A watchtower is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world. It differs from a regular tower in that its primary use is military and from a turret in that it is a freestanding structure, its main purpose is to provide a high, safe place from which a sentinel or guard may observe the surrounding area. In some cases, non-military towers, such as religious towers, may be used as watchtowers; the Romans built numerous towers as part of a system of communications, one example being the towers along Hadrian's Wall in Britain. Romans built many lighthouses, such as the Tower of Hercules in northern Spain, which survives to this day as a working building, the famous lighthouse at Dover Castle, which survives to about half its original height as a ruin. In medieval Europe, many castles and manor houses, or similar fortified buildings, were equipped with watchtowers. In some of the manor houses of western France, the watchtower equipped with arrow or gun loopholes was one of the principal means of defense.
A feudal lord could keep watch over his domain from the top of his tower. In southern Saudi Arabia and Yemen, small stone and mud towers called "qasaba" were constructed as either watchtowers or keeps in the Asir mountains. Furthermore, in Najd, a watchtower, called "Margab", was used to watch for approaching enemies far in distance and shout calling warnings from atop. Scotland saw the construction of Peel towers that combined the function of watchtower with that of a keep or tower house that served as the residence for a local notable family. Mediterranean countries, Italy in particular, saw the construction of numerous coastal watchtowers since the early Middle Ages, connected to the menace of Saracen attacks from the various Muslim states existing at the time. Many were restored or built against the Barbary pirates; some notable examples of military Mediterranean watchtowers include the towers that the Knights of Malta had constructed on the coasts of Malta. These towers ranged in size from small watchtowers to large structures armed with numerous cannons.
They include the Wignacourt, de Redin, Lascaris towers, named for the Grand Master, such as Martin de Redin, that commissioned each series. In the Channel Islands, the Jersey Round Towers and the Guernsey loophole towers date from the late 18th Century, they were erected to give warning of attacks by the French. The Martello towers that the British built in the UK and elsewhere in the British Empire were defensive fortifications that were armed with cannon and that were within line of sight of each other. One of the last Martello towers to be built was Fort Denison in Sydney harbour; the most recent descendants of the Martello Towers are the flak towers that the various combatants erected in World War II as mounts for anti-aircraft artillery. In modern warfare the relevance of watchtowers has decreased due to the availability of alternative forms of military intelligence, such as reconnaissance by spy satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles; however watch towers have been used in counter-insurgency wars to maintain a military presence in conflict areas in case such as by the French Army in French Indochina, by the British Army and the RUC in Northern Ireland and the IDF in Gaza and West Bank.
An example of nonmilitary watchtower in history is the one of Jerusalem. Though the Hebrews used it to keep a watch for approaching armies, the religious authorities forbade the taking of weapons up into the tower as this would require bringing weapons through the temple. Rebuilt by King Herod, that watchtower was renamed after Mark Antony, his friend who battled against Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus and lost. Diaolou Fire lookout tower Observation towers are similar constructions being outside of fortifications. A similar use have Control towers on airports or harbours. Media related to Watch towers at Wikimedia Commons
Royal Military College, Sandhurst
The Royal Military College, founded in 1801 and established in 1802 at Great Marlow and High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, but moved in October 1812 to Sandhurst, was a British Army military academy for training infantry and cavalry officers of the British and Indian Armies. The RMC was reorganised at the outbreak of the Second World War, but some of its units remained operational at Sandhurst and Aldershot. In 1947, the Royal Military College was merged with the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, to form the present-day all-purpose Royal Military Academy Sandhurst; the Royal Military College was conceived by Colonel John Le Marchant, whose scheme for establishing schools for the military instruction of officers at High Wycombe and Great Marlow first met strong resistance on the grounds of cost. However, in 1801 Parliament voted a grant of £30,000 for it, in 1802 Le Marchant, appointed as the first Lieutenant Governor of the College, opened its Junior Department at a large house in West Street, Great Marlow, to train gentleman cadets for the infantry and cavalry regiments of the British Army and for the presidency armies of British India, 1802 was the same year as the founding of the French Army's Saint-Cyr and of West Point in the United States.
