A principality can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title considered to fall under the generic meaning of the term prince. Most of these states have been a polity, but in some occasions were rather territories in respect of which a princely title is held; the prince's estate and wealth may be located or wholly outside the geographical confines of the principality. Recognised surviving sovereign principalities are Liechtenstein and the co-principality of Andorra. Extant royal primogenitures styled as principalities include Asturias; the Principality of Wales existed in the northern and western areas of Wales between the 13th and 16th centuries. Since that time, the title Prince of Wales has traditionally been granted to the heir to the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom, but it confers no responsibilities for government in Wales, it is one of four countries in the United Kingdom.
The Principality of Catalonia existed in the north-eastern areas of Spain between 14th and 18th centuries, as the term for the territories ruled by the Catalan courts, until the defeat of the Habsburgs in the Spanish succession war, when these institutions were abolished due to their support for the Habsburg pretender. Principality of Asturias is the official name of autonomous community of Asturias; the term principality is sometimes used generically for any small monarchy for small sovereign states ruled by a monarch of a lesser rank than a king, such as a Fürst, as in Liechtenstein, or a Grand Duke. No sovereign duchy exists, but Luxembourg is a surviving example of a sovereign grand duchy. There have been sovereign principalities with many styles of ruler, such as Countship and Lordship within the Holy Roman Empire. While the preceding definition would seem to fit a princely state the European historical tradition is to reserve that word for native monarchies in colonial countries, to apply "principality" to the Western monarchies.
Though principalities existed in antiquity before the height of the Roman Empire, the principality as it is known today developed in the Middle Ages between 750 and 1450 when feudalism was the primary economic and social system in much of Europe. Feudalism increased the power of local princes within a king's lands; as princes continued to gain more power over time, the authority of the king was diminished in many places. This led to political fragmentation as the king's lands were broken into mini-states ruled by princes and dukes who wielded absolute power over their small territories; this was prevalent in Europe, with the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire. During the Late Middle Ages from 1200 to 1500, principalities were at war with each other as royal houses asserted sovereignty over smaller principalities; these wars caused. Episodes of bubonic plague reduced the power of principalities to survive independently. Agricultural progress and development of new trade goods and services boosted commerce between principalities.
Many of these states became wealthy, expanded their territories and improved the services provided to their citizens. Princes and dukes established new ports and chartered large thriving cities; some used their new-found wealth to build palaces and other institutions now associated with sovereign states. While some principalities prospered in their independence, less successful states were swallowed by stronger royal houses. Europe saw consolidation of small principalities into larger empires; this had happened in England in the first millennium, this trend subsequently led to the creation of such states as France and Spain. Another form of consolidation was orchestrated in Italy during the Renaissance by the Medici family. A banking family from Florence, the Medici took control of governments in various Italian regions and assumed the papacy, they appointed family members as princes and assured their protection. Prussia later expanded by acquiring the territories of many other states. However, in the 17th to 19th centuries within the Holy Roman Empire, the reverse was occurring: many new small sovereign states arose as a result of transfers of land for various reasons.
Notable principalities existed until the early 20th century in various regions of Italy. Nationalism, the belief that the nation-state is the best vehicle to realise the aspirations of a people, became popular in the late 19th century. A characteristic of nationalism is an identity with a larger region such as an area sharing a common language and culture. With this development, principalities fell out of favour; as a compromise, many principalities united with neighbouring regions and adopted constitutional forms of government, with the monarch acting as a mere figurehead while administration was left in the hands of elected parliaments. The trend in the 19th and 20th centuries was the abolition of various forms of monarchy and the creation of republican governments led by popularly elected presidents. Several principalities where genealogical inheritance is replaced by succession in a religious office have existed in the Roman Catholic Church, in each case consisting o
The Balkans known as the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch throughout the whole of Bulgaria from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea coast; the Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic Sea on the northwest, the Ionian Sea on the southwest, the Aegean Sea in the south and southeast, the Black Sea on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined; the highest point of the Balkans is 2,925 metres, in the Rila mountain range. The concept of the Balkan peninsula was created by the German geographer August Zeune in 1808, who mistakenly considered the Balkan Mountains the dominant mountain system of Southeast Europe spanning from the Adriatic Sea to the Black Sea; the term of Balkan Peninsula was a synonym for European Turkey in the 19th century, the former provinces of the Ottoman Empire in Southeast Europe.
