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Millau Viaduct

Ons needed|date=April 2017}} The Millau Viaduct is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the gorge valley of the Tarn near Millau in Southern France. In an Anglo-French partnership, it was designed by the French structural engineer Michel Virlogeux and English architect Norman Foster; as of November 2018, it is the tallest bridge in the world, having a structural height of 336.4 metres. The Millau Viaduct is part of the A75–A71 autoroute axis from Paris to Béziers and Montpellier; the cost of construction was € 394 million. It was built over three years, formally inaugurated on 14 December 2004, opened to traffic two days on 16 December; the bridge has been ranked as one of the great engineering achievements of all time, received the 2006 Outstanding Structure Award from the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering. In the 1980s, high levels of road traffic near Millau in the Tarn valley were causing congestion in the summer due to holiday traffic on the route from Paris to Spain.

A method of bypassing Millau had long been considered, not only to ease the flow and reduce journey times for long distance traffic, but to improve the quality of access to Millau for its local businesses and residents. One of the solutions considered was the construction of a road bridge to span the river and gorge valley; the first plans for a bridge were discussed in 1987 by CETE, by October 1991 the decision was made to build a high crossing of the Tarn by a structure of around 2,500 metres in length. During 1993 -- 1994, the government consulted with eight structural engineers. During 1995–1996, a second definition study was made by five associated architect groups and structural engineers. In January 1995, the government issued a declaration of public interest to solicit design approaches for a competition. In July 1996 the jury decided in favour of a cable-stayed design with multiple spans, as proposed by the Sogelerg consortium led by Michel Virlogeux and Norman Foster; the decision to proceed by grant of contract was made in May 1998.

In March 2001, Eiffage established the subsidiary Compagnie Eiffage du Viaduc de Millau, was declared winner of the contest and awarded the prime contract in August. In initial studies, four potential options were examined: Great Eastern — passing east of Millau and crossing the valleys of the Tarn and Dourbie on two high and long bridges whose construction was acknowledged to be problematic; this option would have allowed access to Millau only from the Larzac plateau, using the long and tortuous descent from La Cavalerie. Although this option was shorter and better suited to through traffic, it did not satisfactorily serve the needs of Millau and its area. Great Western — longer than the eastern option by 12 kilometres, following the Cernon valley. Technically easier, this solution was judged to have negative impacts on the environment, in particular on the picturesque villages of Peyre and Saint-Georges-de-Luzençon, it was more expensive than the preceding option, served the region badly. Near RN9 — would have served the town of Millau well, but presented technical difficulties, would have had a strong impact on existing or planned structures.

Intermediate, west of Millau — was supported by local opinion, but presented geological difficulties, notably on the question of crossing the valley of the Tarn. Expert investigation concluded; the fourth option was selected by ministerial decree on 28 June 1989. It encompassed two possibilities: the high solution, envisaging a 2,500-metre-long viaduct more than 200 metres above the river. After long construction studies by the Ministry of Public Works, the low solution was abandoned because it would have intersected the water table, had a negative impact on the town, cost more, lengthened the driving distance; the choice of the'high' solution was decided by ministerial decree on 29 October 1991. After the choice of the high viaduct, five teams of architects and researchers worked on a technical solution; the concept and design for the bridge was devised by French designer and structural engineer Dr Michel Virlogeux. He worked with the Dutch engineering firm ARCADIS, responsible for the structural engineering of the bridge.

The'high solution' required the construction of a 2,500-metre-long viaduct. From 1991 to 1993, the structures division of Sétra, directed by Michel Virlogeux, carried out preliminary studies, examined the feasibility of a single structure spanning the valley. Taking into account technical and financial issues, the Administration of Roads opened the question for competition among structural engineers and architects to widen the search for realistic designs. By July 1993, seventeen structural engineers and thirty-eight architects applied as candidates for the preliminary studies. With the assistance of a multidisciplinary commission, the Administration of Roads selected eight structural engineers for a technical study, seven architects for the architectural study. A school of international experts representing a wide spectrum of expertise, chaired b

2013 Missouri's 8th congressional district special election

A special election for Missouri's 8th congressional district was held on June 4, 2013, following the resignation of Jo Ann Emerson on January 22, 2013, to head the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. The Republican and Democratic parties selected their own nominees without a primary; the deadline to request an absentee ballot for the special election was May 29, 2013. A televised candidate's forum took place on May 27, 2013, at Southeast Missouri State University-River Campus. In the general election on June 4, 2013, Republican Jason Smith received 67.1% of the vote, beating Democrat Steve Hodges, Constitutional Doug Enyart, Libertarian Bill Slantz. Jason Smith, Speaker Pro Tem of the Missouri House of Representatives Wendell Bailey, former State Treasurer of Missouri and U. S. Representative Dan W. Brown, State Senator Jason Crowell, former state senator Kevin P. Engler, state representative, former state senator, former mayor of Farmington Peter Kinder, Lieutenant Governor of Missouri Scott Lipke, former state representative Bob Parker, local resident and landowner Todd Richardson, State Representative Lloyd Smith, State Republican Party executive director Pedro Sotelo, businessman Sarah Steelman, former state treasurer of Missouri Clint Tracy, state representative and United States Navy Lieutenant commander John Tyrrell, attorney Wayne Wallingford, state senator, United States Air Force Lieutenant Colonel and Silver Star recipient John Jordan, Cape Girardeau County Sheriff Steve Hodges, State Representative District 149 Todd Mahn, businessman Linda Black, state representative Jack Rushin and Democratic nominee for the seat in 2012 Terry Swinger, former state representative Russ Carnahan, former U.