General Sir William Harcourt was appointed as the first Governor of the Royal Military College at Great Marlow and continued in post until 1811. In 1799, a school for staff officers had been established at High Wycombe, in 1801 this became the Senior Department of the Military College. In 1812, the College's Junior Department moved from Great Marlow into purpose-built buildings at Sandhurst designed by James Wyatt, was soon joined there by the Senior Department, migrating from High Wycombe. In 1858 this became the Staff College. On the outbreak of the Second World War, many of the cadets and staff of the Royal Military College were mobilised for active service, but the buildings at Sandhurst remained the home of the RMC's 161 Infantry Officer Cadet Training Unit. In 1942, this unit moved to Mons Barracks and for the rest of the war the Sandhurst campus was used as a Royal Armoured Corps Officer Cadet Training Unit. In 1947, a new Royal Military Academy Sandhurst was formed on the site of the Royal Military College, merging the Royal Military Academy and the Royal Military College, with the objective of providing officer training for all arms and services.
The college was a training facility for cavalry and infantry officers of the British and Indian Armies teaching military science and athletics. Unlike other military colleges, such as West Point, it never granted degrees or other academic qualifications. See List of Governors and Commandants of SandhurstThe Royal Military College was led by a Governor, a figurehead non-resident, a Lieutenant Governor, who had actual day-to-day command of the college, a Commandant, the officer in charge of the cadets. In 1812, the posts of Lieutenant Governor and Commandant were merged into the role of Commandant. In 1888 the two remaining senior posts and Commandant, were merged into the single appointment of Governor and Commandant, which in 1902 was retitled as "Commandant". See Category:Graduates of the Royal Military College, SandhurstThe most notable cadets of RMC Sandhurst include: Sir William Denison, Governor of New South Wales Field Marshal Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar Field Marshal Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, Governor General of Canada King Alfonso XII of Spain Field Marshal Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer John Hope, 1st Marquess of Linlithgow, Governor-General of Australia Ronald Munro Ferguson, 1st Viscount Novar, Governor-General of Australia Field Marshal Viscount Allenby Sir Charles Fergusson, 7th Baronet, Governor-General of New Zealand Field Marshal Earl Haig Sir Winston Churchill Prince Alexander of Teck the Earl of Athlone, Governor-General of the Union of South Africa and Governor General of Canada Field Marshal Earl Wavell, Viceroy of India Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery of Alamein Sir Oswald Mosley Field Marshal Kodandera Madappa Cariappa, First native-Indian full General of the Indian Army Field Marshal Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, Governor General of Australia Field Marshal Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan Ian Fleming, creator of James Bond David Niven, novelist Brigadier John Amadu Bangura, CBE, Governor-General of Sierra Leone
The separate system is a form of prison management based on the principle of keeping prisoners in solitary confinement. When first introduced in the early 19th century, the objective of such a prison or "penitentiary" was that of penance by the prisoners through silent reflection upon their crimes and behavior, as much as that of prison security. More however, the term "separate system" is used to refer to a specific type of prison architecture built to support such a system; the first prison built according to the separate system was the Eastern State Penitentiary in 1829 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States. Its design was copied by more than 300 prisons worldwide, its revolutionary system of incarceration, dubbed the "Pennsylvania System" or separate system and encouraged separation of inmates from one another as a form of rehabilitation. Common features of a separate system prison include a central hall, with several radiating wings of prison blocks, separated from the central hall and from each other by large metal bars.
While all the prison blocks are visible to the prison staff positioned at the centre, individual cells cannot be seen unless the staff enter individual prison blocks. This is in contrast to the panopticon prisons; the spaces between the prison blocks and the prison wall are used as exercise yards. When the separate system was first introduced, prisoners were required to be in solitary confinement during exercise. By the end of the 19th century, these structures were removed in favour of more open—if communal—exercise yards. However, in certain prisons such as Pentonville, in London during communal exercise, prisoners were required to wear masks in silent isolation. Many of these separate system prisons from the 19th century continue to house prisoners to this day. Designers of these penal institutions drew on monastic solitary confinement to both destroy the identity of the inmate and to crush the "criminal subculture" that flourished in densely populated prisons. Prisoners incarcerated in separate system prisons were reduced to numbers, their names and past histories eliminated.
