Transport saw the Central line extensions progressed, with the first new section in the east opening to Stratford in 1946 and the services to West Ruislip and Epping starting in 1948 and 1949. Plans were put
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway. Opened in January 1863, it is now part of the Metropolitan lines; the network has expanded to 11 lines, in 2017/18 carried 1.357 billion passengers, making it the world's 11th busiest metro system. The 11 lines collectively handle up to 5 million passengers a day; the system's first tunnels were built just below the surface. The system has 250 miles of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with fewer than 10% of the stations located south of the River Thames; the early tube lines owned by several private companies, were brought together under the "UndergrounD" brand in the early 20th century and merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form London Transport under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board.
The current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares; the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the first public transport system in the world to do so; the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style. The schematic Tube map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, was voted a national design icon in 2006 and now includes other TfL transport systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground and Tramlink. Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, created by Edward Johnston in 1916; the idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with the urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854.
To prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, was in 1861, filled up; the world's first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service; the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground "inner circle" connecting London's main-line stations. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and cover method. Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Uxbridge and Wimbledon and the Metropolitan extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street and the centre of London.
For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells; the Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the "twopenny tube". These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches and 12 feet 2.5 inches, whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot diameter tunnels. While steam locomotives were in use on the Underground there were contrasting health reports. There were many instances of passengers collapsing whilst travelling, due to heat and pollution, leading for calls to clean the air through the installation of garden plants.
The Metropolitan encouraged beards for staff to act as an air filter. There were other reports claiming beneficial outcomes of using the Underground, including the designation of Great Portland Street as a "sanatorium for asthma and bronchial complaints", tonsillitis could be cured with acid gas and the Twopenny Tube cured anorexia. With the advent of electric Tube services, the Volks Electric Railway, in Brighton, competition from electric trams, the pioneering Underground companies needed modernising. In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies
London Borough of Barnet
Barnet is a suburban London borough in North London, England. It forms part of Outer London and is the largest London borough by population with 384,774 inhabitants and covers an area of 86.74 square kilometres, the fourth highest. It borders Hertfordshire to the north and five other London boroughs: Harrow and Brent to the west and Haringey to the southeast and Enfield to the east; the borough was formed in 1965 from parts of the counties of Hertfordshire. The local authority is Barnet London Borough Council, based in Hendon; the borough was formed under the London Government Act 1963 in 1965 from the Municipal Borough of Finchley, Municipal Borough of Hendon and the Friern Barnet Urban District of Middlesex and the East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District of Hertfordshire. The Act did not include a name for the new borough. A joint committee of the councils due to be amalgamated suggested "Northgate" or "Northern Heights". Keith Joseph, the Minister of Housing and Local Government chose Barnet.
The place name Barnet is derived from the Old English bærnet meaning "Land cleared by burning". The area covered by the modern borough has a long history. Evidence of 1st-century Roman pottery manufacturing has been found at Brockley Hill and Roman coins from the 3rd and 4th centuries were found at Burnt Oak. Both sites are on the Roman road Watling Street from London and St Albans which now forms the western border of the borough. Hendon is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, but the districts of Barnet and Finchley were not referred to because these areas were included in other manors. In 1471 the Battle of Barnet was fought in Monken Hadley, just within the present borough's boundary, it was here that Yorkist troops led by King Edward IV killed the "Kingmaker" Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and his brother, John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu. Individual articles describe the history and development of the districts of Church End, East Finchley, Golders Green and North Finchley; the residents of London Borough of Barnet are represented at Westminster by Members of Parliament for three parliamentary constituencies.
All three MPs are Conservative. Chipping Barnet is represented by Theresa Villiers. Finchley and Golders Green is represented by Mike Freer. Hendon, in 2010 the most marginal Conservative-held seat in London with a majority of 106 votes, is represented by Matthew Offord; the borough is divided into each with 3 councillors. Following the local government election on 4 May 2006 the Conservative party gained a working majority and full control of the council. Mike Freer became leader of the council on 11 May 2006, replacing Brian Salinger as Conservative group leader, having been Salinger's deputy. Barnet had £27.4 million invested in Icelandic banks Glitnir and Landsbanki when they collapsed October 2008. A report showed; the Conservatives retained control at the 2014 local elections, after which the political composition of the council was: Conservative: 32 Labour: 30 Liberal Democrat: 1 Barnet Council along with the 31 other London boroughs and the City of London Corporation share local government powers with Greater London Authority.
The area covered by London Borough of Barnet and the London Borough of Camden is jointly represented in the London Assembly by Andrew Dismore, a Labour politician, the Member of Parliament for Hendon until 2010. Campaigning on parking, he beat Conservative politician Brian Coleman at the 2012 London Assembly election overturning a 20,000 vote deficit and turning this into a 21,000 vote majority. In 2009, the authority started to introduce a new model of local government delivery in the borough, called'Future Shape', after commissioning a six-month external study; the first stages of'Future Shape' were agreed by the council's cabinet in July 2009. The public-sector union UNISON commissioned its own report on the issues involved in'Future Shape'; the scheme has been dubbed easyCouncil because of its similarity to EasyJet's business model. It is referred to as the commissioning council; the borough covers a group of hills on the northern edge of the London Basin. The bedrock is chalk, covered with clay.
