An arterial road or arterial thoroughfare is a high-capacity urban road. The primary function of an arterial road is to deliver traffic from collector roads to freeways or expressways, between urban centres at the highest level of service possible; as such, many arteries are feature restrictions on private access. Though the design of arterial roads varies from country to country, city to city, within cities, they share a number of common design characteristics. For example, in many cities, arteries are arranged in a grid. Many jurisdictions classify arterial roads as either principal or minor. In traffic engineering hierarchy, an arterial road delivers traffic between collector roads and freeways. For new arterial roads, intersections are reduced to increase traffic flow. In California, arterial roads are spaced every half mile, have intersecting collector and streets; some arterial roads, characterized by a small fraction of intersections and driveways compared to most arterial roads, are considered to be expressways in some countries and some states of the United States.
The Traffic Engineering Handbook describes "Arterials" as being either principal or minor. Both classes serve to carry longer-distance flows between important centers of activity. Arterials are laid out as the backbone of a traffic network and should be designed to afford the highest level of service, as is practical, as per the aforementioned "Traffic Engineering Handbook"; the construction and development of arterial roads is achieved through two methods. By far the most common is the upgrading of an existing right-of-way during subdivision development; when existing structures prohibit the widening of an existing road however, bypasses are constructed. Because of the placement and general continuity of arterial road corridors, water mains and other infrastructure are placed beneath or beside the roadbed. In North America, traffic signals are used at most intersections. In Europe, large roundabouts are more seen at the busier junctions. Speed limits are between 30 and 50 mph, depending on the density of use of the surrounding development.
In school zones, speeds may be further reduced. The width of arterial roads can range from four lanes to ten or more; some are divided at the center, while others share a common center lane, such as a contraflow lane or central turning lane. As with other roadway environmental consequences derive from arterial roadways, including air pollution generation, noise pollution and surface runoff of water pollutants. Air pollution generation from arterials can be rather concentrated, since traffic volumes can be high, traffic operating speeds are low to moderate. Sound levels can be considerable due to moderately high traffic volumes characteristic of arterials, due to considerable braking and acceleration that occur on arterials that are signalized. Grid plan The dictionary definition of arterial road at Wiktionary
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places, paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, bicycle, or horse. Roads consist of one or two roadways, each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks and road verges. There is sometimes a bike path. Other names for roads include parkways, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary and tertiary local roads. Many roads were recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a road as "a line of communication using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles running on their own wheels", which includes "bridges, supporting structures, crossings and toll roads, but not cycle paths". The Eurostat, ITF and UNECE Glossary for Transport Statistics Illustrated defines a road as a "Line of communication open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles, using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips.
Included are paved other roads with a stabilized base, e.g. gravel roads. Roads cover streets, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions and interchanges. Toll roads are included. Excluded are dedicated cycle lanes."The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic defines a road as the entire surface of any way or street open to public traffic. In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route. Modern roads are smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel. In the United Kingdom The Highway Code details rules for "road users", but there is some ambiguity between the terms highway and road. For the purposes of the English law, Highways Act 1980, which covers England and Wales but not Scotland or Northern Ireland, road is "any length of highway or of any other road to which the public has access, includes bridges over which a road passes"; this includes footpaths and cycle tracks, road and driveways on private land and many car parks.
Vehicle Excise Duty, a road use tax, is payable on some vehicles used on the public road. The definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway. A 1984 ruling said. Another legal view is that while a highway included footpaths, driftways, etc. it can now be used to mean those ways that allow the movement of motor-vehicles, the term rights of way can be used to cover the wider usage. In the United States, laws distinguish between public roads, which are open to public use, private roads, which are controlled. Maintenance is becoming an increasing problem in the United States. Between 1997 and 2018, the number of existing roads too bumpy to drive on compared to roads with decent surfaces has increased by 11% due to potholes that are not being properly addressed; the assertion that the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted. Some believe; the Icknield Way may examplify this type of road origination, where human and animal both selected the same natural line.