It had a geopolitical rather than a geographical definition, further promoted during the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the early 20th century. The definition of the Balkan peninsula's natural borders do not coincide with the technical definition of a peninsula and hence modern geographers reject the idea of a Balkan peninsula, while scholars discuss the Balkans as a region; the term has acquired a stigmatized and pejorative meaning related to the process of Balkanization, hence the rather used alternative term for the region is Southeast Europe. The word Balkan comes from Ottoman Turkish balkan'chain of wooded mountains'; the origin of the Turkic word is obscure. From classical antiquity through the Middle Ages, the Balkan Mountains were called by the local Thracian name Haemus. According to Greek mythology, the Thracian king Haemus was turned into a mountain by Zeus as a punishment and the mountain has remained with his name. A reverse name scheme has been suggested. D. Dechev considers that Haemus is derived from a Thracian word *saimon,'mountain ridge'.
A third possibility is that "Haemus" derives from the Greek word "haema" meaning'blood'. The myth relates to a fight between the monster/titan Typhon. Zeus injured Typhon with a thunder bolt and Typhon's blood fell on the mountains, from which they got their name; the earliest mention of the name appears in an early 14th-century Arab map, in which the Haemus mountains are referred to as Balkan. The first attested time the name "Balkan" was used in the West for the mountain range in Bulgaria was in a letter sent in 1490 to Pope Innocent VIII by Buonaccorsi Callimaco, an Italian humanist and diplomat; the Ottomans first mention it in a document dated from 1565. There has been no other documented usage of the word to refer to the region before that, although other Turkic tribes had settled in or were passing through the Peninsula. There is a claim about an earlier Bulgar Turkic origin of the word popular in Bulgaria, however it is only an unscholarly assertion; the word was used by the Ottomans in Rumelia in its general meaning of mountain, as in Kod̲j̲a-Balkan, Čatal-Balkan, Ungurus-Balkani̊, but it was applied to the Haemus mountain.
The name is still preserved in Central Asia with the Balkan Daglary and the Balkan Province of Turkmenistan. English traveler John Morritt introduced this term into the English literature at the end of the 18th-century, other authors started applying the name to the wider area between the Adriatic and the Black Sea; the concept of the "Balkans" was created by the German geographer August Zeune in 1808, who mistakenly considered it as the dominant central mountain system of Southeast Europe spanning from the Adriatic Sea to the Black Sea. During the 1820s, "Balkan became the preferred although not yet exclusive term alongside Haemus among British travelers... Among Russian travelers not so burdened by classical toponymy, Balkan was the preferred term"; the term was not used in geographical literature until the mid-19th century because then scientists like Carl Ritter warned that only the part South of the Balkan Mountains can be considered as a peninsula and considered it to be renamed as "Greek peninsula".
Other prominent geographers who didn't agree with Zeune were Hermann Wagner, Theobald Fischer, Marion Newbigin, Albrecht Penck, while Austrian diplomat Johann Georg von Hahn in 1869 for the same territory used the term Südostereuropäische Halbinsel. Another reason it was not accepted as the definition of European Turkey had a similar land extent. However, after the Congress of Berlin there was a political need for a new term and the Balkans was revitalized, but in the maps the northern border was in Serbia and Montenegro without Greece, while Yugoslavian maps included Croatia and Bosnia; the term Balkan Peninsula was a synonym for European Turkey, the political borders of former Ottoman Empire provinces. The usage of the term changed in the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century when was embraced by Serbian geographers, most prominently by Jovan Cvijić, it was done with political reasoning as affirmation for Serbian nationalism on the whole territory of the South Slavs, included anthropological and ethnological studies of the South Slavs through which were claimed various nationalistic and racistic theories.
Through such policies and Yugoslavian maps the term was elevated to the modern status of
Jevrem Teodorović known as Jevrem Obrenović, was the youngest brother of Serbian Prince Miloš Obrenović and was the youngest of his nine siblings. Jevrem Teodorović's mother Višnja Urošević was married twice, first to Obren Martinović, with whom she had three children. After the death of Obren, she married Teodor Mihailović, in the village of Dobrinja. Višnja and Teodor had three sons: Jovan and Jevrem. Both Višnja and Teodor's ancestors were migrants from Herzegovina, having arrived in the late 17th or early 18th century. Teodor Mihailović died in 1802. A few years the half-brothers by their mother - Jakov and Milan, took their mother, along with Miloš, Jovan and Jevrem to live on their estate. Milan Obrenović had a great influence on the upbringing and development of his younger brothers, as evidenced by the fact that Miloš, Jovan and Jevrem took their half-brothers surname Obrenović. Active in the Serbian independence movement from his youth, Jevrem travelled to Ostružnica to sell oxen for weapons and ammunition.
