Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
University of Missouri
The University of Missouri is a public, land-grant research university in Columbia, Missouri. It was founded in 1839 as the first public institution of higher education west of the Mississippi River; the state's largest university, it enrolled 30,870 students in 2017 and offered over 300 degree programs in 21 academic divisions. It is the flagship campus of the University of Missouri System, which has campuses in Kansas City, St. Louis. There are more than 300,000 MU alumni living worldwide with over one half residing in Missouri. In 1908, one of the first schools of journalism was founded by Walter Williams as the Missouri School of Journalism. Forty-five years in 1953, the school began operating the country's only university-owned TV network affiliate, it is one of the 34 public universities that are members of the Association of American Universities. The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is the world's most powerful university research reactor; the university operates the University of Missouri Health Care system, which operates four hospitals in Mid-Missouri.
The athletics teams are known as the Missouri Tigers. The FBS football team in Missouri is the only FBS program in Missouri and it competes as a member of the Southeastern Conference; the school's mascot, Truman the Tiger, is named after Missourian and former U. S. president Harry S. Truman. MU claims that the university held the first American football homecoming in 1911. In 1839, the Missouri Legislature passed the Geyer Act to establish funds for a state university, it would be the first public university west of the Mississippi River. To secure the university, the citizens of Columbia and Boone County pledged $117,921 in cash and land to beat out five other central Missouri counties for the location of the state university; the land on which the university was constructed was just south of Columbia's downtown and owned by James S. Rollins, he was called the "Father of the University." As the first public university in the Louisiana Purchase, the school was shaped by Thomas Jefferson's ideas about public education.
In 1862 the American Civil War forced the university to close for much of the year. Residents of Columbia formed a Union "home guard" militia that became known as the "Fighting Tigers of Columbia", they were given the name for their readiness to protect the university. In 1890, the university's newly formed football team took the name the "Tigers" after the Civil War militia. In 1870 the institution was granted land-grant college status under the Morrill Act of 1862; the act led to the founding of the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy as an offshoot of the main campus in Columbia. It developed as the present-day Missouri University of Technology. In 1888 the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station opened; this grew to encompass ten centers and research farms around Missouri. By 1890 the university encompassed a normal college, engineering college and science college, school of agriculture and mechanical arts. School of medicine, school of law. On January 9, 1892, Academic Hall, the institution's main building, burned in a fire that gutted the building, leaving little more standing than six stone Ionic columns.
Under the administration of Missouri Governor David R. Francis, the university was rebuilt, with additions that shaped the modern institution. After the fire, some state residents tried to have the university moved further west to Sedalia; the columns were retained as a symbol of the historic campus. Today they are surrounded by the oldest part of campus. At the quad's southern end is Academic Hall's replacement, Jesse Hall, named for Richard Jesse. Built in 1895, Jesse Hall holds Jesse Auditorium; the buildings surrounding the quad were constructed of red brick, leading to this area becoming known as Red Campus. The area was tied together in planned landscaping and walks in 1910 by George Kessler in a City Beautiful design of the grounds. Jesse Hall is scheduled for a $9.8 mil. makeover to include a fire sprinkler system, work on its elevators, a new heating and cooling system as part of a $92 mil. total renovation package the Board of Curators approved in June 2013. This upgrade is expected to be completed in March 2015.
To the east of the quadrangle buildings constructed of white limestone in 1913 and 1914 to accommodate the new academic programs became known as the White Campus. In 1908 the world's first journalism school opened at MU, it became notable for its "Missouri Method" of experience-based instruction. It established an award for "Distinguished Journalism". In April 1923, a black janitor was accused of the rape of the daughter of a University of Missouri professor. James T. Scott was abducted from the Boone County jail by a mob of townsfolk and students, was lynched to death from a bridge near the campus before his trial took place. In the winter of 1935, four graduates of Lincoln University—a traditionally black school about 30 miles away in Jefferson City—were denied admission to MU's graduate school. One of the students, Lloyd L. Gaines, brought his case to the United States Supreme Court. On December 12, 1938, in a landmark 6–2 decision, the court ordered the State of Missouri to admit Gaines to MU's law school or provide a facility of equal stature.
Gaines disappeared in Chicago on March 1939, under suspicious circumstances. The university granted Gaines a posthumous honorary law degree in May 2006. Undergraduate divisions were integrated by court order in 1950, when the university was co
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Hendrix College is a private liberal arts college in Conway, Arkansas. Over 1,400 students are enrolled undergraduates. While affiliated with the United Methodist Church, the college offers a secular curriculum and has a student body composed of people from many different religious backgrounds. Hendrix is a member of the Associated Colleges of the South. Hendrix College was founded as a primary school called Central Institute in 1876 at Altus, Arkansas, by Rev. Isham L. Burrow. In 1881 it was renamed Central Collegiate Institute when secondary and collegiate departments were added; the next year the first graduating collegiate class, composed of three women, were awarded Mistress of English Literature degrees. In 1884, three conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South purchased the school; this began the school's relationship with the Methodist Episcopal Church and The Methodist Church and the United Methodist Church. The Central Collegiate Institute was renamed Hendrix College in 1889 in honor of Rev. Eugene Russell Hendrix, a presiding bishop over three Arkansas Methodist conferences.
