For the similar term, see Crime boss In politics, a boss is a person who controls a unit of a political party, although they may not hold political office. Numerous officeholders in that unit are subordinate to the single boss in party affairs; each party in the same ward or city may have its own boss. Reformers sometimes allege that political bosses are guilty of corruption. Bosses may base their power on control of a large number of votes; when the party wins, they control appointments in their unit, have a voice at the higher levels. They do not hold public office themselves; the appearance of bosses has been common since the Roman Republic, remains common or maybe widespread today. In Spanish America, Brazil and Portugal political bosses called caciques hold power in many places. Bosses were a major part of the political landscape during the 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States, such as the political machine of Tammany Hall, which controlled financing of campaigns and influence via owing of favors to arrange patronage public appointments.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt's top aide Harry Hopkins used the new relief programs as a device to support the machines, for precinct workers were trained how to assist local families and getting on relief projects such as WPA and CCC. One of the most powerful party leaders was James A. Farley, the chief dispenser of Democratic Party patronage during Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, he was not a boss. Farley handled most mid-level and lower-level appointments in consultation with state and local Democratic organizations. Farley's ability to build up the Democratic Party's national political machine coupled with the Solid South, the big city bases and the populist vote made it the most organized and most powerful in American history. Farley had such control and intimate knowledge of the workings of his machine that it was said that he was seen as a prophet by many for correctly predicting the states he would carry in two consecutive national elections and came close to predicting the margin of votes by which Roosevelt would carry these states.
Farley parlayed his position as Democratic National Committee boss into a run for the Democratic nomination for President in 1940. Farley had been elected to public office only once, to the New York State Assembly, an office that he held for only one year: 1922–23. In the South, charismatic populist politicians like Huey Long commanded large networks of supporters. Similar practices existed in the northern cities New York City, where Boss Tweed wielded control over the powerful Democratic political machine. In Denver, Colorado during the 1890s there was Jefferson Randolph "Soapy" Smith who operated as the Republican party boss and political fixer. Charles Brayton exercised great influence over the politics of turn of the 20th century Rhode Island, he exemplified rural bossism within the Republican Party. Chicago had numerous colorful bosses, such as Democrats Hinky Bathhouse John; the Republican counterparts included Big Bill Thompson. Of course the iconic figure was longtime mayor and chairman of the Cook County Democratic Committee Richard J. Daley.
Daley had a major voice in state and national Democratic politics. With a few exceptions in the Southwest, such as Phoenix, most large cities of 100,000 or more in the early 20th century had machine organizations, claimed one or more local bosses. Most were Democrats; some had a major impact on state politics, such as E. H. Crump in Tennessee. A few bosses had reputations as reformers, such as Frank Hague of Jersey City; the HBO television series Boardwalk Empire focuses on Enoch "Nucky" Thompson, a Republican Party boss and gangster who controls Atlantic City, New Jersey during the Prohibition period of the 1920s and 1930s. Boss Tweed was played by Philip Bosco in the 1986 TV movie Liberty, by Jim Broadbent as a major supporting character in the 2002 film Gangs of New York. Tweed is portrayed as a defender of the rights of minorities and helper of those in need in Pete Hamill's 2003 novel Forever. Boss Cox Richard Croker Richard J. Daley Tom Dennison Carmine DeSapio Meade Esposito James A. Farley Frank Hague Enoch L. Johnson Huey Long Joseph M. Margiotta John J. McClure Hugh McLaughlin George Norcross Tom Pendergast John S. Williams Boss Tweed Cacique Corporatism Political corruption Political machine Tammany Hall Za'im system Specific GeneralH.
F. Gosnell, Machine Politics. Banfield and J. Q. Wilson, City Politics
A fedora is a hat with a soft brim and indented crown. It is creased lengthwise down the crown and "pinched" near the front on both sides. Fedoras can be creased with teardrop crowns, diamond crowns, center dents, others, the positioning of pinches can vary; the typical crown height is 4.5 inches. The fedora hat's brim is wide 2.5 inches wide, but may be wider, can be left "raw edged", finished with a sewn overwelt or underwelt, or bound with a trim-ribbon. "Stitched edge" means that there is one, two or more rows of stitching radiating inward toward the crown. The "Cavanagh Edge" is a welted edge with invisible stitching to hold it in place and is a expensive treatment that can no longer be performed by modern hat factories. Fedora hats are not to be confused with small brimmed hats called trilbies; the term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg. Fedoras can be made of wool, rabbit or beaver felt; these felts can be blended to each other with mink or chinchilla and with vicuña, cervelt, or mohair.