He and his brother Miloš joined the First Serbian Uprising, led by Karađorđe. Miloš was involved in his assassination. During peacetime, Jevrem lived for a while in Belgrade. Miloš led the Second Serbian Uprising that broke out in the beginning of April 1815, Jevrem again took up arms. Sulejman-paša Skopljak, the Vizier of Belgrade, had Jevrem captured and sentenced to death, but in August 1815 Miloš and the Ottoman governor Ali Pasha agreed to have Jevrem released from prison. In 1816, Miloš made Jevrem governor of the Šabac nahija. In 1817, Miloš concluded peace with the Ottomans and was recognized as the "Prince of Serbia" by the Ottoman Sultan, subject to tribute to the Porte; as such. In 1819, he was appointed governor of Valjevo. Jevrem ruled autocratically in the districts under his governance, decisions being made only with his consent; the same year he married Tomanija Bogićević, with whom he had eight children - seven daughters and one son, Miloš Jevremov Obrenović. Jevrem, as the younger brother of the ruler, had numerous responsibilities.
His role in the organization and work of the nascent Serbian judiciary was of paramount importance. He was instrumental in combating banditry, rampant after 1817. Applying harsh, sometimes cruel measures, Miloš and Jevrem managed to reduce eradicate brigandage to a reasonable level. In the period from 1817 to 1835, Jevrem participated in the suppression of several rebellions, during the Russo-Turkish War his task was to prevent the transfer of Ottoman troops from Bosnia through Serbia over to the eastern front; until 1842, Jevrem at first secretly, but publicly, fought for power. The opposition was able to remove Miloš from power, but Jevrem realised that his chances of being elected Prince collapsed, therefore committed his support to Miloš's second son Mihailo Obrenović III; the town of Šabac, where Jevrem lived from 1816 until 1831, was modernized and "Europeanized" under Jevrem's auspices. His house, completed in 1824, was a multi-storey building of which "symmetry and beauty precedes all residences and palaces in Serbia."
Understanding the importance of popular education, Jevrem built schools and invited many teachers, doctors and artisans to the town. Šabac had a well-stocked pharmacy with drugs valued at 5,000 pence. The same year, Jevrem built the town hospital, the first barracks with four departments, which could each accommodate 60 soldiers. Jevrem headed a "literary circle" which included members archpriest Ignjat Savić, physician and writer Jovan Stejić, polymath Dimitrije P. Tirol, writer Princess Anka Obrenović and others. In 1829, he appointed Joseph Schlesinger the music teacher for his children. Schlesinger soon formed his own "music chapel" in the town. After a written order from Prince Miloš Obrenović in 1830 that the Serbian army needed military music, Schlesinger was on 1 June 1831 appointed kapellmeister of military music in Kragujevac. Jevrem hosted many of the intelligentsia of Europe, played a significant role in raising the general cultural level in the country, his library at his residence in Šabac, with the works of La Fontaine and others, is among the richest in Serbia.
Under Jevrem's auspices, the Belgrade Public Library was founded in 1832. After a long illness, Jevrem died at his home in Wallachia, on 9 September 1856. Translated and adapted from Serbian Wikipedia:https://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%88%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BC_%D0%9E%D0%B1%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%9B Jovanović, Nebojša. "Јеврем Обреновић - скица једне политичке каријере". Историјски часопис. 50. Milićević, Milan. Поменик знаменитих људи у српскога народа новијега доба. Srpska kraljevska štamparija. Pp. 460–461. Сећање на Јеврема и шабачко „златно“ доба
Alexander Karađorđević, Prince of Serbia
Aleksandar Karađorđević was the prince of Serbia between 1842 and 1858. He was a member of the House of Karađorđević; the youngest son of Karađorđe Petrović and Jelena Jovanović was born in Topola on 11 October 1806. He was educated in Khotin, under the patronage of the Russian Tsar. In 1830 he married Persida Nenadović, daughter of Voivode Jevrem Nenadović and Jovanka Milovanović, they had ten children: Poleksija, married firstly in 1849 Konstantin Nikolajević, Serbian Minister of the Interior, by whom she had issue. Kleopatra, married in 1855 Milan Avram Petronijević, Serbian Ambassador to Russia. Aleksij Svetozar Petar ruled Serbia from 1903 until 1918, subsequently as King of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes until his death. Jelena. Andrej Jelisaveta Đorđe Arsenije, married in 1892, a Russian noblewoman and Countess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova, they were the parents of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia. After the Sultan’s decree acknowledging the title of Prince Mihailo Obrenovic at the end of 1839, the family returned to Serbia.