By about 10,000 BC human travelers used rough roads/pathways. The world's oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. Stone- paved streets appear in the city of Ur in the Middle East dating back to 4000 BC. Corduroy roads are found dating to 4000 BC in England; the Sweet Track, a timber track causeway in England, is one of the oldest engineered roads discovered and the oldest timber trackway discovered in Northern Europe. Built in winter 3807 BC or spring 3806 BC, it was claimed to be the oldest road in the world until the 2009 discovery of a 6,000-year-old trackway in Plumstead, London. Brick-paved streets appeared in India as early as 3000 BC. c. 1995 BC: an early subdividing of roadways evidenced with sidewalks built in Anatolia. In 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for the Achaemenid Empire, including the Royal Road, one of the finest highways of its time, connecting Sardis to Susa; the road remained in use after Roman times.
These road systems reached as far east as India. In ancient times, transport by river was far easier and faster than transport by road considering the cost of road construction and the difference in carrying capacity between carts and river barges. A hybrid of road transport and ship transport beginning in about 1740 is the horse-drawn boat in which the horse follows a cleared path along the river bank. From about 312 BC, the Roman Empire built straight strong stone Roman roads throughout Europe and North Africa, in support of its military campaigns. At its peak the Roman Empire was connected by 29 major roads moving out from Rome and covering 78,000 kilometers or 52,964 Roman miles of paved roads. In the 8th century AD, many roads were built throughout the Arab Empire; the most sophisticated roads were those in Baghdad, which were paved wit
Western Freeway, Brisbane
The Western Freeway is a 5-kilometre-long freeway in western Brisbane that runs from Milton Road in Toowong to the western side of Indooroopilly where the freeway becomes the M5 Centenary Motorway. The freeway bears the symbol and forms part of Metroad 5. There is one interchange, at Indooroopilly onto Moggill Road. A bicycle path runs the length of the freeway, allowing commuting to Toowong and onto Brisbane by bicycle. Options are being investigated in to a possible Kenmore Bypass; this would connect with the M5 along the existing preserved corridor to Queensland. This preserved; the Western Freeway was constructed in two stages. The first stretched from Milton Road at Toowong south to Taringa Parade at Taringa, was opened to traffic on 31 August 1970. Construction of the second stage commenced in 1975 and was opened on 24 May 1979. Construction began on a direct link to the Centenary Highway, this extension was opened to traffic on 19 December 1984. Work began in 1985 on the duplication of the freeway as part of the larger Mount Cootha Road to Calmont Street project, which involved the duplication of Centenary Bridge.
The works were completed and commissioned by Russ Hinze on 27 March 1987. Work begun in April 2011 on the Legacy Way, a tunnel which will link up the Toowong end of the Western Freeway with the Inner City Bypass at Kelvin Grove. Completion expected by 2015, the tunnel hopes to reduce travel time between the Centenary Bridge and the Inner City Bypass by 70%. In February 2014, work began on widening of Western Freeway; the existing four lanes of freeway between western approach ramp of Legacy Way and Moggill Road interchange were upgraded to six lanes. The upgrade was intended to improve traffic flow on the freeway between Moggill Road and Legacy Way tunnel; the entire freeway is in the City of Brisbane local government area. Freeways in Australia Freeways in Brisbane
The Bruce Highway is a major highway in Queensland, Australia. Commencing in the state capital, Brisbane, it passes through areas close to the eastern coast on its way to Cairns in Far North Queensland; the route is part of the Australian National Highway and part of Highway 1. Its length is 1,679 kilometres; the highway is named after Harry Bruce. Bruce was the state Minister for Works when the highway was named after him, in the mid-1930s, was considered to be a good bloke; the highway once passed through Brisbane, but was truncated at Bald Hills when the Gateway Motorway became National Highway 1 upon its opening in December 1986. The highway is the biggest traffic carrier in Queensland, it joined all the major coastal centres. As a result, the highway is being shortened; the road is a dual carriageway from Brisbane to Cooroy with some dual carriageway lengths at Gympie, many of these upgrades being completed in the 1980s and 1990s. The highway commences just south of the bridge over the Pine River at the Gateway Motorway interchange, 21 kilometres north of the Brisbane central business district.