The guards and warders charged with overseeing these prisoners knew neither their names nor their crimes, were prohibited from speaking to them. Prisoners were hooded upon exiting a cell, wore felted shoes to muffle their footsteps; the result was a dumb obedience and a passive disorientation that shattered the "criminal community." The regime extended to the prison chapel, Lincoln Castle, used as a gaol in the early Victorian period, in which the prisoners could all see the chaplain, but not each other. It was used in the prison chapel of Port Arthur, where many convicts were taken upon transport to Australia; the prison in Alfred Bester's science fiction novel The Stars My Destination uses the separate system. Similar or related types of imprisonments and prisons include: History of United States Prison Systems Auburn System Boot camp Borstal Death Row Life imprisonment Panopticon Roundhouse Solitary confinement Supermax Henriques, U. R. Q.. "The Rise and Decline of the Separate System of Prison Discipline".
Past and Present. 54: 61–93. Doi:10.1093/past/54.1.61. Forsythe, B.. "The Aims and Methods of the Separate System". Social Policy & Administration. 14: 249. Doi:10.1111/j.1467-9515.1980.tb00622.x
English Heritage is a charity that manages over 400 historic monuments and places. These include medieval castles, Roman forts and country houses; the charity states that it uses these properties to ‘bring the story of England to life for over 10 million people each year’. Within its portfolio are Stonehenge, Dover Castle, Tintagel Castle and the best preserved parts of Hadrian's Wall. English Heritage manages the London Blue Plaque scheme, which links influential historical figures to particular buildings; when formed in 1983, English Heritage was the operating name of an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government titled the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, that ran the national system of heritage protection and managed a range of historic properties. It was created to combine the roles of existing bodies that had emerged from a long period of state involvement in heritage protection. In 1999 the organisation merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the National Monuments Record, bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England's historic environment.
On 1 April 2015, English Heritage was divided into two parts: Historic England, which inherited the statutory and protection functions of the old organisation, the new English Heritage Trust, a charity that would operate the historic properties, which took on the English Heritage operating name and logo. The British government gave the new charity an £80 million grant to help establish it as an independent trust, although the historic properties remained in the ownership of the state. Over the centuries, what is now called'Heritage' has been the responsibility of a series of state departments. There was the'Kings Works' after the Norman Conquest. Responsibility subsequently transferred to the Ministry of Public Building and Works to the Department of the Environment and now the Department for Culture and Sport; the state's legal responsibility for the historic environment goes back to the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882. Central government subsequently developed several systems of heritage protection for different types of'assets', introducing listing for buildings after WW2 and conservation areas in the 1960s.
In 1983 Secretary of State for the Environment Michael Heseltine gave national responsibility for the historic environment to a semi‑autonomous agency to operate under ministerial guidelines and to government policy. The Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission was formed under the terms of the National Heritage Act 1983 on 1 April 1984; the 1983 Act dissolved the bodies that had provided independent advice – the Ancient Monuments Board for England and the Historic Buildings Council for England and incorporated these functions in the new body. Soon after, the commission gained the operating name of English Heritage by its first Chairman, Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. A national register of historic parks and gardens, was set up in 1984, a register for historic battlefields was created in March 1995.'Registration' is a material consideration in the planning process. In April 1999 English Heritage merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the National Monuments Record, bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England's historic environment.
By adoption this included responsibility for the national record of archaeological sites from the Ordnance Survey. These, together with other nationally important external acquisitions, meant that English Heritage was one of the largest publicly accessible archives in the UK: 2.53 million records are available online, including more than 426,000 images. In 2010–2011 it recorded 4.3 million unique online user sessions and over 110,000 people visited NMR exhibitions held around the country in 2009/10. In 2012 the section responsible for archive collections was renamed the English Heritage Archive; as a result of the National Heritage Act 2002, English Heritage acquired administrative responsibility for historic wrecks and submerged landscapes within 12 miles of the English coast. The administration of the listed building system was transferred from DCMS to English Heritage in 2006. However, actual listing decisions still remained the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport, required by the Planning Act 1990 to approve a list of buildings of special architectural or historic interest.
