Historicism or historism comprises artistic styles that draw their inspiration from recreating historic styles or imitating the work of historic artisans. This is prevalent in architecture, such as revival architecture. Through a combination of different styles or implementation of new elements, historicism can create different aesthetics than former styles, thus it offers a great variety of possible designs. In the history of art, after Neoclassicism which in the Romantic era could itself be considered a historicist movement, the 19th century saw a new historicist phase marked by an interpretation not only of Greek and Roman classicism, but of succeeding stylistic eras, which were considered equivalent. In particular in architecture and in the genre of history painting, in which historical subjects were treated of with great attention to accurate period detail, the global influence of historicism was strong from the 1850s onwards; the change is related to the rise of the bourgeoisie during and after the Industrial Revolution.
By the end of the century, in the fin de siècle and Art Nouveau followed by Expressionism and Modernism acted to make Historicism look outdated, although many large public commissions continued in the 20th century. The Arts and Crafts movement managed to combine a looser vernacular historicism with elements of Art Nouveau and other contemporary styles. Influences of historicism remained strong until the 1950s in many countries; when postmodern architecture became popular in the 1980s, a movement of Neo-Historism followed, still prominent and can be found around the world in representative and upper-class buildings. International Baroque Revival Beaux-Arts Byzantine Revival Egyptian Revival Gothic Revival Greek Revival / Neo-Grec Moorish Revival Neoclassical New Classical / Neo-Historism Renaissance Revival Romanesque Revival Second Empire Swiss chalet style VernacularBritish Empire Adam style Bristol Byzantine Carpenter Gothic Edwardian Baroque Indo-Saracenic Revival Jacobethan Queen Anne style Regency Scottish baronial style Tudor Revival / Black-and-White RevivalFrance Directoire style Empire style Napoleon III styleGermany Biedermeier Gründerzeit Nazi architecture Resort style RundbogenstilGreece and Balkans Mycenaean Revival Serbo-Byzantine RevivalMexico Spanish Colonial Revival architecture Mayan RevivalNetherlands Traditionalist SchoolPortugal Pombaline Neo-Manueline Soft Portuguese styleRussian Empire and USSR Byzantine Revival Russian Revival Stalinist architectureScandinavia Dragestil National Romantic styleSpain Neo-MudéjarUnited States Jeffersonian architecture American Renaissance Carpenter Gothic Collegiate Gothic Colonial Revival Federal style Greco Deco Mediterranean Revival Mission Revival Polish Cathedral style Pueblo Revival Queen Anne style Richardsonian Romanesque Spanish Colonial Revival Territorial RevivalItaly Stile umbertino Gründerzeit Revivalism Resort architecture - a specific style of historicism, popular on the German Baltic Sea coast Academicism Musical historicism Media related to Historicism at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Historicist architecture at Wikimedia Commons
Canadian cuisine varies depending on the regions of the nation. The three earliest cuisines of Canada have First Nations, English and French roots, with the traditional cuisine of English Canada related to British cuisine, while the traditional cuisine of French Canada has evolved from French cuisine and the winter provisions of fur traders. With subsequent waves of immigration in the 19th and 20th century from Central and Eastern Europe, South Asia, East Asia, the Caribbean, the regional cuisines were subsequently augmented. Although certain dishes may be identified as "Canadian" due to the ingredients used or the origin of its inception, an overarching style of Canadian cuisine is more difficult to define; some Canadians such as the former Canadian prime minister Joe Clark believe that Canadian cuisine is a collage of dishes from the cuisines of other cultures. Clark himself has been paraphrased to have noted: "Canada has a cuisine of cuisines. Not a stew pot, but a smorgasbord."Some define Canadian cuisine by the foods native to North America, now used worldwide, such as squash, peppers, wild rice and large claw lobster.
Some define Canadian cuisine by recipes altered due to lack of ingredients of the original dish found elsewhere, such as tourtière made with pork not pigeon, sushi made with salmon not tuna, candy made with maple syrup instead of molasses. Some have sought to define Canadian cuisine along the line of how Claus Meyer defined Nordic cuisine in his Manifesto for the New Nordic Kitchen. Others believe that Canadian cuisine is still in the process of being defined from the cuisines of the numerous cultures that have influenced it, that being a culture of many cultures and its cuisine is less about a particular dish but rather how the ingredients are combined. Aboriginal food in particular is considered Canadian. Métis food is so, since the Métis people had such an integrated role in how Canada, Canadian food, came to be. Foods such as bannock, deer, pemmican, maple taffy, Métis stews such as barley stew, all originated either in Canada or through aboriginal peoples, are eaten throughout the country.
