Happy Days Are Here Again
"Happy Days Are Here Again" is a song copyrighted in 1929 by Milton Ager and Jack Yellen and published by EMI Robbins Catalog, Inc./Advanced Music Corp. The song was recorded by Leo Reisman and His Orchestra, with Lou Levin and was featured in the 1930 film Chasing Rainbows; the song concluded the picture, in what film historian Edwin Bradley described as a "pull-out-all-the-stops Technicolor finale, against a Great War Armistice show-within-a-show backdrop". This early example of two-strip Technicolor footage was, along with another Technicolor sequence cut from the 1931 re-edited release of the otherwise black-and-white film, is believed to have been lost in the 1965 MGM vault fire. Today, the song is remembered as the campaign song for Franklin Delano Roosevelt's successful 1932 presidential campaign. According to Time magazine, it gained prominence after a spontaneous decision by Roosevelt's advisers to play it at the 1932 Democratic National Convention, went on to become the Democratic Party's "unofficial theme song for years to come".
The song is associated with the Repeal of Prohibition, which occurred shortly after Roosevelt's election where there were signs saying "Happy days are beer again" and so on. Matthew Greenwald described the song as " true saloon standard, a Tin Pan Alley standard, had been sung by every interpreter since the 1940s. In a way, it's the pop version of "Auld Lang Syne"; the song is number 47 on the Recording Industry Association of America's list of "Songs of the Century". As of 2006, 76 commercially released albums include versions of the song; the song has appeared in over 80 films, including many from the 1930s. Another popular recording of the song was Barbra Streisand's, made 33 years after its first recording. While the song is traditionally sung at a brisk pace, her recording is notable for how and expressively she sings it. On The Garry Moore Show, Streisand sang the song during the "That Wonderful Year" skit representing 1929, she performed it as a millionaire who has just lost all of her money and enters a bar, giving the bartender her expensive jewelry in exchange for drinks.
Streisand first recorded the song in October 1962 at Columbia's NYC studio, some months before her first album sessions. This version and conducted by George Williams became Streisand's first commercial single in November 1962, with "When the Sun Comes Out" as a B-side. Only 500 copies of this single were pressed for the New York market, no copies were sent to radio stations; this 1962 version was re-released as a single in March 1965 as part of the "Hall of Fame" series with the 1962 recording of "My Coloring Book". Streisand re-recorded the song in January 1963 for her solo album debut "The Barbra Streisand Album". Streisand sang this song on The Judy Garland Show, in a medley with Garland's "Get Happy"; this live performance was included on the 2002 Streisand compilation album "Duets". In June 1967, Streisand performed the song for over 135,000 people at Central Park. A recording of this performance was included on the live album "A Happening in Central Park", appeared on the Streisand compilations "Barbra Streisand's Greatest Hits" and "The Essential Barbra Streisand".
Streisand included live versions of the song on the following live albums "Live Concert at the Forum", "One Voice", "Barbra: The Concert" "Timeless: Live in Concert" and "Streisand: Live in Concert 2006". "Happy Days Are Here Again" "Happy Days Are Here Again" "Happy Days Are Here Again" "Sing / Happy Days Are Here Again" - 4:25 "Happy Days Are Here Again" "Happy Days Are Here Again" "Happy Days Are Here Again" "Happy Days Are Here Again" Annette Hanshaw recorded it in 1930. With Ben Selvin and his Orchestra. In 1930, the Comedian Harmonists recorded their popular German adaptation, Wochenend und Sonnenschein. Television and nightclub comedian Rip Taylor has used "Happy Days Are Here Again" for years as his theme song; the song was used as the entrance and closing theme for comedian Mark Russell's PBS specials that aired from 1975–2004 and featured topical political humor. A recording of the song by Mitch Miller and the Gang was used as the theme for the PBS sports history series The Way It Was in the 1970s.
The television show M*A*S*H used an Asian-influenced orchestration of the song on multiple episodes early in the series, in which the female vocalist would sing the verses in Japanese while singing the title in English. The song was used as a jingle in TV commercials for the Volkswagen Rabbit economy family car in 1975. Miss New York 1983 Vanessa L. Williams performed the song during the talent competition of the Miss America 1984 pageant. Williams went on to win both a preliminary talent award and was crowned Miss America 1984. Vicki Lawrence sang the song while portraying Thelma Harper in the Mama's Family episode "Mama for Mayor: Part 1"; the Ovaltineys cover of the song was featured in the 1981 miniseries Goliath Awaits. The Blue Devils Drum and Bugle Corps of Concord, CA used the song to open their 1988 Program and was used again in 2009 as part of their program entitled "1930"; the cast of Amen performed the song, with Jester Hairston and Roz Ryan singing solos as their respective characters, Rolly Forbes and Amelia Heterbrink.