They can be made of straw, waxed or oiled cotton, linen or leather. A special variation is the foldaway or crushable fedora with a certain or open crown. Special fedoras have a ventilated crown with grommets, mesh inlets or penetrations for a better air circulation. Fedoras can have a leather or cloth or ribbon sweatband. Small feathers are sometimes added as decoration. Fedoras can be equipped with a chinstrap; the term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg; the word fedora comes from the title of an 1882 play by dramatist Victorien Sardou, Fédora, written for Sarah Bernhardt. The play was first performed in the United States in 1889. Bernhardt played the heroine of the play. During the play, Bernhardt -- a noted cross-dresser -- wore a soft brimmed hat; the hat was fashionable for women, the women's rights movement adopted it as a symbol. After Edward, Prince of Wales started wearing them in 1924, it became popular among men for its stylishness and its ability to protect the wearer's head from the wind and weather.
Since the early part of the 20th century, many Haredi and other Orthodox Jews have made black fedoras normal to their daily wear. During the early twentieth century, a hat was a staple of men’s fashion and would be worn in all public places. However, as a social custom and common courtesy, men would remove their hats when at home or when engaged in conversation with women. In addition, the ability to own a hat was culturally considered a sign of wealth due to fashion being recognized as a “status symbol.” Only those with few economic resources would venture the streets without a hat. The introduction of a new line of felt hats made from nutria, an animal similar to the beaver, helped establish the fedora as a durable product. Prices, in the first decade of the twentieth century, for a nutria fedora ranged from ninety-eight cents to two dollars and twenty-five cents. Starting in the 1920s, fedoras began to rise in popularity after the Prince of Wales adopted the felt hat as his favored headwear.
As a result, “the soft felt hat replaced the stiff hat as the best seller in the decade.” The fedora soon took its place as a choice hat and joined other popular styles that included the derby and panama. In America during the 1940s, the brims of fedoras started to increase in width, while the British maintained a smaller brim size; the colors of fedoras traditionally included shades of black and gray. However, this palette would grow at the onset of the second world war to include military themed colors such as khaki and green. One of the most prominent companies to sell fedoras was the department store, Sears and Company. In addition, famous hat manufactures which still exist today include Bailey and Stetson. In the 1880s, French stage actress Sarah Bernhardt popularized the fedora for the female audience, it soon became a common fashion accessory for many women among activists fighting for gender equality during the late nineteenth century. The fedora was adopted as a defining symbol of the women’s rights movement.
It would not be until 1924 when, in Britain, the fashion minded Prince Edward started wearing the felt hat. This event shifted the popularity of the fedora over to men’s fashion, making the hat one of the few androgynous clothing pieces. To this day, fedoras continue to be worn by women, not quite to the same extent as they once were in the early twentieth century. Women’s fedoras vary in form and color. In addition, these fedoras come in every color from basic black to bright red and in the occasional animal print. Along with men’s felt hats, women’s fedoras are making a comeback in current fashion trends. Baseball caps, which have in recent years been the staple of headwear, are experiencing a decline in popularity amidst this “fedora renaissance.” Fedoras became associated with gangsters and Prohibition, a connection coinciding with the height of the hat's popularity between the 1920s and the early 1950s. In the second half of the 1950s, the fedora fell out of favor in a shift towards more informal clothing styles.