This same year, the primary school was discontinued. Hendrix College was designated a male college, but by the time of the name change in 1889, the college allowed for the enrollment of women who were interested in the college's course of study. In 1890, after receiving bids from seven other Arkansas towns, the Hendrix Board of Trustees chose Conway as the new location for the college. College literary societies thrived at Hendrix from the 1890s through the 1930s, they included the Harlan Literary Society, its rival—the Franklin Literary Society, for women—the Hypatian Literary Society. Secondary education was discontinued in 1925. In 1929 the college merged with Henderson-Brown College, a private school in Arkadelphia, which created Hendrix-Henderson College. Two years the name reverted to Hendrix College; the merger resulted in Hendrix Bull Dogs becoming the Hendrix Warriors, the college newspaper, the Bull Dog, being renamed the College Profile. The newly expanded college planned to move to Little Rock, but the city of Conway was able to raise $150,000 to keep the school.
In 1930 the name was changed to Trinity College but reverted to Hendrix College after opposition by students and townspeople. The financially troubled Galloway Woman's College in Searcy, Arkansas was absorbed by Hendrix in 1933 during the Great Depression. On November 1, 2013, the college announced that William Tsutsui will become its 11th president beginning in June 2014. A delegation from BNU-HKBU United International College was invited by the Associated Colleges of the South, a consortium of 16 liberal arts colleges in the US, to explore collaborative ties. UIC visited three of the ACS member institutions between April 17 and 25; the delegates discussed exchange opportunities and collaborative projects with Hendrix College. 2014–Present: William M. Tsutsui 2001–2013: J. Timothy Cloyd 1992–2001: Ann H. Die 1981–1991: Joe B. Hatcher 1969–1981: Roy Shilling Jr. 1958–1969: Marshall T. Steel 1945–1958: Matt L. Ellis 1913–1945: John H. Reynolds 1902–1910: Stonewall Anderson 1887–1902, 1910–1913: Alexander C.
Millar 1884–1887: Isham L. Burrow Hendrix is a undergraduate institution with 34 majors and 38 minors, including a master's of accounting degree; the student body is about 1400, with students coming from most U. S. states and from over a dozen foreign countries. Notable are the Rwandan Presidential Scholars. Hendrix is the lead institution in a consortium of 19 private and public higher education institutions that together host over 220 students from Rwanda; the Student Senate is the governing body of the student association. It has officers that are elected campus-wide along with representatives from each class, residence hall and apartment building. Hendrix has no social sororities. There are 65 student organizations that offer a wide range of activities, funded by a student activity fee; the largest student organization is Social Committee, or SoCo, which plans the major events on campus. The Office of Student Activities organizes Wednesday evening events. Major social events are held in "The Brick Pit," an outdoor area in the center of the campus.
The most famous event is "Shirttails," a freshman dance-off that includes a serenade by the men's dorms. Hendrix College has its own radio station. Founded in 1971 and first broadcasting in 1973, KHDX-FM 93.1 is Hendrix College's student-run radio station, with a 10-watt broadcast that reaches Hendrix Campus and the surrounding Conway area. Additionally, as of 2017, KHDX Radio is a founding member of the Arkansas College Radio Association. Hendrix College teams participate as a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division III; the Warriors are a charter member of the new Southern Athletic Association, founded in 2011, after being a member of the Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference. Men's sports include baseball, cross country, golf, soccer, swimming & diving and track & field. In fall 2013, Hendrix was recognized as one of the country's top "Up and Coming" liberal arts colleges for the sixth consecutive year by US News and World Report; the 2014 US News Best Colleges guide lists Hendrix as #11 in a group of liberal arts colleges that demonstrate "A Strong Commitment to Teaching."
Hendrix is the only Arkansas institution to appear in the 2014 US News Best Colleges ranking of the top 100 private national liberal arts colleges. Hendrix was lis
Second inauguration of Bill Clinton
The second inauguration of Bill Clinton as President of the United States was held on Monday, January 20, 1997 on the West Front of the United States Capitol Building in Washington, D. C.. The inauguration marked the commencement of the second four-year term of Bill Clinton as President and Al Gore as Vice President; this was the last presidential inauguration to take place in the 20th century, the first to be streamed live on the internet. Reverend Billy Graham gave an invocation to start the ceremony followed by the Pledge of Allegiance. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Ruth Bader Ginsburg gave the oath to office for Vice President Al Gore. Jessye Norman, the famed Georgian opera singer serenaded the crowd with a medley of patriotic songs. Following the performance, surrounded by members of Congress dignitaries, Justices of the Supreme Court and friends, Bill Clinton stood next to his daughter while his wife held the Bible; the oath to office was administered by Chief Justice William Rehnquist at 12:05 pm.