Following the Public Bodies Reform in 2010, English Heritage was confirmed as the government's statutory adviser on the historic environment, the largest source of non-lottery grant funding for heritage assets. It was retained on grounds of "performing a technical function which should remain independent from Government"; however the department suffered from budget cuts during the recession of the 2010s resulting in a repairs deficit of £100 million. In June 2013 the British Government announced plans to provide an £80 million grant to enable English Heritage to become a self-financing charity; the national portfolio of historic properties remain in public ownership, but the new English Heritage will be licensed to manage them. The change occu
Penal transportation or transportation was the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place a colony for a specified term. While the prisoners may have been released once the sentences were served, they did not have the resources to get themselves back home. Banishment or forced exile from a polity or society has been used as a punishment since at least Ancient Roman times; the practice reached its height in the British Empire during the 19th centuries. Transportation removed the offender from society permanently, but was seen as more merciful than capital punishment; this application was used for criminals, military prisoners, political prisoners. Penal transportation was used as a method of colonisation. For example, from the earliest days of English colonial schemes, new settlements beyond the seas were seen as a way to alleviate domestic social problems of criminals and the poor as well as to increase the colonial labour force and overall benefit of the realm.
Based on the royal prerogative of mercy, under English Law, transportation was an alternative sentence imposed for a felony. By 1670, as new felonies were defined, the option of being sentenced to transportation was allowed. Forgery of a document, for example, was a capital crime until the 1820s, when the penalty was reduced to transportation. Depending on the crime, the sentence was imposed for a set period of years. If imposed for a period of years, the offender was permitted to return home after serving out his time, but had to make his own way back. Many offenders thus stayed in the colony as free persons, might obtain employment as jailers or other servants of the penal colony. England transported its convicts and political prisoners, as well as prisoners of war from Scotland and Ireland, to its overseas colonies in the Americas from the 1610s until early in the American Revolution in 1776, when transportation to America was temporarily suspended by the Criminal Law Act 1776; the practice was less used there than in England.
Transportation on a large scale resumed with the departure of the First Fleet to Australia in 1787, continued there until 1868. Transportation was not used by Scotland before the Act of Union 1707. Under the Transportation, etc. Act 1785 the Parliament of Great Britain extended the usage of transportation to Scotland, it remained little used under Scots Law until the early 19th century. In Australia, a convict who had served part of his time might apply for a ticket of leave, permitting some prescribed freedoms; this enabled some convicts to resume a more normal life, to marry and raise a family, to contribute to the development of the colony. In England in the 17th and 18th centuries criminal justice was severe termed the Bloody Code; this was due to both the large number of offences which were punishable by execution, to the limited choice of sentences available to judges for convicted criminals. With modifications to the traditional Benefit of clergy, which exempted only clergymen from civil law, it developed into a legal fiction by which many common offenders of "clergyable" offenses were extended the privilege to avoid execution.
Many offenders were pardoned as it was considered unreasonable to execute them for minor offences, but under the rule of law, it was unreasonable for them to escape punishment entirely. With the development of colonies, transportation was introduced as an alternative punishment, although it was considered a condition of a pardon, rather than a sentence in itself. Convicts who represented a menace to the community were sent away to distant lands. A secondary aim was to discourage crime for fear of being transported. Transportation continued to be described as a public exhibition of the king's mercy, it was a solution to a real problem in the domestic penal system. There was the hope that transported convicts could be rehabilitated and reformed by starting a new life in the colonies. In 1615, in the reign of James I, a committee of the Council had obtained the power to choose from the prisoners those that deserved pardon and transportation to the colonies. Convicts were chosen carefully: the Acts of the Privy Council showed that prisoners "for strength of bodie or other abilities shall be thought fit to be employed in foreign discoveries or other services beyond the Seas".