Coach Tom Landry wore the hat while he was the head coach of the Dallas Cowboys. It would become his trademark image. A cenotaph dedicated to Landry with a depiction of his fedora was placed in the official Texas State Cemeter
Baby Boom (film)
Baby Boom is a 1987 romantic comedy film directed by Charles Shyer, written by Nancy Meyers and Shyer, produced by Meyers and Bruce A. Block for United Artists, it stars Diane Keaton as a yuppie who discovers that a long-lost cousin has died, leaving her a fourteen-month-old baby girl as inheritance. The film received favorable reviews and was a modest box-office success during its original run grossing $26 million; the film launched a subsequent television show, running from 1988 to 1989, was nominated for two Golden Globe Awards. J. C. Wiatt is a driven Manhattan career woman typical of the 1980s whose fast-paced life leaves her with no time for romance or relaxation, though she derives pleasure from her frantic schedule and demanding job, she works as a management consultant and lives with an investment banker, Steven Buchner, whose job and life are hectic. Her life is thrown into turmoil when she inherits a toddler, from a deceased cousin whom she had not seen in over 30 years. J. C. tries to give Elizabeth up for adoption but finds that she has grown too attached to the child, forcing a reevaluation of her priorities.
When Steven learns of this, he is not thrilled. J. C. explains to Steven that a lot of working people raise kids and she believes she can, something Steven has no desire to partake in. The couple amicably break-up and Steven moves out. J. C. is left to raise the child on her own, though she hires a nanny to watch Elizabeth while she's at work. Her boss, Fritz Curtis tells her that Hughes Larrabee, the head of "The Food Chain," a major organization that owns and operates many brands of foods, is looking for someone to manage The Food Chain account. Fritz tells J. C. that landing this account could make her a partner. J. C. is put in charge of it. Fritz decides that Ken Arrenberg, J. C.'s young apprentice whom she recruited 2 years ago, is ready for the big time and will be on her team with the Food Chain account. Caring for the child soon occupies much of her time and her career begins to suffer when she starts bringing Elizabeth to classes that are intended to help boost babies' intelligence; as a result, Ken starts taking up the slack on the Food Chain account without J.
C.'s consent, though it pleases Larrabee. This starts to get on J. C.'s nerves when Ken starts making decisions without her. J. C. tells Fritz that she wants Ken off the Food Chain account but instead to her surprise, Fritz tells her that he's decided that for the good of the account and the company, he's going to take her off the Food Chain account and have Ken take over as the one in charge of it. J. C. is offended. Fritz, knowing how unstable J. C. has become, tells her that he can't afford to take risks with the Food Chain account. He tells J. C. that he wants her to do low profile accounts from now on as he feels they would be better suited for her now that she is raising a child. J. C. quits her job instead. She moves into a house in the country in Vermont. Purchasing the home without first having seen it in person or having it inspected she finds it is riddled with problems. Suffering a nervous breakdown and on the brink of financial collapse, she sees an opportunity to sell baby food applesauce she had concocted for Elizabeth from fresh ingredients.
Amid the clamor for her new products she develops a relationship with local veterinarian Jeff Cooper. At first annoyed by him, she is opposed to Jeff's overtures and is focused now on returning to New York as fast as possible. Finding a buyer for the house proves impossible as it was for sale for 5 years and she was the only interested buyer. After a rough start she succeeds in selling "Country Baby", her gourmet baby food, soon business is booming. Orders for it start pouring in from all over America. J. C. and Jeff start to grow closer Elizabeth grows fond of him. Her old boss Fritz and his client, Larrabee take notice; the Food Chain offers to buy her company for millions, take her product nationwide, give her back her career and high-prestige life. On the brink of accepting, she decides that she can grow her enterprise on her own without having to sacrifice her personal life, she adopted daughter. Diane Keaton as J. C. Wiatt Sam Shepard as Dr. Jeff Cooper Harold Ramis as Steven Buchner Sam Wanamaker as Fritz Curtis James Spader as Ken Arrenberg Pat Hingle as Hughes Larrabee Britt Leach as Verne Boone Annie Golden as a Nanny Linda Ellerbee as Narrator Kim Sebastian as Robin Mary Gross as Charlotte Elkman Kristina & Michelle Kennedy as Baby Elizabeth The film was shot on location in Los Angeles, New York City and Peru, Vermont.
