Miloš Obrenović

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Miloš Obrenović
MilosObrenovic 1848.jpg
Prince of Serbia
Reign23 December 1858 – 26 September 1860
PredecessorAlexander Karađorđević
SuccessorMihailo III (Obrenović)
Prince of Serbia
Reign6 November 1817 – 25 June 1839
PredecessorHimself (As Grand Vožd of Serbia)
SuccessorMilan II
Grand Vožd of Serbia
Reign23 April 1815 – 6 November 1817
PredecessorKarađorđe
SuccessorHimself (as Prince of Serbia)
Born(1780-03-18)18 March 1780
Gornja Dobrinja near Požega, Ottoman Empire (modern-day Serbia)
Died26 September 1860(1860-09-26) (aged 80)
Belgrade, Serbia, Ottoman Empire
Burial
St. Mark's Church, Belgrade, Serbia
ConsortLjubica Vukomanović
HouseObrenović
FatherTeodor Mihailović
MotherVišnja Urošević
ReligionSerbian Orthodox
Styles of
Miloš Obrenović, Prince of Serbia
Royal Monogram of Prince Miloš Obrenović I of Serbia.svg
Reference styleHis Serene Highness
Spoken styleYour Serene Highness
Alternative styleSir

Miloš Obrenović (Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Обреновић; pronounced [mîloʃ obrěːnoʋit͡ɕ]; 18 March 1780 – 26 September 1860) born Miloš Teodorović (Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Теодоровић; pronounced [mîloʃ teodǒːroʋit͡ɕ]) was Prince of Serbia from 1815 to 1839, and again from 1858 to 1860. He participated in the First Serbian uprising, led Serbs in the Second Serbian uprising, and founded the House of Obrenović. Under his rule, Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. Prince Miloš ruled autocratically, permanently refusing to share power. During his rule, he was the richest man in Serbia and one of the richest in the Balkans.

Early life[edit]

Miloš Teodorović was the son of Teodor "Teša" Mihailović (died 1802) from Dobrinja, and Višnja (died 18 June 1817).[1] This was the second marriage of his mother Višnja, from which also sprung Jovan (1787–1850) and Jevrem (1790–1856).[1] From Višnja's first marriage, with Obren Martinović (died 1780) from Brusnica, Miloš had half-brothers Jakov (died 1811) and Milan (died 1810), and half-sister Stana.[1] After the death of Obren, Višnja moved from Brusnica and married Teodor in Dobrinja.[1] After the death of his brother Milan, a famed revolutionary with great reputation among the people, Miloš adopted the surname Obrenović. In official documents, his name was sometimes written Miloš Teodorović Obrenović (Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Теодоровић Обреновић; pronounced [mîloʃ teodǒːroʋit͡ɕ obrěːnoʋit͡ɕ]).[2]

First Serbian Uprising[edit]

Miloš fought in the First Serbian uprising until its very end in 1813, his half-brother Milan also took part in the Uprising, rising to become the vojvoda (commander, duke) of the Rudnik district, until his death in 1810. After Milan's death, Miloš adopted the surname of his half-brother, Obrenović; this name was the patronymic which his half-brother derived from Obren, the first name of his own father (Miloš's step-father). After the rebellion collapsed, Miloš was among the few of its leaders that remained in Serbia to face the returning Ottomans.

Second Serbian Uprising[edit]

Takovo, proclamation of Uprising.

In April 1815, Prince Miloš organized and led the Second Serbian uprising. After defeating the Turks, and Napoleon's defeat in Russia, the Turks agreed to the terms of the agreement from 1815. After the killing of Karađorđe Petrović, in 1817, Obrenović became the leader of the Serbs; as a result of the agreement, Serbia gained some autonomy, but remained under Ottoman sovereignty. Miloš Obrenović was left in power as its absolute ruler.

Between the end of 1828 and the autumn of 1830, Prince Miloš created a so-called "legislative commission" to translate the Code Napoléon into Serbian and codify the laws and customs of the country. After discussing the commission, Miloš invited two distinguished legal specialists to come from Hungary to prepare a more suitable criminal and civil code of laws for Serbia, they were Vasilije Lazarević, Bürgermeister (mayor) of Zemun, and Jovan Hadžić, lawyer, poet, and member of the municipal senate of Novi Sad.

In January 1831, Prince Miloš informed a great national assembly that he had obtained an imperial edict from the Sultan ending all direct obligations of Serbian peasants to their former Turkish lords, guaranteeing Ottoman recognition of Serbian autonomy in most matters of internal administration, and offering Serbia the prospect of territorial aggrandizement, as well as the express right to institute schools, courts, and a governmental administration of her own; the Sultan's decrees of 1830 and 1833 expanded the same rights to a larger territory, and made Serbia a sovereign principality, with Miloš Obrenović as hereditary prince. A Metropolitanate of Serbia was established in Belgrade as an autonomous unit of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Russia's status as the guarantor of Serbia's autonomy was also recognized.

