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Millennium Bridge, London

The Millennium Bridge known as the London Millennium Footbridge, is a steel suspension bridge for pedestrians crossing the River Thames in London, linking Bankside with the City of London. It is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation. Construction began in 1998, it opened in June 2000. Londoners nicknamed it the "Wobbly Bridge" after pedestrians experienced an alarming swaying motion on its opening day; the bridge was closed that day and, after two days of limited access, it was closed again for two years so that modifications and repairs could be made to keep the bridge stable and stop the swaying motion. It reopened in February 2002; the bridge is located between Blackfriars Railway Bridge. Its southern end is near the Globe Theatre, the Bankside Gallery, Tate Modern, while its northern end is next to the City of London School below St Paul's Cathedral; the bridge's alignment is such that a clear view of St Paul's south façade is presented from across the river, framed by the bridge supports.

The design of the bridge was the subject of a competition organised in 1996 by Southwark council and RIBA Competitions. The winning entry was an innovative "blade of light" effort from Arup Group and Partners, Sir Anthony Caro. Due to height restrictions, to improve the view, the bridge's suspension design had the supporting cables below the deck level, giving a shallow profile; the bridge has two river piers and is made of three main sections of 81 m, 144 m, 108 m with a total structure length of 325 m. The eight suspension cables are tensioned to pull with a force of 2,000 tons against the piers set into each bank—enough to support a working load of 5,000 people on the bridge at one time. Ordinarily, bridges across the River Thames require an Act of Parliament. For this bridge, avoided by the Port of London Authority granting a licence for the structure, the City of London and London Borough of Southwark granting planning permission. Construction began in late 1998 and the main works were started on 28 April 1999 by Monberg & Thorsen and Sir Robert McAlpine.

The bridge was completed at a cost of £18.2 million paid for by the Millennium Commission and the London Bridge Trust. The bridge opened on 10 June 2000, two months late. Unexpected lateral vibration due to resonant structural response caused the bridge to be closed on 12 June for modifications. Attempts had been made to limit the number of people crossing the bridge, which led to long queues but were ineffective to dampen the vibrations. Closure of the bridge only two days after opening attracted public criticism as another high-profile British Millennium project that suffered an embarrassing setback, akin to how many saw the Millennium Dome. Vibration was attributed to an under-researched phenomenon whereby pedestrians crossing a bridge that has a lateral sway have an unconscious tendency to match their footsteps to the sway, exacerbating it; the tendency of a suspension bridge to sway vertically when troops march over it in step was well known, why troops are required to break step when crossing such a bridge.

An example is London's Albert Bridge, which has a sign dating from 1873 warning marching ranks of soldiers to break step while crossing. The bridge's movements were caused by a'positive feedback' phenomenon, known as synchronous lateral excitation; the natural sway motion of people walking caused small sideways oscillations in the bridge, which in turn caused people on the bridge to sway in step, increasing the amplitude of the bridge oscillations and continually reinforcing the effect. On the day of opening, the bridge was crossed by 90,000 people, with up to 2,000 on the bridge at any one time. Resonant vibrational modes due to vertical loads and wind loads are well understood in bridge design. In the case of the Millennium Bridge, because the lateral motion caused pedestrians to directly participate with the bridge, the vibrational modes had not been anticipated by the designers; when the bridge lurches to one side, the pedestrians must adjust to keep from falling over, they all do this at the same time.

The effect is similar to soldiers marching in lockstep, but horizontal instead of vertical. The risks of lateral vibration in lightweight bridges are well known. Any bridge with lateral frequency modes of less than 1.3 Hz, sufficiently low mass, could witness the same phenomenon with sufficient pedestrian loading. The greater the number of people, the greater the amplitude of the vibrations. Other bridges which have seen similar problems are: Auckland Harbour Bridge, with a lateral frequency of 0.67 Hz during a 1975 demonstration Birmingham NEC Link bridge, with a lateral frequency of 0.7 Hz Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsed in wind. The first laboratory studies used pedestrians on moving platforms at the University of Southampton and Imperial College London. In 2000, one span of the bridge was instrumented and tested with crowds of up to 275 people, they concluded that making the bridge stiffer, to move its resonant frequency out of the excitation range, was not feasible as it would change its appearance.