Walter Strony used the song to open his concert at Chicago St
Louisville Lou (That Vampin' Lady)
Louisville Lou is the title of a popular song by American composer Milton Ager with lyrics by Jack Yellen. Written in 1923, it is an example of the Tin Pan Alley "vamp" style of music. Known and listed with ASCAP under the titles of "Stay Away From Louisville Lou" or "Louisville Lou", the song tells in lighthearted fashion the tale of the "scandalous vamp" Louisville Lou, "the most heart-breakin'est, shimmy shakin'est that the world knew." The opening lines stake the author's or singer's claims for Louisville Lou's superiority as a vamp or femme fatale: "History is full of love-makin' champs / But if you want a brand new thrill and meet the vamp of Louisville" while enticing the listener further about Louisville Lou's prowess - "Until you're vamped by this brunette…you ain't had no vampin' yet." After continuing the review of her wiles and the havoc she wreaks upon innocent men, the listener is given a final warning to "stay away from Louisville Lou." The song was recorded no less than eight times in the first year of its release by artists including The Original Indiana Five on April 1 in Long Island City, New York for Olympic Records.
The recording by Arthur Gibbs and His Gang took the song to top ten status on the pop charts. Other notable recordings by Pee Wee Hunt, Sophie Tucker, Johnny Mercer on the Capitol Records label, Ted Heath, Peggy Lee have kept the song in the public consciousness. Peggy Lee became associated with the song through her single, recorded in New York for Capitol Records in 1952, released again in 1960 on her album All Aglow Again!. Lee continued to sing the song in her live appearances over the years and included it in her 1983 Broadway show Peg: A Musical Autobiography. Judith Durham recorded the song on her album, Judith Durham and The Hottest Band in Town Volume 2. Cabaret artists Julie Wilson and Joyce Moody have included the song in their nightclub acts and have made memorable recordings of it: Wilson in 1995 in Julie Wilson and Moody in 2007 in her tribute to Milton Ager, Vampin' Lady, which takes its name from the song
Sophie Tucker was a Ukrainian-born American singer, comedian and radio personality. Known for her powerful delivery of comical and risqué songs, she was one of the most popular entertainers in America during the first half of the 20th century, she was known by the nickname "The Last of the Red Hot Mamas". Tucker was born Sofya Kalish in 1886 to a Jewish family in Tulchyn, Podolia Governorate, Russian Empire, now Vinnytsia Oblast, Ukraine, they arrived in Boston on September 26, 1887. The family adopted the surname Abuza before immigrating, her father fearing repercussions for having deserted the Russian military; the family lived in Boston's North End for eight years before settling in Hartford and opening a restaurant. At a young age, she began singing at her parents' restaurant for tips. Between taking orders and serving customers, she "would stand up in the narrow space by the door and sing with all the drama I could put into it. At the end of the last chorus, between me and the onions there wasn't a dry eye in the place."In 1903, around the age of 17, Tucker eloped with Louis Tuck, a beer cart driver, from whom she would derive her professional surname.
When she returned home, her parents arranged an Orthodox wedding for the couple. In 1905, she gave birth to a son, Albert. However, shortly after Albert was born, the couple separated and Tucker left the baby with her family to move to New York. After she left her husband, Willie Howard gave Tucker a letter of recommendation to Harold Von Tilzer, a composer and theatrical producer in New York; when it failed to bring her work, Tucker found jobs in cafés and beer gardens, singing for food and tips from the customers. She sent most of what she made back home to Connecticut to support her family. In 1907, Tucker made her first theater appearance, singing at an amateur night in a vaudeville establishment, it was here that she was first made to wear blackface during performance, as her producers thought that the crowd would tease her for being "so big and ugly." By 1908, she had joined a burlesque show in Pittsburgh but was ashamed to tell her family that she was performing in a deep southern accent wearing burnt cork on her face.
While touring that year, luggage including her makeup kit was lost, Tucker was allowed to go on stage without the blackface. She stunned the crowd by saying, "You all can see I'm a white girl. Well, I'll tell you something more: I'm not Southern. I'm a Jewish girl and I just learned this Southern accent doing a blackface act for two years, and now, Mr. Leader, please play my song." Tucker began integrating "fat girl" humor, which became a common thread in her acts. Her songs included "I Don't Want to Get Thin" and "Nobody Loves a Fat Girl, But Oh How a Fat Girl Can Love."In 1909, Tucker performed with the Ziegfeld Follies. Though she was a hit, the other female stars refused to share the spotlight with her, the company was forced to let her go; this caught the attention of William Morris, a theater owner and future founder of the William Morris Agency, which would become one of the largest and most powerful talent agencies of the era. Two years Tucker released "Some of These Days" on Edison Records, written by Shelton Brooks.
