Glasgow Corporation Tramways
Glasgow Corporation Tramways were one of the largest urban tramway systems in Europe. Over 1000 municipally-owned trams served the city of Glasgow, Scotland with over 100 route miles by 1922; the system was the last city tramway in Great Britain. The Glasgow Street Tramways Act was enacted by Parliament in 1870; this legislation allowed Glasgow Town Council to decide whether or not to have tramways within Glasgow. In 1872, the Town Council laid a 2 1⁄2-mile route from St George's Cross to Eglinton Toll; the Tramways Act prohibited the Town Council from directly operating a tram service over the lines. The act further stipulated that a private company be given the operating lease of the tram-lines for a period of 22 years; the St George's Cross to Eglinton Toll tram line was opened on 19 August 1872 with a horse-drawn service by the Glasgow Tramway and Omnibus Company. The Glasgow Tramway and Omnibus Company operated the tram-line and subsequent extensions to the system until 30 June 1894. In declining to renew the Glasgow Tramway and Omnibus Company operating lease, Glasgow Town Council formed the Glasgow Corporation Tramways and commenced their own municipal tram service on 1 July 1894.
Glasgow's tramlines had a unusual track gauge of 4 ft 7 3⁄4 in. This was to permit 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge railway wagons to be operated over parts of the tram system using their wheel flanges running in the slots of the tram tracks; this allowed the railway wagons to be drawn along tramway streets to access some shipyards. The shipyards provided their own small electric locomotives, running on the tramway power, to pull these wagons, principally loaded with steel for shipbuilding, from local railway freight yards; the electrification of the tram system was instigated by the Glasgow Tramways Committee, with the route between Springburn and Mitchell Street chosen as an experiment. With a fleet of 21 newly built tramcars, the experimental electric route commenced on 13 October 1898 and was considered a success; the citywide horse-drawn tram service was withdrawn at the end of April 1902. An additional 400 new trams were built and fitted with electrical equipment, with the Glasgow Corporation Tramways workshops at Coplawhill, Pollokshields involved in the construction of the new trams.
Following the closure of the tram system, the workshops were converted into the Glasgow Museum of Transport in 1964. Following the Museum's relocation to the Kelvin Hall in 1987, the buildings were subsequently adapted to become the Tramway Theatre. In 2007, plans began to relocate Scottish Ballet to its new location alongside the Tramway Theatre; this entailed knocking down or renovating the five most eastern bays of the Tramway Theatre building and it opened on 17 September 2009. To provide the electrical supply, a generating station was built at Port Dundas: the Pinkston Power Station opened in 1901. Pinkston and substations located at Coplawhill, Kinning Park and Partick powered the Glasgow Subway; the power station operated for 57 years, until it was handed over to the South of Scotland Electricity Board in 1958 and ceased operating in the early 1960s. The plant and its massive cooling tower, which dominated the skyline of the city – was demolished in 1977. Following electrification, Glasgow trams were fitted with trolley poles to take electricity from the overhead wires.
The trolley poles were replaced with bow collectors. Glasgow's first purpose-built electric trams were 20 bogie single deck vehicles with a central entrance, entering service in 1898, they were not successful and lasted only 8 years in service, however one was converted to a mains testing car and was subsequently restored to its original condition for preservation in Glasgow's Riverside Museum. The electrification of the Glasgow system was rapid and the city needed cars to fill the demand. 120 of the best horse car bodies were placed on new 4-wheel underframes with the same trucks and electrical equipment as the standards. They lasted until around World War I, although one survived until the 1930s, having been converted into a single-deck one-man-operated car for use on the Finnieston – Stobcross and Paisley – Abbotsinch services; these four-wheeled, double-deck tramcars were the mainstay of the Glasgow tram fleet from electrification until the late 1950s. Over 1000 were built between 1898 and 1924.
They were progressively modernised in four phases. The first cars were open-top unvestibuled four-wheelers, they received top covers with open balconies, platform vestibules and roll-top draught covers and fully enclosed top covers. Electrical equipment and running gear was upgraded at each modernisation phase; the earlier cars had rounded front dash panels, but cars which were built with vestibule glazing from new had hexagonal profile dash panels. When early cars were upgraded to receive vestibule glazing they retained their round dash panels, latterly the main visual difference within the fleet was between the "round dash" and "hex dash" variants. A few cars were cut down to single deckers for use on the Clydebank - Duntocher route which passed under low railway bridges. Six examples of the Standard car are preserved: Nos. 1088 in Riverside Museum.