Instead, the resonance was controlled by retrofitting 37 viscous fluid dampers to dissipate energy. These include 17 chevron dampers – long V-shaped braces under the deck panels – to control lateral movement, 4 verti

National Register of Historic Places listings in Iron County, Michigan

The following is a list of Registered Historic Places in Iron County, Michigan. The list includes 80 structures and historic districts that are significant for their architectural, historical, or industrial/economic importance. Iron County part of Marquette County, was first surveyed in 1851. At that time, the area was populated exclusively by Native Americans from the Menominee and Ojibwe tribes. Although the original 1851 survey of the county noted the presence of iron ore, European settlers began arriving in numbers in 1875, prospecting for iron ore. In 1880, two important ore strikes were made: the first was by John Armstrong, who opened the Crystal Falls Mine along the Paint River, the second was by Donald C. MacKinnon, who opened the Iron River Mine along the Iron River; these two mines were the foundation of the two main population centers of the county, the success of the mines brought more prospectors to the area, with 70 mines producing ore in the county. Logging began in the county in 1875, lumber mills were soon another important contributor the area's economy.

Railroads the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, extended lines into the county to service the expanding mines. Lines to both Iron River and Crystal Falls were completed in 1882, both settlements expanded rapidly. Separate townships for Iron River and Crystal Falls, still under the auspices of Marquette County, were created in 1882. However, there was much local sentiment for establishing a new county for the area, in 1885 Iron County was split from Marquette County. At the time of Iron County's creation, Iron River the only incorporated village in the county, was designated the county seat. However, a bitter dispute over the location of county buildings erupted between the geographically disparate east side, centered on Crystal Falls, the west side, centered on Iron River; the dispute lasted until 1889, when a county-wide general election designated Crystal Falls as the county seat. By 1890, there were nearly 4500 people living in Iron County, supported by the mining and timber industries. However, the Panic of 1893 caused a depression in iron prices that lead to the closing of nearly all iron mines in the county and a severe curtailing of lumbering activities.

County residents turned to agriculture to support themselves. The economy of the area rebounded around the turn of the century as major mining companies, such as the M. A. Hanna Company and Pickands and Company bought up smaller mines in the area. Logging of hardwoods began in the county around the same time, a long period of sustained growth stretched until the Great Depression; the population of the county crew during this time, reaching 20,805 in 1930. A great many of the newcomers were immigrants from Ireland, Poland, Scandinavia and Wales. New villages were platted to house mine workers, including Alpha, Mineral Hills and Gaastra. Iron River, Crystal Falls, Stambaugh were all expanded. To serve the new residents, an electric street car line was installed in 1906, a number of public schools were built; the Great Depression ended Iron County's economic boom. Iron mining in the county was halted, lumbering was reduced, leaving thousands of workers unemployed. Several federal government projects were funded in the county, including the Cooks Run Trout Feeding Station, the Pentoga Park Office and Bathhouse, various Civilian Conservation Corps projects crafted by workers at Camp Gibbs.

The mining industry was temporarily revived by World War II, but mining declined in the postwar years, with few mines lasting into the 1960s and the last iron mine in the county closing in 1979. Lumber, has remained a substantial economic enterprise in the area, employing thousands of people until the present day. There are 80 listings on the National Register of Historic Places in Michigan; these structures date from Iron County's economic boom during the first two decades of the 20th century, although some structures date from the initial influx of residents soon after the 1880 start of intensive iron mining. The first structure listed, in 1975, was the Iron County Courthouse, the most architecturally significant structure in the county. Nearly all the subsequent listings were submitted as part of the Iron County MRA, a 1983 Multiple Property Submission that attempted to collect the most and architecturally significant structures in the county. Seventy-two of the Iron County listings are part of this MRA, one more property, Central School, was nominated as part of the MRA but listed separately, in 2008.

Four more structures, all highway bridges, were listed as part of the Highway Bridges of Michigan Multiple Property Submission. Other than the Courthouse, only one structure on this list, the Chicago and Saint Paul Railway Iron River Depot, was not associated with either of the Multiple Property Submissions; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted February 28, 2020. List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Iron County, Michigan

Laura Ryan

Laura Ryan is an American international diver from Elk River, Minnesota. She competes in one and three meter individual springboard diving and 10 meter platform diving as well as three meter synchronized springboard, she dove collegiately at the University of Georgia. At UGA she was a two-time NCAA champion. Ryan graduated from Elk River High, she won the Minnesota state high school championship in 2007 and was a three-time Amateur Athletic Union national champion. Ryan began her college career at Indiana University and as a freshman during the 2010–2011 season won platform, finished second on 1-meter and third on 3-meter at the Big Ten Conference championship; as an IU sophomore the next year, she finished eighth on 3-meter and 12th on both 1-meter and platform at the NCAA Women's Swimming and Diving Championships. For her junior year, Ryan transferred to the University of Georgia in Athens and trained under UGA dive coach Dan Laak; as a junior Ryan was selected as a First-Team All-SEC member after finishing first on 3-meter, third on platform and 18 on 1-meter at the SEC Championships en route to helping UGA win a fourth consecutive SEC Women's conference title.