S. Representative Bill Slantz, businessman Jason Williams Doug Enyart, U. S. Marine and professional forester Dr. Robert George Thomas Brown Wayne L. Byington Theo Brown, Sr. List of special elections to the United States House of Representatives Missouri's 8th congressional district 2012 House of Representatives election in Missouri 8th district Bill Slantz campaign website Jason Smith campaign website Steve Hodges campaign website Doug Enyart campaign website

St Matthew's Church, Little Lever

St Matthew's Church is in the village of Little Lever, Greater Manchester, England. It is an active Anglican parish church in the deanery of Bolton, the archdeaconry of Bolton, the diocese of Manchester. St Matthew's is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building. St Matthew's was built in 1865 to replace an earlier church built in 1791 on the other side of the street, it was designed by the Lancaster architect E. G. Paley; the tower was increased in height in 1924 as a memorial to the First World War. The church is constructed in coursed rubble stone with ashlar dressings, a has slate roofs, its architectural style is early Decorated. The plan consists of a nave and south transepts, a west porch, a chancel, a north vestry, a tower at the southeast corner; the tower is with a stair turret in its southeast corner. The bell openings have two louvres. In the stair turret there are small lancet windows. At the summit of the tower is a plain parapet and corner pinnacles.

Along the walls of the nave are two-light windows separated by buttresses. At the west end are large buttresses, a gabled porch, a rose window. On the south wall of the chancel is a small three-light window, on the north side, over the vestry, are two lancet windows. At the east end is a three-light window containing plate tracery. On the gable ends are finials. In the chancel is a stone reredos, with stone panels containing the Ten Commandments and the Creed on each side, a double sedilia; the choir stalls, organ front and screen are elaborately carved. The chancel is floored with Minton tiles. At the west end is a gallery, under, a glazed screen; the pulpit and font are both "heavy stone tubs". The three-manual organ was built in 1884 by Brindley and Foster, enlarged by the same firm in 1911; the churchyard contains the war graves of five soldiers of the First World War, two soldiers and two Royal Navy sailors of the Second World War. Listed buildings in Little Lever List of churches in Greater Manchester List of ecclesiastical works by E. G. Paley

Congleton (borough)

Congleton was, from 1974 to 2009, a local government district with borough status in Cheshire, England. It included the towns of Congleton, Alsager and Sandbach; the headquarters of the borough council were located in Sandbach. The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972 by the merger of the former borough of Congleton, the urban districts of Alsager and Sandbach, the Congleton Rural District. Congleton included no unparished areas. Of the 23 civil parishes, four were administered at this level of local government by town councils: Alsager, Middlewich and Congleton. There are two pairs of civil parishes; these are Hulme Walfield and Somerford Booths, whose single parish council is called "Hulme Walfield and Somerford Booths Parish Council", Newbold Astbury and Moreton cum Alcumlow, whose single parish council is called "Newbold Astbury-cum-Moreton Parish Council". The following civil parishes were included in the borough: Alsager Arclid Betchton Bradwall Brereton Church Lawton Congleton Cranage Goostrey Hassall Holmes Chapel Hulme Walfield Middlewich Moreton cum Alcumlow Moston Newbold Astbury Odd Rode Sandbach Smallwood Somerford Somerford Booths Swettenham Twemlow The resident population of the borough, as measured in the 2001 Census, was 90,655, of which 49 per cent were male and 51 per cent were female.

The percentage of people of each religion in the borough: Congleton was divided into 20 borough wards which elected a total of 48 councillors to the borough council. The following tables provide the names of these wards and show the composition of the council by political party at 31 March 2009; the office of mayor was filled by one of the councillors after a ballot amongst all the councillors, the last holder of the position was a member of the Liberal Democrat party. In 2006 the Department for Communities and Local Government considered reorganising Cheshire's administrative structure as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England; the decision to merge the boroughs of Congleton and Crewe and Nantwich to create a single unitary authority was announced on 25 July 2007, following a consultation period in which a proposal to create a single Cheshire unitary authority was rejected. The Borough of Congleton was abolished on 1 April 2009, when the new Cheshire East unitary authority was formed.