The oath was ended with the traditional words, "So help me God." The National Anthem was sung and Arkansas poet Miller Williams read "Of History and Hope," a poem he wrote for the occasion. President Clinton's inaugural speech followed; the inauguration was celebrated that night by 14 different official galas held in honor of the President and First Lady. January 20, 1997 was Martin Luther King, Jr. Day; the President's speech addressed Dr. King and his legacy as a champion of African-American rights and freedoms during the civil rights era. In addition, a meal was eaten after the oath was taken at the Capitol's Statutory Hall, based on traditional recipes from President Thomas Jefferson's era. Miller Williams, a poet from Clinton's home state of Arkansas, penned the poem "Of History and Hope" for the day. Presidency of Bill Clinton First inauguration of Bill Clinton United States presidential election, 1996 Text of Clinton's Second Inaugural Address Video of Clinton's Second Inaugural Address from C-SPAN.org Audio of Clinton's Second Inaugural Address
Lucinda Williams is an American rock, folk and country music singer and musician. She recorded her first albums in 1978 and 1980 in a traditional country and blues style and received little attention from radio, the media, or the public. In 1988, she released Lucinda Williams; this release featured "Passionate Kisses," a song recorded by Mary Chapin Carpenter, which garnered Williams her first Grammy Award for Best Country Song in 1994. Known for working Williams recorded and released only one other album in the next several years, Sweet Old World, in 1992, her commercial breakthrough came in 1998 with Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, an album presenting a broader scope of songs that fused rock, blues and Americana into a distinctive style that remained consistent and commercial in sound. Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, which includes the Grammy nominated track "Can't Let Go", became Williams' greatest commercial success to date; the album was certified Gold by the RIAA and earned Williams a Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album, while being universally acclaimed by critics.
Williams released the critically acclaimed Essence three years and the album became a commercial success. One of the album's tracks, "Get Right With God," earned Williams the Grammy Award for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance in 2002. Williams has released a string of albums since that have earned her more critical acclaim and commercial success, she has won 3 Grammy Awards, from 15 nominations, received 2 Americana Awards, from 12 nominations. Additionally, Williams ranked No. 97 on VH1's 100 Greatest Women in Rock & Roll in 1998, was named "America's best songwriter" by Time magazine in 2002. Williams was born in Lake Charles, the daughter of poet and literature professor Miller Williams and an amateur pianist, Lucille Fern Day, her parents divorced in the mid-1960s. Williams's father gained custody of her and her younger brother, Robert Miller, sister, Karyn Elizabeth. Like her father, she has spina bifida, her father worked as a visiting professor in Mexico and different parts of the United States, including Baton Rouge.
Williams never was accepted into the University of Arkansas. Williams started writing when she was 6 years old and showed an affinity for music at an early age, was playing guitar at 12. Williams's first live performance was in Mexico City at 17, as part of a duo with her friend, a banjo player named Clark Jones. By her early 20s, Williams was playing publicly in Austin and Houston, concentrating on a folk-rock-country blend, she moved to Jackson, Mississippi, in 1978 to record her first album, for Smithsonian/Folkways Records. Titled Ramblin' on My Mind, it was a collection of blues covers; the album title was shortened to Ramblin'. She followed it up in 1980 with Happy Woman Blues. Neither album received much attention. In the 1980s, Williams moved to Los Angeles, where, at times backed by a rock band and at others performing in acoustic settings, she developed a following and a critical reputation. While based in Los Angeles, she was married to Long Ryders drummer Greg Sowders, whom she had met in a club.
In 1988 Rough Trade Records released the self-titled Lucinda Williams, produced by Gurf Morlix. The single "Changed the Locks", about a broken relationship, received radio play around the country and gained fans among music insiders, including Tom Petty, who would cover the song, its follow-up, Sweet Old World produced by Morlix, is a melancholy album dealing with themes of suicide and death. Williams' biggest success during the early 1990s was as a songwriter. Mary Chapin Carpenter recorded a cover of "Passionate Kisses" in 1992, the song became a smash country hit for which Williams received the Grammy Award for Best Country Song in 1994. Carpenter received a Grammy for her performance of the song, she duetted with Steve Earle on the song "You're Still Standin' There" from his album I Feel Alright. In 1991, the song "Lucinda Williams" appeared on Vic Chesnutt's album West of Rome. Williams had garnered considerable critical acclaim. Emmylou Harris said of Williams, "She is an example of the best of what country at least says it is, for some reason, she's out of the loop and I feel that that's country music's loss."