Alexander joined the Headquarters of the Serbian Army, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant and appointed as adjutant to Prince Mihailo. After the political conflicts caused by disrespect of the so-called "Turkish constitution," and Miloš Obrenović's and Mihailo Obrenović's abdications, Aleksandar Karađorđević was elected the Prince of Serbia at the National Assembly in Vračar, a municipality in modern Belgrade, on 14 September 1842. Having had his title acknowledged by Russia and Turkey, Prince Aleksandar started the reforms and founded a number of new institutions in order to improve the progress of the Serbian state, he implemented the code of civil rights, introduced the regular Army, built a cannon foundry, improved the existing schools and founded new ones, as well as established National Library and National Museum. During the Hungarian Revolution in Vojvodina, in 1848, Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević sent Serbian volunteers under the command of Stevan Knićanin to help the Serbs’ struggle for autonomy.
As a follow-up of the national-political movements of 1848, the pan-slavistic idea of a Yugoslav Monarchy emerged. The "Načertanije" document, written as a Serbian political program by Ilija Garašanin four years earlier, made the mission of replacing the Austrian and Turkish domination of all Southern Slavs with the Serbian rule under the banner of "Serbia." Throughout his reign Prince Alexander was troubled with Obrenović plots. By his refusal to take part in the Crimean War as ally of the French and Ottoman Empires against the Russian Empire; the result was his overthrow and departure into exile in 1858 by the winners of the Powers in the war and bringing the rival Obrenovic dynasty to the throne of the Principality of Serbia. In internal policy Prince Aleksandar came into conflict with the members of the Council, which culminated in the convocation of the National Assembly on St. Andrew’s Day, in December 1858, which forced him to abdicate. Prince Alexander died in Timişoara on 3 May 1885.
He was buried in Vienna, his earthly remains were moved in 1912 to the Memorial Church of St. George built by his son Petar I Karađorđević, in Oplenac, Serbia. ¨
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni
Đorđe Petrović OSA, better known by the sobriquet Black George, or Karađorđe, was a Serbian revolutionary who led the struggle for his country's independence from the Ottoman Empire during the First Serbian Uprising of 1804–1813. Born into an impoverished family in the Šumadija region of Ottoman Serbia, Karađorđe distinguished himself during the Austro-Turkish War of 1788–1791 as a member of the Serbian Free Corps, a militia made up of Habsburg and Ottoman Serbs, armed and trained by the Austrians. Fearing retribution following the Austrians' and Serb rebels' defeat in 1791, he and his family fled to the Austrian Empire, where they were to live until 1794, when a general amnesty was declared. Karađorđe subsequently became a livestock merchant. In 1796, the rogue governor of the Sanjak of Vidin, Osman Pazvantoğlu, invaded the Pashalik of Belgrade, Karađorđe fought alongside the Ottomans to quash the incursion. In early 1804, following a massacre of Serb chieftains by renegade Ottoman janissaries known as Dahis, the Serbs of the Pashalik rebelled.
Karađorđe was unanimously elected to lead the uprising against the Dahis at an assembly of surviving chiefs in February 1804. Within six months, most of the Dahi leaders had been captured and executed by Karađorđe's forces, by 1805, the final remnants of Dahi resistance had been crushed. Karađorđe and his followers now demanded far-reaching autonomy, a move which Sultan Selim interpreted as but the first step towards complete independence. Selim promptly ordered an army to march into the Pashalik; the Ottomans suffered a string of defeats at the hands of Karađorđe's forces. By 1806, the rebels had captured all the major towns in the Pashalik, including Belgrade and Smederevo, expelled their Muslim inhabitants. Burdened by the demands of the Russo-Ottoman War of 1806–1812, Selim offered the Serbs extensive autonomy, but Karađorđe refused in light of Russia's avowal to aid the rebels should they continue fighting. Frequent infighting, together with Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812, weakened the rebels, the Ottomans were able to reverse many of their gains.