Filming took place between November 5, 1986 and February 3, 1987. Baby Boom was favorably received by critics alike; the Rotten Tomatoes criticism aggregation website gives it an approval rating of 73% based on 30 reviews, with an average rating of 6.2/10. Diane Keaton's performance was singled out by Pauline Kael from The New Yorker, who described it as "a glorious comedy performance that rides over many of the inanities in this picture Keaton is smashing: the Tiger Lady's having all this drive is played for farce and Keaton keeps you alert to every shade of pride and panic the character feels. She's an ultra-feminine executive, a wide-eyed charmer, with a breathless ditziness that may remind you of Jean Arthur in THE M
Writer's block is a condition associated with writing, in which an author loses the ability to produce new work, or experiences a creative slowdown. The condition ranges from difficulty in coming up with original ideas to being unable to produce a work for years. Throughout history, writer's block has been a documented problem. Professionals who have struggled with the affliction include authors such as F. Scott Fitzgerald and Joseph Mitchell, comic strip cartoonist Charles M. Schulz, composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, songwriter Adele. Research concerning this topic was done in the 1980s. During this time, researchers were influenced by the Process and Post-Process movements, therefore focused on the writer's processes; the condition was first described in 1947 by psychoanalyst Edmund Bergler. However, some great writers may have suffered from writer’s block years before Bergler described it, such as Herman Melville, who quit writing novels a few years after writing Moby-Dick. Writer's block may have several causes.
Some are creative problems. A writer may be distracted by other events. A fictional example can be found in George Orwell's novel Keep the Aspidistra Flying, in which the protagonist Gordon Comstock struggles in vain to complete an epic poem describing a day in London: "It was too big for him, the truth, it had never progressed, it had fallen apart into a series of fragments."Other blocks may be produced by adverse circumstances in a writer's life or career: physical illness, the end of a relationship, financial pressures, or a sense of failure. The pressure to produce work may in itself contribute to writer's block if they are compelled to work in ways that are against their natural inclination; the writer Elizabeth Gilbert, reflecting on her post-bestseller prospects, proposed that such a pressure might be released by interpreting creative writers as "having" genius rather than "being" a genius. It has been suggested. Under stress, a human brain will "shift control from the cerebral cortex to the limbic system".
The limbic system is associated with the instinctual processes, such as "flight" response. The limited input from the cerebral cortex hinders a person's creative processes, which are replaced by the behaviors associated with the limbic system; the person is unaware of the change, which may lead them to believe they are creatively "blocked". In her 2004 book The Midnight Disease: The Drive to Write, Writer's Block, the Creative Brain, the writer and neurologist Alice W. Flaherty has argued that literary creativity is a function of specific areas of the brain, that block may be the result of brain activity being disrupted in those areas. For a composition perspective, Lawrence Oliver says, in his article, "Helping Students Overcome Writer's Block", "Students receive little or no advice on how to generate ideas or explore their thoughts, they must proceed through the writing process without guidance or corrective feedback from the teacher, who withholds comments and criticism until grading the final product."
He says, students "learn to write by writing", they are insecure and/or paralyzed by rules. Phyllis Koestenbaum wrote in her article "The Secret Climate the Year I Stopped Writing" about her trepidation toward writing, claiming it was tied directly to her instructor's response, she says, "I needed to write to feel, but without feeling I couldn't write." To contrast Koestenbaum experience, Nancy Sommers expressed her belief that papers do not end when students finish writing and that neither should instructors' comments. She urges a "partnership" between instructors so that responses become a conversation. James Adams notes in his book, Conceptual Blockbusting, various reasons blocks occur include fear of taking a risk, "chaos" in the pre-writing stage, judging versus generating ideas, an inability to incubate ideas, or a lack of motivation; as far as strategies for coping with writer's block Clark describes: class and group discussion, free writing and brainstorming, list making, engaging with the text.
To overcome writing blocks, Oliver suggests asking writers questions to uncover their writing process. He recommends solutions such as systematic questioning and encouragement. A recent study of 2500 writers aimed to find techniques that writers themselves use to overcome writer's block; the research discovered a range of solutions from altering the time of day to write and setting deadlines to lowering expectations and using mindfulness meditation. Garbriele Lusser Rico's concern with the mind links to brain lateralization explored by Rose and Linda Flowers and John R. Hayes among others. Rico's book, Writing the Natural Way looks into invention strategies, such as clustering, noted to be an invention strategy used to help writers overcome their blocks, further emphasizes the solutions presented in works by Rose and Clark. Similar to Rico, James Adams discusses right brain involvement in writing. While Downey purposes that he is basing his approach in practical concerns, his concentration on right brain techniques speaks to cognitive theory approach similar to Rico's and a more practical advice for writers to approach their writer's block.