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Johnston Press plc, was a multimedia company founded in Falkirk, Scotland in 1767. Its flagship titles included UK-national newspaper the i, The Scotsman, the Yorkshire Post, the Falkirk Herald, Belfast's The News Letter; the company was operating around 200 newspapers and associated websites around the United Kingdom and the Isle of Man when it went into administration in 2018. The Falkirk Herald was the company's first acquisition in 1846. Johnston Press's assets were transferred to JPIMedia in 2018. Johnston Press announced it would place itself in administration on 16 November 2018 after it was unable to find a suitable buyer of the business to refinance £220m of debt, it was de-listed from the London Stock Exchange on 19 November 2018. Johnston Press and its assets were brought under the control of JPIMedia on 17 November 2018 after a pre-packaged deal was agreed with creditors; the Johnston family business was involved in printing from 1797 in Falkirk. It bought control of its first newspaper, the Falkirk Herald, in 1846.
The company would remain headquartered in Falkirk for the next 150 years. The family publishing company was renamed F Johnston & Co Ltd in 1882, a title it would retain until it was floated on the London Stock Exchange as Johnston Press in 1988; the company's first major acquisition came in 1970, when it took control of the Fife-based publishers Strachan & Livingston. In 1978 it bought Wilfred Edmunds Ltd in Chesterfield, publisher of the Derbyshire Times and The Yorkshire Weekly Newspaper Group in Wakefield; the Company bought The West Sussex County Times in 1988, The Halifax Evening Courier in 1994 and the newspaper interests of EMAP plc in 1996. Further expansion followed with Portsmouth & Sunderland Newspapers in 1999 and Regional Independent Media Holdings in 2002; the Company expanded into the Irish market in 2005 by purchasing Local Press Ltd, a company owned by 3i, the newspaper assets of Scottish Radio Holdings, known as Score Press with forty-five titles in Scotland and Ireland, the Leinster Leader Group.
Johnston Press acquired The Scotsman Publications in 2006, taking ownership of two of Scotland's major national broadsheet titles, The Scotsman and Scotland on Sunday, as well as two local papers, the Edinburgh Evening News and the Edinburgh Herald & Post. In 2014, Iconic Newspapers acquired Johnston Press' titles in the Republic of Ireland. In March of that year, Johnston Press launched a digital advertising agency called 1XL, in partnership with a number of other media companies including Local World and Newsquest. In February 2016 the company announced; the deal to buy i was completed on 10 April 2016, giving Johnston Press a daily print circulation of over 600,000 newspapers and an audience online and in print of 32m people. In July 2016 Johnston Press sold off its three titles on the Isle of Man — the Isle of Man Examiner, the Isle of Man Courier and the Manx Independent — to Tindle Newspapers in a deal worth £4.25m. In January 2017 Johnston sold off a further 13 titles covering the East Midlands and East Anglia to Iliffe Media for £17m.
The same month, the company won a contract from Associated Newspapers to print the Monday-to-Saturday issues of the Daily Mail newspaper at Johnston's Portsmouth Web facility in Hampshire, following the closure of ANL's printing site at Didcot. In October 2018, with debts of around £200m and a market capitalisation of £3m, the company announced that it had put itself up for sale. On 16 November 2018 the group announced it was filing for administration, intending to sell the assets to its lenders. Johnson Press in a statement added there was no longer any value in its shares, in a major blow to Christen Ager-Hanssen, the chief executive of Custos Group, the largest shareholder at 25 percent; the company agreed a pre-packaged administration whereby Johnston Press's businesses and assets would be sold to a group of companies controlled by its creditors. Those included the largest creditor with about £ 70m of bonds. On 17 November 2018, a spokesperson for Johnston Press announced that all its titles had been transferred to the control of JPIMedia, a special purpose vehicle, owned by the creditors.