The highway has changed its route numbering from National Highway 1 to the M1 or A1. Major cities along the route include Maryborough, Mackay and Cairns; the highway passes the Glasshouse Mountains and pastures in the Sunshine Coast, the Gunalda Range, Mount Larcom, the arid countryside north of Rockhampton. Commencing in Bald Hills at the junction of the Gateway Motorway and Gympie Arterial Road, the Bruce Highway is a motorway standard road for its first 136 kilometres to Kybong, where it becomes a two-lane sealed highway for most of its remainder; the first 2.5 kilometres to the Dohles Rocks Road interchange has eight lanes and a variable speed limit of up to 100 kilometres per hour. The next 22 kilometres to the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange has six lanes and a maximum speed limit of 100 kilometres per hour. From there to Kybong the road has four lanes and, with one short exception, a speed limit of 110 kilometres per hour; this section of the Bruce Highway crosses the Pine River into the Moreton Bay Region, passing through urban areas before crossing the Caboolture River and reaching the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange after 24.5 kilometres.
It runs past or through Murrumba Downs, Kallangur, Mango Hill, North Lakes, Narangba and Morayfield. On the way it is crossed by the Redcliffe Peninsula railway line and passes the Caboolture BP Travel Centre; the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange provides access to the D'Aguilar Highway via a service road. After the D'Aguilar Highway interchange the Bruce passes through rural areas and the Beerburrum and Beerwah State Forests, entering the Sunshine Coast Region before reaching the Caloundra Road interchange after a further 36.1 kilometres. It passes the southern entry to Steve Irwin Way, a bypassed section of the highway, which provides access to Beerburrum, Glass House Mountains, Australia Zoo and Landsborough before terminating at the Caloundra Road interchange; the next 5.6 kilometres to the Sunshine Motorway interchange, providing access to the Sunshine Coast, has a speed limit of 100. The speed limit reverts to 110. After another 7.5 kilometres the Maroochydore Road interchange provides access to Maroochydore and Woombye.
The Bli Bli Road interchange, after a further 7 kilometres, provides access to Bli Nambour. The Yandina -- Coolum Road interchange, after 6.7 kilometres, provides access to Coolum. The Eumundi interchange, after 8.4 kilometres, provides access to Noosa. The Cooroy interchange, after 7.2 kilometres, provides access to Cooroy and Noosa. Total distance from Caloundra Road to this interchange is 42.4 kilometres. The 33 kilometres to the end of the M1 at Kybong includes three interchanges that provide access to the Old Bruce Highway. From Kybong the highway is designated A1, it has numerous parts with lower speed limits, including urban areas, high crash zones and roadwork sites. After 8 kilometres from Kybong the Mary Valley Road interchange provides access to the west of the Mary River; the highway passes through the Gympie urban fringe, with several at grade intersections providing access to various parts of the city. North of Gympie, 14.3 kilometres from the Mary Valley Road interchange, the Wide Bay Highway interchange is reached, providing access to Kilkivan.