Analysis paralysis Burnout Process theory of composition Procrastination Upper, Dennis, "The unsuccessful self-treatment of a case of "writer's block"", Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7: 497, doi:10.1901/jaba.197
The Third Man
The Third Man is a 1949 British film noir directed by Carol Reed, written by Graham Greene, starring Joseph Cotten, Alida Valli, Orson Welles, Trevor Howard. The film is set in post–World War II Vienna, it centres on Holly Martins, an American, given a job in Vienna by his friend Harry Lime, but when Holly arrives in Vienna he gets the news that Lime is dead. Martins meets with Lime's acquaintances in an attempt to investigate what he considers a suspicious death; the atmospheric use of black-and-white expressionist cinematography by Robert Krasker, with harsh lighting and distorted "Dutch angle" camera technique, is a major feature of The Third Man. Combined with the iconic theme music, seedy locations and acclaimed performances from the cast, the style evokes the atmosphere of an exhausted, cynical post-war Vienna at the start of the Cold War. Greene wrote the novella of the same name as preparation for the screenplay. Anton Karas performed the score, which featured only the zither; the title music "The Third Man Theme" topped the international music charts in 1950, bringing the unknown performer international fame.
“The Third Man” is considered one of the greatest films of all time, celebrated for its acting, musical score and atmospheric cinematography. In 1999, the British Film Institute voted The Third Man the greatest British film of all time. In 2017 a poll of 150 actors, writers and critics for Time Out magazine saw it ranked the second best British film ever. Opportunistic racketeering thrives in a damaged and impoverished Allied-occupied Vienna, divided into four sectors, each controlled by one of the occupying forces: American, British and Soviet; these powers share the duties of law enforcement in the city. American pulp Western writer Holly Martins comes to the city seeking his childhood friend, Harry Lime, who has offered him a job. Upon arrival, he discovers that Lime was killed while crossing the street just hours earlier by a speeding truck. Martins attends Lime's funeral, where he meets two British Army Police: Sergeant Paine, a fan of Martins' pulp novels. An official of the British occupying forces approaches Martins, requesting that he give a lecture and offering to pay for his lodging.
Viewing this as an opportunity to clear his friend's name, Martins decides to remain in Vienna. At a meeting with Lime's friend, "Baron" Kurtz, Kurtz tells Martins that after the accident he and Popescu carried the dying Lime to the side of the street. Lime asked Popescu to take care of Martins and Anna Schmidt, Lime's actress girlfriend. To learn more, Martins goes to see Anna at the theatre, they question the porter at Lime's apartment building: Lime died and was carried off the street by someone else in addition to Lime's two friends. Martins berates the porter for not being more forthcoming with the police. Concerned for his family's safety, the porter indignantly tells Martins not to involve him; the police, searching Anna's flat for evidence and confiscate her forged passport and detain her. Anna tells Martins that she is of Czechoslovak nationality and will be deported from Austria by the Soviet occupying forces if discovered. Martins visits Lime's "medical adviser", Dr Winkel, who says that he arrived at the accident after Lime was dead, only two men were present.
The porter secretly offers Martins more information but is murdered before their arranged meeting. When Martins arrives, unaware of the murder, a young boy recognizes him as having argued with the porter earlier and points this out to the gathering bystanders, who become hostile, mob-like. Escaping from them, Martins returns to the hotel, a cab whisks him away, he takes him to the book club. With no lecture prepared, he stumbles. Martins replies that it will be called "a murder story" inspired by facts. Popescu tells Martins. Martins flees. Calloway again advises Martins to leave Vienna, but Martins refuses and demands that Lime's death be investigated. Calloway reluctantly reveals that Lime had been stealing penicillin from military hospitals, selling it on the black market diluted so much that many patients died. In postwar Vienna, antibiotics were new and scarce outside military hospitals and commanded a high price. Calloway's evidence convinces Martins. Disillusioned, he agrees to leave Vienna.