Other foods that originated in Canada are thought of in the same overarching group of Canadian food as aboriginal foods, despite not being so, such as peameal bacon, cajun seasoning, Nanaimo bars. There are some foods of non-Canadian origin that are eaten frequently. Perogies are an example of this, due to the large number of early Ukrainian immigrants. There are, some regional foods that are not eaten as on one side of the country as on the other, such as dulse in the Maritimes, stews in the Territories, or poutine in the Francophone areas of Canada. In general, Canadian foods contain a lot of starch, game meats, involve a lot of stews and soups, most notably Métis-style and split-pea soup. Canadian food has been shaped and impacted by continual waves of immigration, with the types of foods and from different regions and periods of Canada reflecting this immigration; the traditional Indigenous cuisine of Canada was based on a mixture of wild game, foraged foods, farmed agricultural products.
Each region of Canada with its own First Nations and Inuit people used their local resources and own food preparation techniques for their cuisines. Maple syrup was first collected and used by aboriginal people of Eastern Canada and North Eastern US. Canada is the world's largest producer of maple syrup; the origins of maple syrup production are not clear though the first syrups were made by freezing the collected maple sap and removing the ice to concentrate the sugar in the remaining sap. Maple syrup is one of the most consumed Canadian foods of Aboriginal origins. Dried meat products such as pânsâwân and pemmican are consumed by the indigenous peoples of the plains. In particular, the former was a predecessor for North American style beef jerky, with the processing methods adapted for beef. In most of the Canadian West Coast and Pacific Northwest, Pacific salmon was an important food resource to the First Nations peoples, along with certain marine mammals. Salmon were consumed fresh when spawning or smoked dry to create a jerky-like food that could be stored year-round.
The latter food is known and sold as "salmon jerky". Whipped Soapberry, known as xoosum in the Interior Salish languages of British Columbia, is consumed to ice cream or as a cranberry-cocktail-like drink, it is known for being a kidney tonic. In the Arctic, Inuit traditionally survived on a diet consisting of land and marine mammals and foraged plant products. Meats were consumed fresh but often prepared and allowed to ferment into igunaq or kiviak; these fermented meats have the smell of certain soft aged cheeses. Snacks such as muktuk, which consist of whale skin and blubber is eaten plain, though sometimes dipped in soy sauce. Chunks of muktuk are sliced with an ulu prior to or during consumption. Fish are eaten boiled and prior to today's settlements in dried forms; the so-called "Eskimo potato" and other "mousefoods" are some of the plants consumed in the arctic. Foods such as "bannock", popular with First Nations and Inuit, reflect the historic exchange of these cultures with French fur traders, who brought with the
Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Kitchen dwellers of Russia. The cuisine is diverse, with many women cooking Northern and Eastern European, Central Asian and East Asian influences. Russian cuisine derives its varied character from the multi-ethnic expanse of Russia, its foundations were laid by the peasant food of the rural population in an harsh climate, with a combination of plentiful fish, poultry, mushrooms and honey. Crops of rye, wheat and millet provided the ingredients for a plethora of breads, pies, cereals and vodka. Soups and stews are centered on seasonal or storable produce and meats; such food remained the staple for the vast majority of Russians well into the 20th century. Soviet cuisine had a separate character of its own; the 16th through 18th centuries brought more refined culinary techniques. It was during this time period that smoked meats and fish, pastry cooking and green vegetables, ice cream and juice were imported from abroad. At least for the urban aristocracy and provincial gentry, this opened the doors for the creative integration of these new foodstuffs with traditional Russian dishes.