Reign[edit]

Miloš Obrenović, portrait probably done in Istanbul. Exposition of Princess Ljubica's Residence (2017)

The supporters of the rule of law often rebelled against Miloš's government. Following one such rebellion, he agreed to adopt a constitution, the Sretenje or Candlemas constitution, in 1835; the move was opposed by neighboring Austria, the ruling Ottoman Empire and Russia. It is believed that the three great empires saw the constitution as a danger to their own autocratic systems of government. Metternich's Austria particularly ridiculed the fact that Serbia had its own flag and foreign ministry. Miloš abolished the constitution at the demand of Russia and Turkey, and it was replaced by the "Turkish" Constitution of 1838.

Miloš abdicated in 1839 in favor of his sons—Milan, who died a few weeks later, and Mihailo, who then became prince. Mihailo was deposed in 1842, and the family was out of power until 1858, when it returned with Miloš restored as prince for the last two years of his life.

Legacy[edit]

A bust of Miloš Obrenović, Kragujevac, Serbia.
Monument to Milos Obrenovic, Požarevac, Serbia.

Miloš Obrenović was given the epithet the Great, he was proclaimed Father of the Fatherland by the National Assembly.[3]

Things named after Miloš Obrenović[edit]

Biographies and memoirs[edit]

  • Milan Milićević published the book "Prince Miloš and His Story" in 1891. It was written with the basis of a manuscript in which Prince Miloš talked about his life.[4]
  • For several years his barber was Nićirof Ninković who left memoirs about it.
  • His personal physician during his first reign was Bartolomeo Kunibert, who wrote a two-volume book translated into Serbian entitled "The Serbian Uprising and the First Reign of Milos Obrenovic 1804–1850".
  • Part of Knez Miloš' family correspondences has been preserved with his daughter Petrija Bajić near Timișoara. In 1925 the property was bought by Joca Vujić who left the correspondences to the Belgrade University Library "Svetozar Marković", which the book "Family Correspondences of Knez Miloš Obrenović from the Archival Collection of Joca Vujić at the Belgrade University Library "Svetozar Marković"".[5][6]

Enterprises and organizations[edit]

Places[edit]

  • Miloš Obrenović's House in Gornja Crnuća, from which Miloš ruled Serbia for two years and in which the decision to start the Second Serbian Uprising was made, was declared a cultural monument of exceptional importance.
  • Saint Sava Church in Šarani was founded by him.
  • Elementary School "Miloš Obrenović" in Aranđelovac.
  • "Knez Miloš Street" in Belgrade is named after him, as well as streets in many other Serbian cities. Along this road, numerous state institutions and embassies are located; the street was called "Miloš the Great" until it was renamed with its present name during communist Yugoslavia.
  • "Miloš the Great" Highway, a section of Corridor XI (or A2 motorway; part of the E761 and E763 European routes) from Obrenovac to Preljina, was opened in Serbia on 18 August 2019.[7]

Plaques and memorials[edit]

  • Monument to Miloš Obrenović was the work of the sculptor Đorđe Jovanović. The monument was solemnly unveiled by King Aleksandar Obrenović in the presence of state officials and citizens, 24 June 1898.
  • The "Takovo Uprising" monument representing him was set in front of the building of the Government of Serbia.

Awards and honours[edit]

Marriage and children[edit]

In 1805, Miloš married Ljubica Vukomanović (September 1785 – Vienna, 26 May 1843); the couple had eight children whose names are known. It is speculated that Ljubica had other pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages, stillbirths, or children who died shortly after birth, with some sources giving a number as high as 17 pregnancies.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d А. Ивић. "Родословне таблице: Број 16. и 17. Обреновићи".
  2. ^ Serbia (1877). Зборник закона и уредаба. p. 51.
  3. ^ Milutin D. Nešić (1920). Knez Mihailo. Štamparija braće grujić i prometnog D.D. С државнога балкона у згради Народне Скупштине (Велика пивара) читаше се прокламација народу српском, да је повраћен па престо отац отаџбине Велики Милош. Ко је видео како је та одлука за час угасила оне упаљене ...
  4. ^ Кнез у чају Марсела Пруста („Данас“, 18. октобар 2013)
  5. ^ Породична преписка кнеза Милоша Обреновића (23. фебруар 2016)
  6. ^ Преки књаз меког срца („Политика”, 10. март 2018)
  7. ^ Sve o novom Autoputu Miloš Veliki, by A. Milutinović, Blitz, 18 August 2019.

Sources[edit]

Miloš Obrenović
Born: 18 March [7 March o.s.] 1780 Died: 26 September 1860
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Karađorđe
Grand Vožd of Serbia
1815 – 1817
Title abolished
proclaimed Prince of Serbia
New title Prince of Serbia
1817–1839
Succeeded by
Milan Obrenović II
Preceded by
Aleksandar Karađorđević
Prince of Serbia
1858–1860
Succeeded by
Mihailo Obrenović III