Under the terms of the pre-packaged deal, ownership passed to a consortium of four lenders – CarVal, Benefit Street Partners and Goldentree Asset Management – who reduced its debts to £85 million and injected £35 million investment. This however was subject to criticism by Johnston Press's largest shareholder, described as a "blatant pre-planned corporate theft by bondholders", was raised in Parliament; the following is a partial list of British newspapers owned by the company: JPIMedia publishes a total of 22 titles in Northern Ireland through two holding companies, JPIMedia NI and Derry Journal Newspapers. The geographic readership of some titles extends across the Irish border into the Republic of Ireland, such as the Derry Journal which covers County Donegal. Former JPIMedia titles published in the Republic of Ireland now belong to Iconic Newspapers; the company owns the following websites, in addition to newspaper sites as above, regionalised versions of these: www.digitalkitbag.com www.jobstoday.co.uk Official website JpiMedia: https://www.jpimedia.co.uk
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
New Kilpatrick, is an ecclesiastical Parish and former Civil Parish in Dunbartonshire. It was formed in 1649 from the eastern half of the parish of Kilpatrick, the western half forming Old Kilpatrick. New Kilpatrick is a disused name for the town of Bearsden. Spanning a large area from Strathblane in the North to Baldernock and Summerston in the East, down to Anniesland in the South and Yoker and Duntocher in the West, a quarter of the parish was once in the county of Stirlingshire; the geography of the area has supported mining, iron-working and quarrying in the past, but these are no longer economically viable, much of the area functions as suburbs of Glasgow. Local government of the area was once the responsibility of the kirk, but is now administered by East Dunbartonshire and Stirlingshire councils; the name New Kilpatrick was dropped from general civil use in 1958. The previous extent of New Kilpatrick can be seen quite on old maps, but current maps no longer show the former parish; as the population of the area grew, the ecclesiastical parish reduced in area as smaller parishes were separated off and the parish now covers only a fraction of the town of Bearsden.
The parish church was built in 1649 from local stone, was replaced in 1807 with a larger building. The parish system was introduced to Scotland in the 13th century. In about 1227, the church and lands of Kilpatrick were given to Paisley Abbey by Maldowen, Earl of Lennox; the name Kilpatrick is an Anglicised form of the Gaelic Cille Phàdraig - "Patrick's Churchyard". The alternative anglicised form "Kirkpatrick" is used in old texts, it is therefore reasonable to assume that a church dedicated to St Patrick gave the area its name before the transfer to Paisley Abbey. The parish remained under the supervision of the Abbey until the Reformation in 1560. At the Dissolution, the Church property fell into the possession of Lord Sempill; the lands were conferred on Lord Claud Hamilton, ancestor of the Dukes of Abercorn. His son James Hamilton was created Lord Abercorn on 5 April 1603 on 10 July 1606 he was made Earl of Abercorn and Lord of Paisley, Hamilton and Kilpatrick. Kilpatrick was split into two parishes - Old and New by an Act of Parliament on 16 February 1649.
This division is of note because this was a split of both the ecclesiastical and civil parishes and the wealth and stipend of the original parish was shared between the two new parishes. It was more common for new parishes to have "daughter" status, with wealth retained by the central, or cathedral church. Since 1649 a succession of parishes have been separated from the original, with Drumchapel and Temple now within the City of Glasgow, while Milngavie and Baldernock lie in Dunbartonshire and Strathblane in Stirlingshire, Drumry is considered part of Clydebank. For many years, the civil and ecclesiastical functions of the parish overlapped. For example, the kirk session dealt with minor misdemeanors, such as a man from Kirkton fined for "swearing wickedly and doing actual violence to his mother" in 1701. Other offences included the hanging out of laundry on the Lord's Day and many instances of infidelity. One of the penalties that could be applied was the Stool of Repentance where individuals could be publicly shamed.
This was situated in a corner of the church building but in 1694, it was moved to below the pulpit to increase its prominence. The church session was assigned the duty of care for the poor, in 1672, part of this duty was transferred to the heritors of the parish; these wealthy landowners shared them out amongst themselves. The care shown to the poor included the provision of accommodation and maintenance, any failure of the better-off to provide these could have led to legal proceedings against them. In 1845, the relief of poverty was transferred to the Parochial Board, although the kirk continued to provide assistance on a case by case basis; until 1872, the provision of education had been the responsibility of the kirk session, but this was transferred to a School Board for building and running schools in the area. Temple Primary School now in Glasgow, is an example. In 1895, the Parochial Board became the Parish Council, which had responsibility for town planning and housing, drainage. In 1930, the word "parish" was dropped, New Kilpatrick became a District Council.
The boundaries of the civil parish were modified by the formation of Milngavie Burgh in 1875, the Local Government Act 1889 and the Local Government Act 1929. The district council was dissolved in 1958 on creation of Bearsden Burgh, itself dissolved in 1975. Control passed to Bearsden and Milngavie district within Strathclyde Regional Council until 1996; the local government of the original parish area is now administered by East Dunbartonshire and Stirlingshire Councils. In 1672, the Scottish Parliament heard a petition from John Douglas of Mains to hold markets in the parish on 1 May and 21 October each year; the purpose of this was to encourage the local economy, the bill was passed. John Douglas was a heritor of the parish and was the 11th Laird of Mains, registering his coat of arms in 1672; the geology of the area runs East-West through the parish from Dunbarton to Maryhill and has supported various industries. Devonian Old Red Sandstone is overlaid by the Carboniferous Limestone series.