Soups have always played an important role in a Russian meal. The traditional staple of soups such as shchi, rassolnik, botvinya and tyurya was enlarged in the 18th to 20th centuries by both European and Central Asian staples like clear soups, pureed soups and many others. Russian soups can be divided into at least seven large groups: Chilled soups based on kvass, such as tyurya and botvinya. Light soups and stews based on water and vegetables, such as swekolnik. Noodle soups with meat, mushrooms, or milk. Soups based on cabbage, most prominently shchi. Thick soups based with a salty-sour base like rassolnik and solyanka. Fish soups such as ukha. Grain- and vegetable-based soups. Okroshka is a cold soup based on kvass or lime milk. Okroshka is a salad; the main ingredients are two types of vegetables that can be mixed with cold boiled meat or fish in a 1:1 proportion. Thus vegetable, meat and fish varieties of okroshka are made. There are two types of vegetables in okroshka; the first must have a neutral taste, such as boiled potatoes, rutabagas, carrots, or fresh cucumbers.
The second must be spicy, consisting of green onion as well as other herbs—greens of dill, chervil, celery, or tarragon. Different meat and poultry can be used in the same soup; the most common ingredient is beef alone or with poultry. If it is made with fish, the best choice would be tench, European perch, pike-perch, cod, or other neutral-tasting fish; the kvass most used in cooking is white okroshka kvass, much more sour than drinking kvass. Spices used include mustard, black pepper and pickled cucumber or in combination. For the final touch, boiled eggs and smetana are added. For sour milk based okroshka, well shaken up natural sour milk is used with the addition of pure water and ground garlic. Sometimes manufactured kefir is used instead of natural sour milk for time saving reasons, though some say it detracts from the original taste of okroshka. Tyurya is similar to okroshka, the main difference being that instead of vegetables, bread is soaked in kvass, it was consumed during rough times such as and by poor peasants.
Due to its simplicity, it was common as a meal during religious fasting. Botvinya is another type of cold soup; the name of the soup comes from the Russian word botva, which means "leafy tops of root vegetables", true to its name, it is made with the leafy tops of young beets, scallions, dill and two types of kvass. Mustard and horseradish are added for flavor; the vegetables are rubbed through a sieve and kvass is poured over. Svekolnik is cold borscht, it consists of beet sour or beet juice blended with sour cream, soured milk, kefir or yogurt. The mixture has a distinctive pink color, it is served chilled over finely chopped beetroot, cucumbers and spring onion, together with halved hard-boiled eggs and sprinkled with fresh dill. Chopped veal, ham, or crawfish tails may be added as well. Shchi had been the predominant first course in Russian cuisine for over a thousand years. Although tastes have changed, it made its way through several kitchen dwellers. Shchi knew no social class boundaries, if the rich had richer ingredients and the poor made it of cabbage and onions, all these "poor" and "rich" variations were cooked in the same tradition.
The unique taste of this cabbage soup was from the fact that after cooking it was left to draw in a Russian stove. The "Spirit of shchi" was inseparable from a Russian izba. Many Russian proverbs are connected to this soup, such as Shchi da kasha — pishcha nasha, it can be eaten and at any time of the year. The richer variant of shchi includes several ingredients, but the first and last components are a must: Cabbage. Meat. Carrots, basil or parsley roots. Spicy herbs. Sour components; when this soup is served, smetana is added. It is eaten with rye bread. During much of the year when the Orthodox Christian Church prescribes abstinence from
The graham cracker is a sweet, cinnamon-flavored cracker made with graham flour. It originated in the early 1880s, is a mass-produced product in contemporary times, it is eaten as a snack food, sometimes with honey, is used as an ingredient in some foods. The name can be pronounced in North America; the graham cracker was inspired by the preaching of Sylvester Graham, a part of and influenced by the 19th-century temperance movement. His preaching was taken up in the US in the midst of the 1829–51 cholera pandemic. His followers, formed one of the first vegetarian movements in the US, graham flour, graham crackers, graham bread were created for them and marketed to them. The main ingredients in its earlier preparations were graham flour, shortening or lard and salt. Graham crackers have been a mass-produced food product in the United States since 1898, with the National Biscuit Company being the first to mass-produce it at that time; the Loose-Wiles Biscuit Company began mass-producing the product beginning sometime in the early 1910s.