During the Commonwealth, Cromwell overcame the popular prejudice against subjecting Christians to slavery or selling them into foreign parts, initiated group transportation of military and civilian prisoners. With the Restoration, the penal transportation system and the number of people subjected to it, started to change inexorably between 1660 and 1720, with transportation replacing the simple discharge of clergyable felons after branding the thumb. Alternatively, under the second act dealing with Moss-trooper brigands on the Scottish border, offenders had their benefit of clergy taken away, or otherwise at the judge's discretion, were to be transported to America, "there to remaine and not to returne". There were various influential agents of change: judges' discretionary powers influenced the law but the king's and Privy Council's opinions were decisive in granting a royal pardon from execution; the system changed one step at a time: in February 1663, after that first experiment, a bill w
Westminster is an area in central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Westminster's concentration of visitor attractions and historic landmarks, one of the highest in London, includes the Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral; the area lay within St Margaret's parish, City & Liberty of Westminster, Middlesex. The name Westminster originated from the informal description of the abbey church and royal peculiar of St Peter's West of the City of London; the abbey was part of the royal palace, created here by Edward the Confessor. It has been the home of the permanent institutions of England's government continuously since about 1200, from 1707 the British Government — formally titled Her Majesty's Government. In a government context, Westminster refers to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, located in the UNESCO World Heritage Palace of Westminster — also known as the Houses of Parliament.
The closest tube stations are Westminster and St James's Park, on the Jubilee and District lines. The area is the centre of Her Majesty's Government, with Parliament in the Palace of Westminster and most of the major Government ministries known as Whitehall, itself the site of the royal palace that replaced that at Westminster. Within the area is Westminster School, a major public school which grew out of the Abbey, the University of Westminster, attended by over 20,000 students. Bounding Westminster to the north is Green Park, a Royal Park of London; the area has a substantial residential population. By the 20th Century Westminster has seen rising residential condominiums with wealthy inhabitants. Hotels, large Victorian homes and barracks exist near to Buckingham Palace. For a list of street name etymologies for Westminster see Street names of Westminster The name describes an area no more than 1 mile from Westminster Abbey and the Palace of Westminster to the west of the River Thames; the settlement grew up as a service area for them.
The need for a parish church, St Margaret's Westminster for the servants of the palace and of the abbey who could not worship there indicates that it had a population as large as that of a small village. It became larger and in the Georgian period became connected through urban ribbon development with the City along the Strand, it did not become a viable local government unit created as a civil parish. Henry VIII's Reformation in the early 16th century abolished the Abbey and established a Cathedral - thus the parish ranked as a "City", although it was only a fraction of the size of the City of London and the Borough of Southwark at that time. Indeed, the Cathedral and diocesan status of the church lasted only from 1539 to 1556, but the "city" status remained for a mere parish within Middlesex; as such it is first known to have had two Members of Parliament in 1545 as a new Parliamentary Borough, centuries after the City of London and Southwark were enfranchised. The former Thorney Island, the site of Westminster Abbey, formed the historic core of Westminster.
The abbey became the traditional venue of the coronations of the kings and queens of England from that of Harold Godwinson onwards. From about 1200 the Palace of Westminster, near the abbey, became the principal royal residence, a transition marked by the transfer of royal treasury and financial records to Westminster from Winchester; the palace housed the developing Parliament and England's law courts. Thus London developed two focal points: the City of Westminster; the monarchs moved their principal residence to the Palace of Whitehall to St James's Palace in 1698, to Buckingham Palace and other palaces after 1762. The main law courts moved to the Royal Courts of Justice in the late-19th century. Charles Booth's poverty map showing Westminster in 1889 recorded the full range of income and capital brackets living in adjacent streets within the area. Westminster has shed the abject poverty with the clearance of this slum and with drainage improvement, but there is a typical Central London property distinction within the area, acute, epitomised by grandiose 21st-century developments, architectural high-point listed buildings and nearby social housing buildings of the Peabody Trust founded by philanthropist George Peabody.