Total distance from the Cooroy interchange is 55.4 kilometres. The 73.9 kilometres from the Wide Bay Highway interchange to the Maryborough–Biggenden Road interchange at Maryborough passes through Tiaro and the Gympie Road exit to Maryborough before crossing the Mary River. With the completion of Section C of the Bruce Highway - Cooroy to Curra upgrade project in February 2018 the M1 has now been extended to Kybong, 10 kilometres south of Gympie; the Bruce Highway from Kybong to Gympie remains signed as A1. Section D of the project (Wo
Milton railway station, Brisbane
Milton railway station is located on the Main line in Queensland, Australia. It serves the Brisbane suburb of Milton; the station includes a walkbridge to Lang Park and is immediately adjacent the Castlemaine Perkins brewery. Milton station opened in 1884; the station was rebuilt in 1960 as part of the quadruplication of the line. In June 2010, the Queensland Government approved mixed-use development at Milton station, which will see the station covered with office and apartment buildings. Milton station will get a new ticketing office, updated public amenities, increased visibility across platforms and new access points off Milton Road and Railway Terrace; the new apartments are called The Milton Residences & will be a part of Queensland's first transit oriented development. Work commenced in October 2014. Milton station is served by Springfield line services. Media related to Milton railway station at Wikimedia Commons Milton station Queensland Rail Milton station Queensland's Railways on the Internet
City of Brisbane
The City of Brisbane is a local government area that has jurisdiction over the inner portion of the metropolitan area of Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, Australia. Brisbane is located in the county of Stanley and is the largest city followed by Ipswich with bounds in part of the county. Unlike LGAs in the other mainland state capitals, which are responsible only for the central business districts and inner neighbourhoods of those cities, the City of Brisbane administers a significant portion of the Brisbane metropolitan area, serving half of the population of the Brisbane Greater Capital City Statistical Area; as such, it has a larger population than any other local government area in Australia. The City of Brisbane was the first Australian LGA to reach a population of more than one million, its population is equivalent to the populations of Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory combined. In 2016–2017, the council administers a budget of over $3 billion, by far the largest budget of any LGA in Australia.
The City derives from cities and shires that merged in 1925. The main offices and Central Library of the Council are at 266 George Street known as Brisbane Square. Brisbane City Hall houses the Council Chamber, the offices of the Lord Mayor and Deputy Mayor and reception rooms and the Museum of Brisbane; as of the election on 19 March 2016, the twenty-six wards, their councillors and their party affiliations were: The City of Brisbane includes the following settlements: Total: 19 Total: 48 Total: 54 Total: 28 Total: 43 Total: 4 The Government of Queensland created the City of Brisbane with a view to uniting the Brisbane metropolitan area under a single planning and governance structure. The City of Brisbane Act 1924 received assent from the Governor on 30 October 1924. On 1 October 1925, 20 local government areas of various sizes were abolished and merged into the new city, namely: Cities: Brisbane South Brisbane Towns: Hamilton Ithaca Sandgate Toowong Windsor Wynnum Shires: Balmoral Belmont Coorparoo Enoggera Kedron Moggill Sherwood Stephens Taringa Tingalpa Toombul YeerongpillyThe Council assumed responsibility for several quasi-autonomous government authorities, such as the Brisbane Tramways Trust.
The Brisbane City Council maintains the Brisbane Local Heritage Register, a list of nominated sites that satisfy the Council's heritage criteria. The City of Brisbane is governed by the Brisbane City Council, the largest local council in Australia; the Brisbane City Council has its power divided between a Lord Mayor, a parliamentary-style council of twenty-six councillors representing single-member wards of 23,000 voters, a Civic Cabinet comprising the Lord Mayor, the Deputy Mayor and the chairpersons of the seven standing committees drawn from the membership of Council. Due to the City of Brisbane's status as the country's largest LGA, the Lord Mayor is elected by the largest single-member electorate in Australia. Like all mayors in Queensland, he has broad executive power; the seven standing committees of Council are: City Planning Committee Environment and Sustainability Committee Establishment and Coordination Committee Field Services Committee Finance and Economic Development Committee Infrastructure Committee Lifestyle and Community Services Committee Public and Active Transport CommitteeFollowing local government elections on 28 April 2012, the Lord Mayor and 18 councillors are members of the Liberal National Party while 7 are from the Labor Party with 1 independent.
Graham Quirk of the LNP, was elected Lord Mayor in his own right on 28 April 2012 after having been appointed to the Lord Mayoralty in April 2011 when Campbell Newman resigned to make an successful bid to become Premier of Queensland. His Deputy Mayor was Adrian Schrinner of the LNP; the day-to-day management of Council's operations is the responsibility of the chief executive officer, Colin Jensen. Elections are held every four years with ballots for the Lord Mayoralty and the individual councillors being held simultaneously. Voting is compulsory for all eligible electors; the election in March 2004 resulted in the unusual situation of Liberal Lord Mayor Campbell Newman co-existing with a Labor majority on Council and a Labor Deputy Mayor, though this resulted in remarkably few conflicts over civic budgets and Council policy. The LNP gained a 5.5% swing on the councillor votes in the March 2008 election, resulting in the Liberals taking control of the council as well. Graham Quirk won re-election as Lord Mayor in 2012 with 61.94% of the vote and the LNP gained an additional 3 wards.