The product continues to be mass-produced in the U. S. today. In earlier times, mass-produced graham crackers were prepared using yeast-leavened dough, which added flavor to the food via the process of fermentation, whereas contemporary mass-production of the product omits this process; the dough is sometimes chilled before being rolled out, which prevents blistering and breakage from occurring when the product is baked. Graham cracker crumbs are used to create graham cracker crusts for pies and moon pie, as a base, layer or topping for cheesecake. Graham cracker pie crusts are mass-produced in the United States, consumer versions of the product consist of a graham cracker crumb mixture pressed into an aluminum pie pan; the graham cracker is a main ingredient in the preparation of the s'more. Bland diet Icebox cake Mango float List of crackers "Almanac: Graham crackers". CBS News. July 5, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2018. Media related to Graham cracker at Wikimedia Commons The Origin of Graham Crackers.
Snopes.com. 7 Things You Probably Didn’t Know About Graham Crackers. Food Republic
The Maltese cross is a cross symbol, consisting of four "V" or arrowhead shaped concave quadrilaterals converging at a central vertex at right angles, two tips pointing outward symmetrically. It is a heraldic cross variant which developed from earlier forms of eight-pointed crosses in the 16th century. Although chiefly associated with the Knights Hospitaller, by extension with the island of Malta, it has come to be used by a wide array of entities since the early modern period, notably the Order of Saint Stephen, the city of Amalfi, the Polish Order of the White Eagle and the Prussian order Pour le Mérite. Unicode defines a character named "Maltese cross" in the Dingbats range at code point U+2720; the Knights Hospitaller during the Crusades used a plain Latin cross. Occasional use of an "eight-pointed cross" by the order begins in the early 14th century; this early form is a cross moline or cross branchée ending in eight points, not yet featuring the sharp vertex of the modern design. The association of the eight-pointed cross with the southern Italy coastal town of Amalfi may go back to the 11th century, as the design is found on coins minted by the Duchy of Amalfi at that time.
Eight-pointed crosses appear on coins minted by the Grand Masters of the order, first shown embroidered on the left arm of the robe of the kneeling Grand Master on the obverse of a coin minted under Foulques de Villaret In 1489, the statutes of the oder require all knights of Malta to wear "the white cross with eight points". Emergence of the sharp vertex of the modern "four-arrowhead" design is gradual, takes place during the 15th to 16th century; the "Rhodian cross" of the early 16th century had but not quite, achieved the "sharp arrowhead appearance". The modern design is found on a copper coin dated 1567, minted by Grand Master Jean Parisot de Valette. In 1577, Alonso Sanchez Coello painted Archduke Wenceslaus of Austria as Grand Prior of the Order of Malta wearing the emblem on his robes; the design appears. It is shown on a copper coin dated 1693, minted under Grand Master Adrien de Wignacourt. From the end of the 17th century, it is occasionally displayed as alternative heraldic emblem of the order.
Its depiction on the facade of San Giovannino dei Cavalieri dates to 1699. The Maltese cross as defined by the constitution of the Order of St. John remains the symbol of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, of the Order of Saint John and its allied orders, of the Venerable Order of Saint John, of their various service organisations. Numerous other modern orders of merit have used the eight-pointed cross. In Australia, the eight-pointed cross is part of the state emblem of Queensland; the eight points of the eight-pointed cross have been given a number of symbolic interpretations, such as representing the eight Langues of the Knights Hospitaller. Or alternatively the "eight obligations or aspirations" of the knights:Websites operated by both the German Order of Saint John and the British Venerable Order of St John associate the eight points with the Eight Beatitudes. An undated leaflet published by The Venerable Order's main service organisation, St John Ambulance, has applied secular meanings to the points as representing the traits of a good first aider: The Maltese cross is displayed as part of the Maltese civil ensign.
The Maltese euro coins of 1- and 2-euro denomination carry the Maltese cross. It is the trademark of Air Malta, Malta's national airline; the Maltese cross was depicted on the two-mils coin in of the Maltese lira, on the reverse of one- and two-Euro coins introduced in January 2008. Austria's two highest decorations, the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria and the Austrian Decoration for Science and Art, have the eight-pointed cross as their basis. In Belgium, the eight-pointed cross is the basis of two of the country's royal orders of merit, the Order of Leopold and the Order of Leopold II; the Order of Bravery is the highest military decoration of the Kingdom of Bulgaria and of the Republic of Bulgaria and the most esteemed Bulgarian order. The Pour le Mérite, Imperial Germany's highest award for military valor, was a blue-enameled, eight-pointed cross with golden eagles between the arms, it was founded in 1740 by the francophile Prussian King Frederick the Great, was adorned with the French legend Pour le Mérite in gold.