She finished fifth on platform and 13th on 3-meter at the NCAA Women's Swimming and Diving Championships to help the UGA women win the National championship. Ryan was selected by USA Diving for the Olympic Performance Squad, the United States Canada Cup Team and the FINA Grand Prix team. Ryan earned a spot on the UGA Athletic Director's honor roll and was selected by the College Swimming Coaches Association of America as a First-Team Scholar All-American as a psychology major. Before Ryan's senior season in 2013-2014, she suffered a broken kneecap that hampered her most of the season. At the NCAA Championships, she won individual championships in both the 1 meter and 3 meter springboard events and finished third in the 10 meter platform event as UGA won a second consecutive Women's team national championship. Academically, Ryan was selected for the UGA Student-Athlete Leadership Academy, the Ramsey Scholarship for Academic/Athletic Excellence, the UGA Athletic Director's Honor Roll and the Dean's List.

In 2013, Ryan teamed with Meghan Houston to win the bronze medal in women's synchronized 3-meter at the World University Games in Kazan and Ryan won silver in the team competition. The 2014 season marks Ryan's fifth consecutive year as a member of the United States national diving team. Ryan has qualified for the 19th FINA Diving World Cup that will take place in Shanghai in 2014. Georgia Bulldogs profile at USA Diving

Thomas W. Palmer

Thomas Witherell Palmer was a U. S. Senator from the state of Michigan, he is considered to be one of the most significant figures in the history of Michigan. Palmer was born in Detroit, where his mother was the daughter of the third Michigan Territorial Judge James Witherell, while his father was a New England merchant who had settled in the city following the War of 1812. Palmer attended the public schools, Thompson’s Academy in Palmer, studied one year at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, he traveled to Spain and South America and entered the real estate business in Detroit in 1853 and engaged in lumbering and agricultural pursuits with his future father-in-law, Charles Merrill, beginning in 1855. He served on the first board of directors and as the first president for the Michigan Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, he served on the Board of Estimates of Detroit in 1873 and was a member of the Michigan State Senate 1879–1880. He was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1883 to March 4, 1889.

He was not a candidate for reelection. He was chairman of the Committee on Fisheries in the Forty-ninth Congress, the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry in the Fiftieth Congress. While in the Senate, he became known as an advocate for the women's suffrage movement, immigration restrictions, homesteader rights, he is credited with coining a phrase adopted by latter-day reformers, Equal rights for all, special privileges to none. On February 6, 1885, he delivered a noted speech arguing in favor of an amendment to the U. S. Constitution granting women's suffrage. Palmer was appointed United States Minister to Spain on March 12, 1889 by U. S. President Benjamin Harrison and served from June 17, 1889 to April 19, 1890, he was president of the National Commission of the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago 1890–1893. He retired to his Wayne County farm near Detroit. Palmer and his wife, Lizzie Pitts Merrill Palmer, became known for their generous gifts to the city of Detroit. Among his activities, Palmer was one of the major benefactors of the Michigan Soldiers and Sailors Monument erected at Campus Martius.

In honor of his mother, he built the Mary W. Palmer Memorial Church, he was one of the founders and the first president of the Detroit Museum of Art, to which he contributed $16,000 and its current building stands on the site of Palmer's former home. Lizzie Palmer in 1901 commissioned the Merrill Fountain in Campus Martius, dedicated in honor of her father. New York architects Carrere and Hastings are responsible for the design; the fountain was moved to Palmer Park in 1926. She bequeathed $3 million to found the Merrill-Palmer Institute in 1916, a national center for child and family development and is now affiliated with Wayne State University and located in the former house of Charles Lang Freer. In 1897, Palmer donated 140 acres of land along Woodward Avenue to the city for use as a public park; this land formed the basis of Palmer Park. Palmer had inherited the land from his grandfather Michigan Territorial Judge James Witherell. In 1885, the Palmers had had the prominent architecture firm of Mason & Rice design a rustic log cabin-style summer house on the land, which still remains in the park, although it is closed to visitors.

Palmer was a member of the Freemasons. He is interred in Elmwood Cemetery. Dictionary of American Biography Burton, M. Agnes. "Thomas W. Palmer." Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society Collections 39: 208-17 Burton, Clarence. "Thomas W. Palmer," The City of Detroit, Michigan: 1701-1922, v. VI. Detroit: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1922. Ziewacz, Lawrence E. "The Eighty-First Ballot: The Senatorial Struggle of 1883." Michigan History 56: 216-32 Works by or about Thomas W. Palmer at Internet Archive' Text of Palmer's Women's Suffrage speech Detroit Free Press article about Palmer's cabinUnited States Congress. "Thomas W. Palmer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

Adolphe Engers

Adolphe Engers was a Dutch writer and actor on stage and in the movies, who appeared in more than fifty films during his career, a number of them in Weimar Germany. Before his career in film, he was an actor on a writer. In 1920 he published Peccavi...???, a then-scandalous novel with a gay protagonist, co-written with fellow actor Ernst Winar. A performer of considerable talent, he was to be honored for his achievements on the stage in the 1930s by an honorary committee that included Simon Carmiggelt, who related that, when the committee members understood that Engers himself was gay, withdrew from the committee one after the other. Other works were a screenplay about the closing of the Zuiderzee, which created the artificial lake IJsselmeer, in which he was to act as well, a play about Oscar Wilde, published in 1917, whose main themes are norms and deviancy, he appeared in the 1922 German-Dutch co-production The Man in the Background. Andriopoulos, Stefan. Possessed: Hypnotic Crimes, Corporate Fiction, the Invention of Cinema.