The last election was held on 19 March 2016. Lord Mayor Graham Quirk defeated Labor's candidate Rod Harding. Following Quirk's resignation in March 2019, Adrian Schrinner was selected as Lord Mayor; the Brisbane City Council is incorporated under the City of Brisbane Act 1924, while other local governments in Queensland are governed by the Local Government Act 1993. Council meetings are held at Level 2, City Hall, 64 Adelaide Street, Brisbane City every Tuesday at 2pm except during recess and holiday periods; this temporary venue is in use due to the restoration work being performed on the traditional venue Brisbane City Hall. Meetings are open to the public. Brisbane City Council aims to be carbon neutral by 2026 via the reduction of emissions and carbon offsetting; the motto of the City of Brisbane is Meliora sequimur, Latin. The
Ipswich and Rosewood railway line
The Ipswich and Rosewood line refers to the section of the Main Line to Toowoomba that has a regular suburban rail service, extending southwest from the Brisbane central business district. It is part of the Queensland Rail City network; the Main Line railway from Ipswich to Brisbane was opened in 1876, as part of an extension of the first railway line from Ipswich to Bigge's Camp on 31 July 1865. Built as single track, the section was duplicated from 1885–87, indicating how the traffic volume grew on the line; the Albert Bridge was built to accommodate two tracks in 1876. The line west of Ipswich was duplicated to Wulkuraka in 1902 and to Grandchester in 1913; the section from Roma Street to Corinda was quadruplicated in 1963, extended to Darra in 2011, which became the junction for the first section of the new Springfield line at that time. The Roma Street–Darra section was the first section electrified in 1979, with the section to Ipswich electrified in 1980; the line was electrified from Ipswich to Rosewood in 1993 while Minister for Transport was the local member.
The Brisbane Valley railway line, branching from the Main Line after Wulkuraka railway station, was opened to Lowood in 1884, Esk in 1886, Yarraman in 1913. Passenger services operated to Toogoolawah until 1989, freight services until closure of the line in sections in 1988 and 1993. A line to Marburg opened in 1912, branching from the Main Line 380 m east of Rosewood railway station, it was closed in sections from 1964 to 1995, some of it is today the Rosewood Railway Museum. A line to a coal loading balloon loop at Ebenezer was opened in 1990, junctioning from the Main Line west of Thagoona railway station; the initial section of the Springfield railway line from Darra to Richlands was opened one week early in January 2011 to assist with transportation when the Main Line between Darra and Ipswich was closed due to severe flooding. The Richlands–Springfield section opened in 2013. A new branch line has been proposed on an alignment extending south from Ipswich to Yamanto east to Ripley, connecting with the Springfield line.
Most services stop at all stations to Bowen Hills railway station. The typical travel time between Ipswich and Brisbane City is 58 minutes. Rosewood services act as a shuttle between Rosewood and Ipswich stations, with selected peak direction services continuing through Ipswich; the typical travel time between Rosewood and Ipswich is 18 minutes. During weekday peak times, a number of the Ipswich services skip stations between Darra and Milton, stopping only at Indooroopilly for faster travel times for commuters working in the Brisbane central business district. Passengers for/from the Rosewood line change at Ipswich, Gold Coast and Cleveland lines at Roma Street, all other lines at Bowen Hills; the Corinda–Yeerongpilly railway line known as the Tennyson line, connects the Beenleigh and Ipswich lines for coal and intermodal freight services to the Port of Brisbane and Acacia Ridge intermodal terminal. It was the only connection between the northern and southern portions of the Brisbane suburban network until the Merivale Bridge opened in 1978.
Commuter services were suspended in 2011 due to low patronage. TransLink - About trains Translink railway network map