Martins visits Anna to say good-bye and finds that she knows of Lime's misdeeds, but that her feelings toward him are unchanged. She tells him she is to be deported. Upon leaving her flat, he notices someone watching from a dark doorway. Martins summons Calloway; the British police exhume Lime's coffin and discover that the body is that of Joseph Harbin, an orderly who stole penicillin for Lime and was reported missing after turning informant. Martins demands to see Lime. Lime comes out to meet him and they ride Vienna's Ferris wheel, the Wiener Riesenrad. Lime indirectly threatens Martins's life but relents when told that the police know his death and funeral were faked. In a monologue on the ins
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Barry Sonnenfeld is an American filmmaker and television director. He worked as a cinematographer for the Coen brothers before directing films such as The Addams Family and its sequel Addams Family Values alongside the Men in Black trilogy, Wild Wild West and Get Shorty. Sonnenfeld has four collaborations with actor Will Smith. Sonnenfeld was born and raised in New York City, the son of Irene "Kelly", an art teacher, Sonny Sonnenfeld, a lighting salesman and architectural lighting designer, he was raised in a Jewish family. After he received his bachelor's degree from Hampshire College, he graduated from New York University Film School in 1978, he began working on pornographic films before starting work as director of photography on the Oscar-nominated In Our Water. Joel Coen and Ethan Coen hired him for Blood Simple; this film began his collaboration with the Coen brothers, who used him for their next two pictures, Raising Arizona and Miller's Crossing. He worked with Danny DeVito on Throw Momma from the Train and Rob Reiner on When Harry Met Sally and Misery.
Sonnenfeld gained his first work as a director from Paramount Pictures on The Addams Family, a box-office success released in November 1991. Its sequel, Addams Family Values, was not as successful at the box office, but he received critical acclaim for his fourth directorial outing, Get Shorty. Produced by Jersey Films and based on a novel by Elmore Leonard, the film won a Golden Globe for John Travolta; the film was entered into the 46th Berlin International Film Festival. Following Tim Burton and the Coen brothers, Sonnenfeld's films would tell stories about unusual and unorthodox people who are into the unexpected and the strange, his films would use his trademark filmmaking techniques such as his unusual camera angles, offbeat dialogue and in certain films, strange behavior and weird creatures. In 1996, Steven Spielberg asked him to direct Men in Black. Starring Tommy Lee Jones and Will Smith, the film was a financial smash. In 1998, Jon Peters asked him to direct Wild Wild West. Starring Smith and Kevin Kline, the film was a financial flop.
He directed the comedy Big Trouble, after which he made his most successful film sequel to that point, Men in Black II. He is a contributing editor for Esquire, he co-produced the 2007 film Enchanted for Walt Disney Pictures that starred Amy Adams. In 2008, Sonnenfeld earned an Emmy for directing Pushing Daisies. On April 21, 2010, it was announced that Sonnenfeld intended to return for Men in Black 3. Released in 2012, the third installment received positive reviews and became the highest-grossing film in the series. Sonnenfeld lives in New York City with their daughter Chloe, he is working on new projects, among them include Things a Man Should Never Do Past 30: a single-camera comedy from executive producer/director Sonnenfeld, the Tannenbaum Company and Sony Pictures Television. The project is based on the personal experiences of Esquire writer David Katz and Esquire editor at large A. J. Jacobs; the show is about a man working at a men's magazine, reluctant to embrace adulthood and his friend, an immersion journalist.
Al Higgins is set to serve as showrunner/head writer. He has become attached to a movie adaptation of The Spellman Files by Lisa Lutz, about a family of private investigators. Sonnenfeld will direct the movie adaptation of the fantasy novel Gil's All Fright Diner in partnership with DreamWorks Animation, he is developing a sitcom for ABC, Funny in Farsi, based on the book of the same name. In 2012, it was stated that he was appointed to direct Lore, an adaptation based on the comic by T. P. Louise and Ashley Wood of the same name. But, in 2013, Indie director Dave Green has signed on to replace Barry Sonnenfeld as director, Sonnenfeld will take part as executive producer on the project. Barry is in talks with Warner Bros. to make a live action film adaptation of the DC Comics characters, The Metal Men. Sonnenfeld agreed to direct the Beverly Hills Cop pilot for CBS and serve as an executive producer as well. However, Paramount Pictures dropped the idea in favor of a fourth film directed by Brett Ratner.
Barry Sonnenfeld on IMDb Barry Sonnenfeld at the TCM Movie Database Barry Sonnenfeld at AllMovie