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the Borough of Congleton. Glyn Chambers Chief Executive Congleton Borough Council: 2009 The Cheshire Yeomanry: 1906; the Cheshire Regiment: 1969

Alien Breed II: The Horror Continues

Alien Breed II: The Horror Continues is the sequel to Alien Breed, a science-fiction-themed, top-down shooter inspired by the Alien films. It was released in 1993 by Team17 for the Amiga, available in both AGA versions; this is the first title that Team17 had developed to take advantage of Commodore's new AGA Chipset. The AGA version of the game was included as an extra in the Amiga CD32 version of Alien Breed: Tower Assault; the game engine for Alien Breed II was rewritten to allow smoother scrolling between screens. The graphics were vastly improved, as were the size and number of levels; the difficulty curve for AB-II is steeper than that of its predecessor. Alien Breed II is the only game in the series that gives players the option of choosing between four characters, each with their own specific strengths and weaknesses

1983 Aragonese regional election

The 1983 Aragonese regional election was held on Sunday, 8 May 1983, to elect the 1st Cortes of the autonomous community of Aragon. All 66 seats in the Cortes were up for election; the election was held with regional elections in twelve other autonomous communities and local elections all throughout Spain. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party came first in the election by winning half the seats—33 out of 66—one short of an overall majority, with 46.8% of the vote. The People's Coalition, a coalition of centre-right parties including the People's Alliance, the People's Democratic Party and the Liberal Union came second with 18 seats and 22.6%, while the Regionalist Aragonese Party finished third with 20.5% and 13 seats. The Communist Party of Spain and the Democratic and Social Centre both obtained 1 seat with between 3–4% of the vote each; the former ruling party of Spain, the Union of the Democratic Centre, had chosen to dissolve itself in February 1983 and did not contest the election as a result.

The PSOE had obtained 34 seats, the absolute majority, but a new count in the constituency of Zaragoza after several claims resulted in the PSOE's 17th seat in the province being awarded to the People's Coalition by few votes. As a result of the election, PSOE candidate Santiago Marraco was elected by the Cortes as new president of the General Council of Aragon; the Cortes of Aragon were the devolved, unicameral legislature of the autonomous community of Aragon, having legislative power in regional matters as defined by the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the regional Statute of Autonomy, as well as the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a regional president. Transitory Provisions First and Third of the Statute established a specific electoral procedure for the first election to the Cortes of Aragon, to be supplemented by the provisions within Royal Decree-Law 20/1977, of 18 March, its related regulations. Voting for the Cortes was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen, registered in Aragon and in full enjoyment of their civil and political rights.

The 66 members of the Cortes of Aragon were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of three percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied regionally. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Huesca and Zaragoza, with each being allocated a fixed number of seats: 18 for Huesca, 16 for Teruel and 32 for Zaragoza; the use of the D'Hondt method might result in a higher effective threshold, depending on the district magnitude. The General Council of Aragon was required to call an election to the Cortes of Aragon within from 1 February to 31 May 1983. On 7 March 1983, it was confirmed that the first election to the Cortes of Aragon would be held on Sunday, 8 May, together with regional elections for twelve other autonomous communities as well as nationwide local elections, with the election decree being published in the Official Gazette of Aragon on 10 March.

Aragon had been granted a pre-autonomic regime in March 1978, resulting in the appointment of the first General Council of Aragon with Juan Antonio Bolea at its helm. After the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, the process for negotiating and approving a statute of autonomy for Aragon was initiated in September 1979, after local councils—with the support of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, the Regionalist Aragonese Party and the Communist Party of Spain —started applying to meet the requirements set down in Article 151 of the Constitution for the "fast-track" procedure for autonomy. Political conflict arose as the governing Union of the Democratic Centre, concerned that all regions could attempt to achieve maximum devolution within a short timeframe, ruled in January 1980 that all autonomic processes other than those of the Basque Country and Galicia were to be transacted under the "slow-track" procedure of Article 143; the decision caused outcry among opposition parties and led to the application process bogging down, as some Aragonese local councils had applied for Article 151, others clinged on to the route of Article 143 and many others did not specify any preference, resulting in an insufficient support for either of the two constitutional procedures for autonomy.

Similar complications arose in the Valencian Country and the Canary Islands, parties agreed to hold talks to re-activate the autonomy process, leading to an inter-party agreement in May 1981—which was not joined by the PAR—in favour of the application of Article 143, as long as Aragon was guaranteed an autonomy equivalent to that provided for in Article 151 within five years, in the drafting of a regional Statute. Concurrently, the pre-autonomic General Council had seen a change in leadership in March 1981, when Juan Antonio Bolea was replaced by Gaspar Castellano; the former would end up leaving the party over disagreements with the regional government's policy both in the autonomic procedure to adopt—Bolea had been a staunch defender of Article 151's application from the beginning—and the so-called "Ebro mini-transfer" to Tarragona, opposed by Bolea. Further tensions within UCD over the electoral system to be established by the Statute led to an internal party crisis, aggravated after the split of former prime minister Adolfo Suárez's Democratic and Social Centre.

The Statute would be approved on 10 August 1982, coming into force on 5 September. As a result of UCD securing a majority in the new