Awards of the military class ceased with the dissolution of the Hohenzollern monarchy at the end of World War I in November 1918. The coats of arms of the former duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the former Mecklenburg-Strelitz district contained an eight-pointed cross. Several towns in Northern Germany have an eight-pointed cross on their coats of arms, including Malchin, Moraas, Sülstorf. Heitersheim and Bad Dürrheim in Southern Germany have an eight-pointed cross on their arms. In the Netherlands, the eight-pointed cross forms the basic form for the three highest royal orders of merit: the Orders of the Netherlands Lion, Orange-Nassau and the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau. In Norway, the eight-pointed cross is the symbol used in the Order of St. Olav. In the Philippines, the eight-pointed cross is a part of the pendant of the Quezon Service Cross, the highest honor that can be conferred in the republic, it is found in the Order of Sikatuna, Order of the Golden Heart. In Poland, the eight-pointed cross forms the basis for the country's four highest awards
French invasion of Russia
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 and in France as the Russian Campaign, began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army. Napoleon hoped to compel Tsar Alexander I of Russia to cease trading with British merchants through proxies in an effort to pressure the United Kingdom to sue for peace; the official political aim of the campaign was to liberate Poland from the threat of Russia. Napoleon named the campaign the Second Polish War to gain favor with the Poles and provide a political pretext for his actions. At the start of the invasion, the Grande Armée numbered 680,000 soldiers, it was the largest army known to have been assembled in the history of warfare up to that point. Through a series of long marches Napoleon pushed the army through Western Russia in an attempt to engage and destroy the Russian army, winning a number of minor engagements and a major battle at Smolensk in August.
Napoleon hoped the battle would win the war for him, but the Russian army slipped away and continued the retreat, leaving Smolensk to burn. As the Russian army fell back, scorched-earth tactics were employed, resulting in villages and crops being destroyed and forcing the French to rely on a supply system, incapable of feeding their large army in the field. On 7 September, the French caught up with the Russian army which had dug itself in on hillsides before a small town called Borodino, seventy miles west of Moscow; the battle that followed was the bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars, with 72,000 casualties, a narrow French victory. The Russian army withdrew the following day, leaving the French again without the decisive victory Napoleon sought. A week Napoleon entered Moscow, which the Russians had abandoned and burned; the loss of Moscow did not compel Alexander I to enter into negotiations, Napoleon stayed on in Moscow for a month, waiting for a peace offer that never came.
On 19 October and his army left Moscow and marched southwest toward Kaluga, where Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov was encamped with the Russian army. After an inconclusive battle at Maloyaroslavets, Napoleon began to retreat back to the Polish border. In the following weeks, the Grande Armée suffered from the onset of the Russian Winter. Lack of food and fodder for the horses, hypothermia from the bitter cold and persistent attacks upon isolated troops from Russian peasants and Cossacks led to great losses in men, a breakdown of discipline and cohesion in the army. More fighting at Vyazma and Krasnoi resulted in further losses for the French; when the remnants of Napoleon's main army crossed the Berezina River in late November, only 27,000 soldiers remained. Following the crossing of the Berezina, Napoleon left the army after much urging from his advisors and with the unanimous approval of his Marshals, he returned to Paris to protect his position as Emperor and to raise more forces to resist the advancing Russians.
The campaign ended after nearly six months on 14 December 1812, with the last French troops leaving Russian soil. The campaign was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars, it was the greatest and bloodiest of the Napoleonic campaigns, involving more than 1.5 million soldiers, with over 500,000 French and 400,000 Russian casualties. The reputation of Napoleon was shaken, French hegemony in Europe was weakened; the Grande Armée, made up of French and allied invasion forces, was reduced to a fraction of its initial strength. These events triggered a major shift in European politics. France's ally Prussia, soon followed by Austria, broke their imposed alliance with France and switched sides; this triggered the War of the Sixth Coalition. Although the Napoleonic Empire seemed to be at its height in 1810 and 1811, it had in fact declined somewhat from its apogee in 1806–1809. Although most of Western and Central Europe lay under his control—either directly or indirectly through various protectorates and countries defeated by his empire and under treaties favorable for France—Napoleon had embroiled his armies in the costly and drawn-out Peninsular War in Spain and Portugal.