Some of the hills are formed from glacial till deposited at the farthest extent of glaciers during the Anglian glaciation. The pattern of settlement is somewhat diverse. In the north of the borough on the eastern side is Barnet known as High Barnet or Chipping Barnet and Whetstone. In the north on the western side is Edgware and Mill Hill; the central northern part of the borough is countryside. This division is because the eastern side grew around what is now the High Barnet Underground branch of the Northern line; the western side grew around the Midland Railway and what is now the Edgware branch of the Northern line. The north is affluent and rural, although it does include Edgware, a major town. Further south, around the borough's centre, the development becomes more intensive around the suburbs of Cricklewood, Colindale and Finchley. Golders Green is renowned for its Jewish minority ethnic population and forms part of the south of the borough, along with Hampstead Garden Suburb and Childs Hill, which are a mix of being affluent like the north, urban like the central areas.
The A5 forms the border between Barnet and the boroughs of Brent and Harrow, with an exception being the West Hendon area and part of the Welsh Harp. There are 15 council run libraries in the London Borough of Barnet, mobile library and home library services, a local studies an
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Kennington tube station
Kennington is a London Underground station on Kennington Park Road in Kennington within the London Borough of Southwark. The station is at the junction of the Charing Bank branches of the Northern line, its neighbouring stations to the north are Waterloo on the Charing Cross branch and Elephant & Castle on the Bank branch. The station is in Travelcard Zone 2; the station was opened in 1890 as part of the world's first underground electric railway and its surface building remains unaltered. In the 1920s, the underground parts of the station were reconstructed so that the line could be extended and larger trains could be used. Two additional platforms were provided for interchanges between the two branches. In 1884, the City of London and Southwark Subway was granted parliamentary approval to construct an underground railway from King William Street in the City of London to Elephant & Castle in Southwark. Unlike previous underground railways in London, constructed using the cut and cover method, the CL&SS was to be constructed in a pair of deep-level tunnels bored using tunnelling shields with circular segmental cast-iron tunnel linings.
James Henry Greathead was the engineer for the railway and had used the tunnelling method on the Tower Subway bored under the River Thames in 1869. Construction work began in 1886, in 1887 the railway was granted additional approval for an extension to Kennington and Stockwell; the CL&SS was designed to be operated using a cabled-hauled system of trains, but the haulage method was changed in January 1899 to use electric locomotives, making it the world's first underground electric railway. The CL&SS changed its name to the City and South London Railway early in 1890. From Elephant & Castle northwards, the CL&SS's running tunnels were bored to a diameter of 10 feet 2 inches. Station platform tunnels 200 feet long and 20 by 16 feet were formed in brick construction with an arched top and flat base; the platforms at Kennington and most of the other intermediate stations were constructed at different levels, with one side wall of the upper platform tunnel supported on the side wall of the lower platform tunnel.
Travel between the surface and the platforms was by hydraulic lift or spiral stairs with the lower lift landing being at a level between the two platforms with steps or ramps up and down to the platforms. The station building is a single-storey structure topped by a dome which housed the hydraulic equipment for the lifts, it was designed by T. P. Figgis and occupies the northern corner of the junction of Kennington Park Road and Braganza Street. Before opening, the C&SLR considered naming the station New Street; the station was opened on 18 December 1890 along with the rest of the line. The small diameter of the running tunnels meant that the train carriages were cramped compared to the deep-level tube railways that were constructed with larger diameter tunnels. In 1913, the C&SLR obtained permission to enlarge the tunnels to enable it to use new modern rolling stock, but World War I delayed the works. After the war, the C&SLR obtained renewed permission for the enlargement works; these were undertaken as part of a programme of works including an extension of the Hampstead Tube from Embankment to Kennington.
The UERL planned to enlarge most of the C&SLR's tunnels whilst the railway remained in operation, with enlargement taking place at night and trains running during the day. Special tunnelling shields were constructed with openings. To facilitate the enlargement works, Kennington station was closed on 1 June 1923 and used as a depot for the construction works; the platforms were sidings installed for spoil wagons. A new shaft was sunk from the garden of an adjacent house to provide access to the tunnels and the passenger lifts were used to transfer the wagons between the tunnels and the surface. To achieve a convenient arrangement for the interchange between the existing tunnels and the new ones to Embankment, several changes were made to the organisation of the station below ground. Two new platform tunnels were constructed parallel with and at the same level as the corresponding existing tunnels with the new tunnels on the outside of the existing ones. Linking passages were constructed between each pair of platforms to enable cross-platform interchanges.
Both of the existing platforms had been accessed from the east, so, to make the link to the new northbound tunnel, the platform in the existing northbound tunnel was reconstructed on the other side and the tracks were repositioned. The existing passage between the platforms and the lifts was severed by the new southbound platform so each pair of platforms was connected to new entrance and exit passages leading to and from the lifts; these passages were at a higher level than before, so the bottom landings of the lifts and the emergency stairs were raised by 11 feet to match them. Along with the construction of the new tunnels, the existing station tunnels were increased in length to 350 feet by enlarging the running tunnels; the enlargement was done with standard segmental iron linings rather than the original brick. At the lower levels of the station the platform walls and passages were decorated with a new tiling scheme by Charles Holden matching that used on new stations on the Morden extension and the new stations from Embankment.
Other C&SLR stations were rebuilt during the 1920s modernisation, but the surface building at Kennington station was left unaltered. It is therefore the only station of the C