Karađorđe was forced to flee Serbia in October 1813 and Belgrade fell that month, bringing the First Serbian Uprising to a close. He and his followers were arrested and detained. Despite Ottoman requests for his extradition, the Austrians handed Karađorđe over to the Russians, who offered him refuge in Bessarabia. There, he joined the Greek secret society known as Filiki Eteria, which planned to launch a pan-Balkan uprising against the Ottomans. Karađorđe returned to Serbia in secret in July 1817, but was killed shortly thereafter by agents of Miloš Obrenović, a rival rebel leader, concerned that Karađorđe's reappearance would cause the Ottomans to renege on the concessions that they had agreed to following the Second Serbian Uprising of 1815. Karađorđe is considered the founder of the Karađorđević dynasty, which ruled Serbia in several intervals during the 19th and 20th centuries, his murder resulted in a violent, decades-long feud between his descendants and those of Obrenović, with the Serbian throne changing hands several times.
Đorđe Petrović was born into an impoverished family in the village of Viševac, in the Šumadija region of Ottoman Serbia, on 16 November 1768. He was the oldest of his parents' five children, his father, Petar Jovanović, had since become a peasant farmer. His mother, was a homemaker. Petrović's surname was derived from his father's given name, in line with contemporary Serbian naming conventions. Like most of his contemporaries, Petrović was illiterate, his family celebrated the feast day of Saint Clement. They are said to have been descended from the Vasojevići tribe of Montenegro's Lim River valley, his ancestors are thought to have migrated from Montenegro to Šumadija in the late 1730s or early 1740s. Petrović's childhood was difficult, his parents were forced to move around in search of a livelihood. His father worked as servant for a sipahi, an Ottoman cavalryman. Petrović himself spent his adolescence working as a shepherd. In 1785, he married Jelena Jovanović; the couple had seven children. Petrović worked for several landlords across Šumadija until 1787, when he and his family left the region and settled in the Austrian Empire, fearing persecution at the hands of the Ottoman janissaries.
It is said that as they were preparing to cross the Danube into Austria, Petrović's father began to have second thoughts about leaving Šumadija. Knowing that the entire family would be put in jeopardy if his father stayed behind, Petrović either took his father's life or arranged for someone to kill him instead. Following the outbreak of the Austro-Turkish War of 1788–1791, Petrović joined the Serbian Free Corps, took part in fighting the Ottomans in western Serbia; the Free Corps was a volunteer militia made up of both Ottoman and Habsburg Serbs, armed and trained by the Austrians. It was led by a Habsburg Serb officer, Major Mihailo Mihaljević. Petrović's participation in the war brought him invaluable military experience, as well as insight into the Austrians' military techniques, he was decorated for bravery, reaching the rank of sergeant. In this capacity, he was given command over a squad of 25 men; the Au
The Obrenović was a Serbian dynasty that ruled Serbia from 1815 to 1842, again from 1858 to 1903. They came to power through the leadership of their progenitor Miloš Obrenović I in the Serbian Uprising of 1815–1817 against the Ottoman Empire, which led to the formation of the Principality of Serbia in 1817; the Obrenović dynasty were traditionally allied with Austria-Hungary and opposed the Russian-supported Karađorđević dynasty. The family's rule came to an end in a coup d’état by the military conspirators known today as the Black Hand, who invaded the royal palace and murdered King Alexander I, who died without an heir; the National Assembly of Serbia invited Peter Karađorđević to become a king of Serbia. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, some descendants from Jakov Obrenović, Miloš Obrenović's half-brother, declared themselves successors of the Royal House of Obrenović and elected their pretender to the defunct throne of Serbia. Unlike other Balkan states such as Greece, Bulgaria, or Romania, Serbia did not import a member of an existing European royal family to take its throne.
Unlike most other dynasties in Europe, where a regnal number is used to distinguish different monarchs who shared the same given name, the Obrenović dynasty assigned subsequent regnal numbers to each ruling prince. Thus, there was never a Milan I, Milan III, a Mihailo I or a Mihailo II. Milan II and Mihailo III were the second and third ruling prince from the Obrenović dynasty; this practice was discontinued when prince Milan Obrenovic IV proclaimed himself king and declared the principality of Serbia a kingdom. Jevram Obrenović, younger brother of Milos Obrenović I Jovan Obrenović, younger brother of Milos Obrenović I Jakov Obrenović, elder half-brother of Milos Obrenović I Milan Obrenović, elder half-brother of Milos Obrenović I Marija Obrenović, mother of Milan Obrenović IV Natalija Obrenović, wife of Milan Obrenović IV. Draga Obrenović, wife of Alexander I and former lady-in-waiting to his mother. Princess Anka Obrenović, daughter of Jevrem Teodorović Obrenović. George Obrenovic, illegitimate son of King Milan List of Serbian monarchs