West Highland Way
The West Highland Way is a linear long distance footpath in Scotland. It is 154 km long, running from Milngavie north of Glasgow to Fort William in the Scottish Highlands, with an element of hill walking in the route; the trail, which opened in 1980, was Scotland's first designated Long Distance Route, is now designated by Scottish Natural Heritage as one of Scotland's Great Trails. It is intended as a long distance walking route, whilst many sections are suitable for mountain biking and horseriding there are obstacles and surfaces that will require these users to dismount in places, it is managed by the West Highland Way Management Group consisting of the local authorities for East Dunbartonshire, Stirling and Bute and Highland, alongside the Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park Authority and Scottish Natural Heritage. About 120,000 people use the path every year, of; the path is estimated to generate £5.5 million each year for the local economy. Notable wildlife that may be seen includes feral goats, red deer, around the peaks sometimes golden eagles.
The trail, conceived by the late Tom Hunter from Glasgow, was approved for development in 1974 and was completed and opened on 6 October 1980 by Lord Mansfield so becoming the first designated long-distance footpath in Scotland. Significant in the development of the Way was geographer Fiona Rose who surveyed the route over a year in the early 1970s, covering some 1,000 miles on foot. In June 2010, the West Highland Way was co-designated as part of the International Appalachian Trail; the path uses many ancient roads, including ancient drovers' roads, military roads dating to the Jacobite uprisings and old coaching routes. It is walked from south to north, making it a journey from the Lowlands to the Highlands; the route is walked in seven to eight days, although many fitter and more experienced walkers do it in five or six. The route can be covered in less time than this, but a less hurried progress is the choice of the majority of walkers, allowing for appreciation of the countryside along the Way.
Due to the large number of walkers being constrained to a single track, some parts of the Way have become badly eroded. However, a considerable amount of work is undertaken to maintain the route. A walk along the Way is broken up into sections or stages, each of which will be walked in a day. One pattern of sections, travelling from south to north, is as follows: The path starts in the centre of Milngavie, a town on the northern fringe of the conurbation of Glasgow. | granite obelisk is located a short distance from Milngavie railway station. Heading north, the path passes Mugdock Castle and Mugdock Country Park before emerging into open countryside, the Campsie Fells can be seen. By the west side of Craigallian loch the path passes a small monument to commemorate The Craigallian Fire, an important historical symbol for outdoor activities in Scotland; as the Way approaches the Campsies by the piece of ground known as Tinkers Loan, there is an opportunity to explore adjacent hills such as Dumgoyne or the small but wooded Dumgoyach.
The Way reaches the village of Drymen. This section is about 19 km long: Milngavie to Carbeth – 8 km Carbeth to Drymen – 11 km After leaving Drymen the path enters Garadhban Forest before reaching the first major summit of the route, Conic Hill, a site of special scientific interest lying on the Highland Boundary Fault; the main route goes over the summit, but an alternative "bad weather" route via Milton of Buchanan allows walkers to avoid the ascent to the summit. The village of Balmaha on the eastern shore of Loch Lomond is the next settlement reached. Drymen to Balmaha – 13 km The path heads north along the wooded eastern shore of Loch Lomond, to reach the village of Rowardennan, the furthest point north to which there is road access available from the south on the east shore of the loch. Balmaha to Rowardennan – 11 km The path leaves Rowardennan and continues north, along the wooded eastern shore of Loch Lomond to Inverarnan; the route follows the lower slopes of Ben Lomond before returning to the waterside at Inversnaid, where there is road access from the east, via Aberfoyle.
North of Inversnaid the route passes a cavern known as Rob Roy's cave, before reaching Inverarnan. Rowardennan to Inverarnan – 19.5 km The way skirts the hills just west of Crianlarich alongside Bogle Glen. At the deer gate an additional path leads to Crianlarich. Meanwhile, the route continues up through the dense woodland to one of the high points of the Way before descending to cross the A82 and pass through Auchtertyre Farm and up to Tyndrum. Inverarnan to Tyndrum – 19.5 km This is one of the more remote sections of the route, with little in the way of settlements. The route passes over the drovers' road between Bridge of Orchy and Inveroran with large panoramic views, not much sign of civilisation; this section is about 30 km long: Tyndrum to Bridge of Orchy – 11 km Bridge of Orchy to Inveroran Hotel – 3 km Inveroran Hotel to Kingshouse – 16 km Glen Coe is considered one of the most spectacular and beautiful places in Scotland, is a part of the designated National Scenic Area of Ben Nevis and Glen Coe.
The route climbs the Devil's Staircase before a great descent to sea level at Kinlochleven. Kingshouse to Kinlochleven – 14 km The final stage skirts the Mamore Mountains on