Harris recorded the title track from Williams's Sweet Old World for her career-redefining 1995 album, Wrecking Ball. Williams gained a reputation as a perfectionist and slow worker when it came to recording; the long-awaited release, 1998's Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, was Williams' breakthrough into the mainstream and received a Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album. Containing the single "Still I Long for Your Kiss" from the Robert Redford film The Horse Whisperer, the album received wide critical notice and soon went gold; the single "Can't Let Go" enjoyed considerable crossover radio play. Williams toured with Bob Dylan, the Allman Brothers and Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, on her own in support of the album. An expanded edition of the album, including three additional studio recordings and a second CD documenting a 1998 concert, was released in 2006. In 1999, she appeared on Return of the Grievous Angel: A Tribute to Gram Parso
A sestina is a fixed verse form consisting of six stanzas of six lines each followed by a three-line envoi. The words that end each line of the first stanza are used as line endings in each of the following stanzas, rotated in a set pattern; the invention of the form is attributed to Arnaut Daniel, a troubadour of 12th-century Provence, the first sestinas were written in the Occitan language of that region. The form was cultivated by his fellow troubadours by other poets across Continental Europe in the subsequent centuries; the earliest example of the form in English appeared in 1579, though they were written in Britain until the end of the 19th century. The sestina remains a popular poetic form, many sestinas continue to be written by contemporary poets; the oldest-known sestina is "Lo ferm voler qu'el cor m'intra", written around 1200 by Arnaut Daniel, a troubadour of Aquitanian origin. Hence, Daniel is considered the form's inventor, though it has been suggested that he may only have innovated an existing form.
Two other original troubadouric sestinas are known, the best known being "Eras, pus vey mon benastruc" by Guilhem Peire Cazals de Caortz. These early sestinas were written in Old Occitan; the involvement of Dante and Petrarch in establishing the sestina form, together with the contributions of others in the country, account for its classification as an Italian verse form—despite not originating there. The result was. Pontus de Tyard was the first poet to attempt the form in French, the only one to do so prior to the 19th century; the first appearance of the sestina in English print is "Ye wastefull woodes", comprising lines 151–89 of the August Æglogue in Edmund Spenser's Shepherd's Calendar, published in 1579. It is in unrhymed iambic pentameter, but the order of end-words in each stanza is non-standard – ending 123456, 612345, etc. – each stanza promoting the previous final end-word to the first line, but otherwise leaving the order intact. This scheme was set by the Spaniard Gutierre de Cetina.
Although they appeared in print Philip Sidney's three sestinas may have been written earlier, are credited as the first in English. The first published is the double sestina "Ye Goatherd Gods". In this variant the standard end-word pattern is repeated for twelve stanzas, ending with a three-line envoi, resulting in a poem of 75 lines. Two others were published in subsequent editions of the Arcadia; the second, "Since wailing is a bud of causeful sorrow", is in the "standard" form. Like "Ye Goatherd Gods" it is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter and uses feminine endings, reflecting the Italian endecasillabo; the third, "Farewell, O sun, Arcadia's clearest light", is the first rhyming sestina in English: it is in iambic pentameters and follows the standard end-word scheme, but rhymes ABABCC in the first stanza. Sidney uses the same envoi structure as Spenser. William Drummond of Hawthornden published two sestinas in 1616, which copy the form of Sidney's rhyming sestina. After this, there is an absence of notable sestinas for over 250 years, with John Frederick Nims noting that, "...
There is not a single sestina in the three volumes of the Oxford anthologies that cover the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries."In the 1870s, there was a revival of interest in French forms, led by Andrew Lang, Austin Dobson, Edmund Gosse, W. E. Henley, John Payne, others; the earliest sestina of this period is Algernon Charles Swinburne's "Sestina". It is in iambic pentameter rhyming ABABAB in the first stanza. In the same volume Swinburne introduces a "double sestina", unlike Sidney's: it comprises 12 stanzas of 12 iambic pentameter lines each, the first stanza rhyming ABCABDCEFEDF. Similar to his "Sestina", each stanza first repeats end-words 12 1 of the previous stanza; the envoi is 10 / 9 / 4 / 6 / 1 / 5. From the 1930s, a revival of the form took place across the English-speaking world, led by poets such as W. H. Auden, the 1950s were described as the "age of the sestina" by James E. B. Breslin. "Sestina: Altaforte" by Ezra Pound and "Paysage moralisé" by W. H. Auden are distinguished modern examples of the sestina.
The sestina remains a popular closed verse form, many sestinas continue to be written by contemporary poets. Although the sestina has been subject to many revisions throughout its development, there remain several features that define the form; the sestina is composed of six stanzas of six lines, followed by a stanza of three lines. There is