The Westminster area formed part of the Liberty of Westminster in Middlesex. The ancient parish was St Margaret; the area around Westminster Abbey formed the extra-parochial Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter surrounded by — but not part of — either parish. Until 1900 the local authority was the combined vestry of St Margaret and St John, based at Westminster City Hall in Caxton Street from 1883; the Liberty of Westminster, governed by the Westminster Court of Burgesses included St Martin in the Fields and several other parishes and places. Westminster had its own quarter sessions, but the Middlesex sessions had jurisdiction
A flush toilet is a toilet that disposes of human excreta by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location for disposal, thus maintaining a separation between humans and their excreta. Flush toilets can be designed for squatting, in the case of squat toilets; the opposite of a flush toilet is a dry toilet. Flush toilets are a type of plumbing fixture and incorporate an "S", "U", "J", or "P" shaped bend called a trap that causes water to collect in the toilet bowl and act as a seal against noxious gases. Most flush toilets are connected to a sewerage system that conveys waste to a sewage treatment plant; when a toilet is flushed, the wastewater flows into a septic tank, or is conveyed to a treatment plant. Associated devices are urinals, which handle only urine, bidets, which can be used for cleansing of the anus and genitals after using the toilet. A typical flush toilet is a fixed, vitreous ceramic bowl, connected to a drain. After use, the bowl is cleaned by the rapid flow of water into the bowl.
This flush may flow from a dedicated tank, a high-pressure water pipe controlled by a flush valve, or by manually pouring water into the bowl. Tanks and valves are operated by the user, by pressing a button, pulling a lever or pulling a chain; the water is directed around the bowl by a molded flushing rim around the top of the bowl or by one or more jets, so that the entire internal surface of the bowl is rinsed with water. A typical toilet has a tank fixed above the bowl which contains a fixed volume of water, two devices; the first device allows part of the contents of the tank to be discharged into the toilet bowl, causing the contents of the bowl to be swept or sucked out of the toilet and into the drain, when the user operates the flush. The second device automatically allows water to enter the tank until the water level is appropriate for a flush; the water may be discharged through a siphon. A float commands the refilling device. Toilets without cisterns are flushed through a simple flush valve or "Flushometer" connected directly to the water supply.
These are designed to discharge a limited volume of water when the lever or button is pressed released. A toilet may be pour-flushed; this type of flush toilet has no cistern or permanent water supply, but is flushed by pouring in a few litres of water from a container. The flushing can use as little as 2–3 litres; this type of toilet is common in many Asian countries. The toilet can be connected to one or two pits, in which case it is called a "pour flush pit latrine" or a "twin pit pour flush pit latrine", it can be connected to a septic tank. The flushing system provides a large flow of water into the bowl, they take the form of either fixed tanks of water or flush valves. Flush tanks or cisterns incorporate a mechanism to release water from the tank and an automatic valve to allow the cistern to be refilled automatically; this system is suitable for locations plumbed with 1⁄2 inch or 3⁄8 inch water pipes which cannot supply water enough to flush the toilet. The tank collects between 6 and 17 litres of water over a period of time.
In modern installations the storage tank is mounted directly above and behind the bowl. Older installations, known as "high suite combinations", used a high-level cistern, fitted above head height, activated by a pull chain connected to a flush lever on the cistern; when more modern close-coupled cistern and bowl combinations were first introduced, these were first referred to as "low suite combinations". Modern versions have a neater-looking low-level cistern with a lever that the user can reach directly, or a close-coupled cistern, lower down and fixed directly to the bowl. In recent decades the close coupled tank/bowl combination has become the most popular residential system, as it has been found by ceramic engineers that improved waterway design is a more effective way to enhance the bowl's flushing action than high tank mounting. Tank fill; the valves are of two main designs: the concentric-float design. The side-float design has existed for over a hundred years; the concentric design has only existed since 1957, but is becoming more popular than the side-float design.
The side-float design uses a float on the end of a lever to control the fill valve. The float is shaped like a ball, so the mechanism is called a ball-valve or a ballcock; the float was made from copper sheet, but it is now plastic. The float is located to one side of inlet at the end of a rod or arm; as the float rises, so does the float-arm. The arm connects to the fill valve that blocks the water flow into the toilet tank, shuts off the water when the float reaches a set height; this maintains a constant level in the tank. The newer concentric-float fill valve consists of a tower, encircled by a plastic float assembly. Operation is otherwise the same as a side-float fill valve though the float position is somewhat different. By virtue of its more compact layout