University of Chicago Press, 2008. Adolphe Engers on IMDb

Hosoi Heishu

Hosoi Heishū was a Japanese teacher of Confucian thought during the Edo period. He belonged to the eclectic school of Confucian philosophy, his thought can be considered as the starting point of the eclectic brand of Confucianism. Born in Hirashima Village, Owari Province, to a wealthy scholar family who gave up their status to become farmers, Hosoi spent the first nine years of his life there as a student in a local temple. On becoming the top student, he was sent to Kyoto and Nagoya at age 17 where he studied under Nakanishi Tanen, it was during this time that Hosoi gained an education in the Chinese classics and when he was a young adult, he began giving lectures to daimyōs and commoners. After being taught in Nagoya, Hosoi moved to Nagasaki, where he would remain for three years until he was forced to return home to take care of his ailing mother. After doing so, Hosoi moved back to Nagoya, where he opened up a school, but after a short time he decided to close the school down so that he could relocate to Edo in an effort to reestablish relations with his former teacher.

In 1780, Hosoi was able to secure a position as a teacher in Owari, where he occupied areas of land to be used as places where he could give his lectures and educate the local people. Hosoi's thought was a mixture of lessons from all the schools of Confucianism existent at the time, his philosophy emphasized practicality, independence of thought, bringing the teachings of Confucius to the general population. He believed that the scholars of the other schools made the teachings too complicated and disliked any kind of speculative thought; the practical emphasis of his teachings, along his focus on the economic conditions of the common person won him many disciples, who gave him the name of Living Buddha. One of these disciples, Uesugi Yozan, would become famous as a model daimyō, using Hosoi as an advisor during his reform programs. According to Hosoi's philosophy, there is an internal sincere purity within everyone as well as in the natural world; this purity, which he called makoto, was the basis for all ethical action.

This purity is corrupted when a person lives their life on Earth. In order for harmony and understanding to come about among humanity, a person had to keep their makoto pure; the concept of makoto originated within the Shinto tradition, throughout his philosophical writings and lectures, Hosoi draws extensively from Shinto beliefs. Hosoi's view of women is similar to most Confucianist of the era, his views can be said to resemble the perspective found in a work entitled Greater Learning For Women, written by Kaibara Ekken, a famous Confucianist of the Zhu Xi school. According to Hosoi's view, when a woman is in her childhood, the parents should refrain from spoiling her in order to keep her from developing a love of luxury, as well as being unable to adjust to the hardships of the married life; when the woman becomes an adult, she should become married and become a model of endurance, taking on abuse while caring for the mother-in-law and family. The politics of the Yonezawa Domain were influenced by Hosoi's teachings during the reign of Uesugi Yōzan, a daimyō, tutored by Hosoi since his youth.

Hosoi lectured Yozan & other students on his conception of Confucian politics, what proper statescraft was. For Hosoi, the daimyō was seen as a servant of Heaven, that a faithful servant: does not forget for an instant that if despite his noble status, he does not reject luxury; the success of the Yonezawa Domain in administration and economic reform was seen as a result of Hosoi's influence and Uesugi's dedication and diligence in following plans and ruling by the maxims of "To have no waste places in his domain" and "To have no idlers among his people". There was extensive land reclamation, agricultural training for all classes, the development of a silk & lacquer industry. However, despite the success of the reforms, it is important to note that in Hosoi's political philosophy, loyal service is essential, part of this loyal service is exalting one's superior. A ruler, not infallible had to be protected by a virtuous person, in his service. Hosoi believed that by concealing the ruler's mistakes and decadence, the people would not become corrupt and thus have a moral example that they could admire.

As a result of this, Uesugi Yozan is traditionally revered throughout Japanese history as a ruler, full of virtue and wise. As an educator, Hosoi placed emphasis on the individuality of each student present, disliked education that involved teaching students collective thought, his beliefs in education can be seen in a letter he wrote to the Lord Of Yonezawa: I believe it is our first duty to teach the people to understand that an honest life is the chief of all duties. Uniformity in education should be maintained only through the living example of a virtuous teacher