France's economy, army morale, political support at home had noticeably declined. But most Napoleon himself was not in the same physical and mental state as in years past, he had become overweight and prone to various maladies. Despite his troubles in Spain, with the exception of British expeditionary forces to that country, no European power dared move against him; the Treaty of Schönbrunn, which ended the 1809 war between Austria and France, had a clause removing Western Galicia from Austria and annexing it to the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. Russia viewed this as against its interests and as a potential launching-point for an invasion of Russia. In 1811 Russian staff developed a plan of offensive war, assuming a Russian assault on Warsaw and on Danzig. In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon in his own words termed this war the Second Polish War. Napoleon's "first" Polish war, the War of the Fourth Coalition to liberate Poland, he saw as such because one of the official declared goals of this war was the resurrection of the Polish state on territories of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Tsar Alexander found Russia in an economic bind as his country had little in the way of manufacturing, yet was rich in raw materials and relied on trade with Na
Fondant icing commonly referred to as fondant, is an icing used to decorate or sculpt cakes and pastries. It is made from sugar, gelatin, vegetable fat or shortening, glycerol, it does not have the texture of most icings. The word, in French, means "melting," coming from the same root as foundry. However, what the French call "fondant" is sugar glaze, which has to be applied hot on pastries like "mille-feuille," while fondant icing would be referred as "pâte à sucre," meaning "sugar dough." Poured fondant is a creamy confection used as a filling or coating for cakes and candies or sweets. In its simplest form, it is water stabilized with gelatin and glycerine, it is cooked to the soft-ball stage and stirred or beaten to incorporate air, until it is an opaque mass with a creamy consistency. Sometimes lemon or vanilla is added to the mixture for taste. Other flavorings are used as well. An example of its use is the Cadbury Creme Egg, the filling of, inverted sugar syrup, produced by processing fondant with invertase.
Fondant fancies are a type of cake coated in poured fondant. Rolled fondant, fondant icing, or pettinice, not the same material as poured fondant, is used to decorate wedding cakes. Although wedding cakes are traditionally made with marzipan and royal icing, fondant is common due to nut allergies as it does not require almond meal. Rolled fondant includes gelatin and food-grade glycerine, which keeps the sugar pliable and creates a dough-like consistency, it can be made using powdered sugar and melted marshmallows. Rolled fondant is used to cover the cake. Commercial shelf-stable rolled fondant consists principally of sugar and hydrogenated oil. However, different formulations for commercial shelf-stable fondant are available and include other ingredients, such as sugar, cellulose gum, water. Marshmallow fondant is a form of rolled fondant made and used by home bakers and hobbyists. Marshmallow fondant is made by combining melted shelf-stable marshmallows, powered sugar, solid vegetable shortening.
Home bakers use this recipe for homemade fondant due to the available access to required ingredients. Sculpting fondant is similar to rolled fondant but with a stiffer consistency, which makes it a good sculpting material. Sugar paste or gum paste is similar to rolled fondant, but hardens completely—and therefore is used for bigger cake decorations, such as bride and groom figures, bigger flowers, etc. Sugar paste is made of egg whites, powdered sugar, shortening. Tylose can be added to make gum paste more pliable for detailed work. Poured fondant is formed by supersaturating water with sucrose. More than twice as much sugar dissolves in water at the boiling point as at room temperature. After the sucrose dissolves, if the solution is left to cool undisturbed, the sugar remains dissolved in a supersaturated solution until nucleation occurs. While the solution is supersaturated, if a cook puts a seed crystal into the mix, or agitates the solution, the dissolved sucrose crystallizes to form large, crunchy crystals.
However, if the cook lets the solution cool undisturbed and stirs it vigorously, it forms many tiny crystals, resulting in a smooth-textured fondant. Ganache Royal icing Media related to Fondant at Wikimedia Commons