The title of the song was used as the title of Tucker's 1945 biography. In 1921, Tucker hired pianist and songwriter Ted Shapiro as her accompanist and musical director, a position he would keep throughout her career. Besides writing a number of songs for her, Shapiro became part of her stage act, playing piano on stage while she sang, exchanging banter and wisecracks with her in between numbers. Tucker remained a popular singer through the 1920s and became friends with stars such as Mamie Smith and Ethel Waters, who introduced her to jazz. Tucker learned from these talented women and became one of the first performers to introduce jazz to white vaudeville audiences. In 1925, Jack Yellen wrote one of her most famous songs, "My Yiddishe Momme"; the song was performed in large American cities. Tucker explained, "Even though I loved the song and it was a sensational hit every time I sang it, I was always careful to use it only when I knew the majority of the house would understand Yiddish. However, you didn't have to be a Jew to be moved by My Yiddishe Momme."
During the Hitler regime, the song was banned by the German government for evoking Jewish culture. By the 1920s, Tucker's success had spread to Europe, she began a tour of England, performing for King George V and Queen Mary at the London Palladium in 1926. Tucker re-released her hit song "Some of These Days", backed by Ted Lewis and his band, which stayed at the number 1 position of the charts for five weeks beginning November 23, 1926, it sold over one million copies and was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA. Tucker was affected by the decline of vaudeville. Speaking about performing in the final show at E. F. Albee's Palace in New York City, she remarked, "Everyone knew the theater was to be closed down, a landmark in show business would be gone; that feeling got into the acts. The whole place the performers, stank of decay. I seemed to smell it, it challenged me. I was determined to give the audience the idea: why brood over yesterday? We have tomorrow; as I sang I could feel the atmosphere change.
The gloom began to lift, the spirit which filled the Palace and which made it famous among vaudeville houses the world over came back. That's what an entertainer can do."In 1929, she made her first movie appearance, in the sound picture Honky Tonk. During the 1930s, Tucker brought elements of nostalgia for the early years of 20th century into her
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that doesn't allow variation in volume. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had smaller dynamic range.
An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings; the hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air; when the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard; this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano.
The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.
With technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music and rock music; the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dul
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, love, anger – are communicated through the words, music and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have been called musicals. Although music has been a part of dramatic presentations since ancient times, modern Western musical theatre emerged during the 19th century, with many structural elements established by the works of Gilbert and Sullivan in Britain and those of Harrigan and Hart in America; these were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the musical theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan at the turn of the 20th century.
The Princess Theatre musicals and other smart shows like Of Thee I Sing were artistic steps forward beyond revues and other frothy entertainments of the early 20th century and led to such groundbreaking works as Show Boat and Oklahoma!. Some of the most famous musicals through the decades that followed include West Side Story, The Fantasticks, Hair, A Chorus Line, Les Misérables, The Phantom of the Opera, The Producers and Hamilton. Musicals are performed around the world, they may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller venues, such as fringe theatre, Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, regional theatre, or community theatre productions, or on tour. Musicals are presented by amateur and school groups in churches and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Australasia and Latin America.
Since the 20th century, the "book musical" has been defined as a musical play where songs and dances are integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals, able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter. The three main components of a book musical are its music and book; the book or script of a musical refers to the story, character development and dramatic structure, including the spoken dialogue and stage directions, but it can refer to the dialogue and lyrics together, which are sometimes referred to as the libretto. The music and lyrics together form the score of a musical and include songs, incidental music and musical scenes, which are "theatrical sequence set to music combining song with spoken dialogue." The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its creative team, which includes a director, a musical director a choreographer and sometimes an orchestrator. A musical's production is creatively characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, stage properties and sound.
The creative team and interpretations change from the original production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, may be retained from the original production. There is no fixed length for a musical. While it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length, most musicals range from one and a half to three hours. Musicals are presented in two acts, with one short intermission, the first act is longer than the second; the first act introduces nearly all of the characters and most of the music and ends with the introduction of a dramatic conflict or plot complication while the second act may introduce a few new songs but contains reprises of important musical themes and resolves the conflict or complication. A book musical is built around four to six main theme tunes that are reprised in the show, although it sometimes consists of a series of songs not directly musically related. Spoken dialogue is interspersed between musical numbers, although "sung dialogue" or recitative may be used in so-called "sung-through" musicals such as Jesus Christ Superstar, Les Misérables and Hamilton.
Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades. Moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are performed in song. Proverbially, "when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing. In a book musical, a song is ideally crafted to suit the character and their situation within the story; as The New York Times critic Ben Brantley described the ideal of song in theatre when reviewing the 2008 revival of Gypsy: "There is no separation at all between song and character, what happens in those uncommon moments when musicals reach upward to achieve their ideal reasons to be." Many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is less time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length, since a musical devotes more time to music than to dialogue. Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the plot; the ma