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Milwaukee County, Wisconsin

Milwaukee County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 947,735 and was estimated to be 948,201 in 2018, it is the most populous county in Wisconsin and the 45th most populous in the United States. Its county seat is Milwaukee, the most populous city in the state; the county was organized the following year. Milwaukee County is the most populous county of the Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, as well as of the Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI Combined Statistical Area. There are 19 cities in Milwaukee County, the largest being Milwaukee, West Allis, Oak Creek, Greenfield in that order. Milwaukee County is the most densely populated county in Wisconsin, ranks in the top 50 most populated counties in the United States; the county is home to two major-league professional sports teams, the world's largest music festival. Portions of what is now Milwaukee County are known to have been inhabited by a number of Native American tribes, including the Sauk, Meskwaki or "Fox", Menomonee and Potawotami, with elements of other tribes attested as well.

In 1818, when the land to be Wisconsin was made part of Michigan Territory, territorial governor Lewis Cass created Brown County, which at that time included all the land now part of Milwaukee County. It remained a part of Brown county until 1834, when Milwaukee County was created, including the area south of the line between townships eleven and twelve north, west of Lake Michigan, north of Illinois, east of the line which now separates Green and Rock counties; this territory encompassed all of what are now Milwaukee, Kenosha, Racine, Walworth and Waukesha counties, as well as large parts of the present-day Columbia and Dodge counties. Milwaukee County remained attached to Brown County for judicial purposes until Aug. 25, 1835, when an act was passed by the Michigan territorial legislature giving it an independent organization. In 1836, the legislature divided the area south and east of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers into counties, as a consequence reducing Milwaukee County's extent to what is now Milwaukee and Waukesha counties.

In 1846 Waukesha County was created by taking from Milwaukee all of the territory west of range 21, reducing Milwaukee County to its present boundaries. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,189 square miles, of which 241 square miles is land and 948 square miles is water, it is the third-smallest county in Wisconsin by land area. It is watered by the Milwaukee, Menomonee and Root Rivers; the surface is undulating, the soil calcareous and fertile. Ozaukee County - north Racine County - south Waukesha County - west Washington County - northwest Lake Michigan - east In 2017, there were 13,431 births, giving a general fertility rate of 63.8 births per 1000 women aged 15–44, above the Wisconsin average of 60.1. Additionally, there were 2,347 reported induced abortions performed on women of Milwaukee County residence, with a rate of 11.1 abortions per 1000 women aged 15–44, above the Wisconsin average rate of 5.2. As of the 2010 census, there were 947,735 people, 383,591 households, 221,019 families residing in the county.

The population density was 3,932 people per square mile. There were 418,053 housing units at an average density of 1,734 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 60.6% White, 26.8% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 3.4% Asian, 0.003% Pacific Islander, 5.4% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. 13.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 383,591 households, of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.1% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.4% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the age distribution was spread out, with 24.9% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.6 years.

For every 100 females there were 93.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. As of the 2000 census, there were 940,164 people, 377,729 households and 225,126 families resided in the county; the population density was 3,931 people per square mile. There were 400,093 housing units at an average density of 1,656 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 65.6% White, 24.6% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.2% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. 8.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.0 % were of 10.9 % Polish and 5.3 % Irish ancestry. There were 377,729 households, of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.0% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.4% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.13.

In the county, the age distribution was spread out, with 26.4% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 10

Obchodní centrum Letňany

Obchodní centrum Letňany known as OC Letňany is a shopping mall located in the Letňany district of Prague, Czech Republic. With 130 shops and an area of 125,000 square metres, it is the largest shopping centre in the Czech Republic; the complex was described by The Prague Post in 2001 as "one of the best malls in the city". According to OC Letňany's marketing manager, over 10 million customers visited the shopping centre in 2008. OC Letňany became the largest shopping centre in the Czech Republic in 2006, when its third phase of construction increased its area from 65,000 square metres to 125,000 square metres. One of the principal stores at OC Letňany is Tesco, which opened on the site in 1999; the store was remodelled in 2014, with its floor space decreasing from 11,000 to 8,000 square metres, owing to a new division between clothing and other products. A Cinema City multiplex cinema, a babysitting service, two indoor ice rinks, open throughout the year, are located within the mall. Letnany's food court features a wide variety of international options including Thai, Middle Eastern, Indian and Czech cuisine.

In 2011, plans were announced for a McDonald's as well as a car dealership to be added to the mall's facilities. The centre is served by a free bus service from the Letňany metro station on Prague Metro's Line C. Prior to the line C extension in 2008, the centre was served with regular buses from the Nádraží Holešovice metro station. Bus stop Tupolevova is located in close proximity to the mall, with local bus services. List of shopping malls in the Czech Republic Official website

Night of the Long Knives (1962)

In British politics, the "Night of the Long Knives" was a major Cabinet reshuffle that took place on 13 July 1962. Prime Minister Harold Macmillan dismissed seven members of his Cabinet, one-third of the total; the speed and scale of the reshuffle caused it to be associated by its critics with the 1934 Night of the Long Knives in Nazi Germany. The reshuffle took place against a backdrop of declining Conservative popularity in Britain. Conservative candidates fared poorly in several by-elections. Concerned that traditional Conservative voters were expressing their disapproval with the government's economic policies by switching to the Liberals, Harold Macmillan planned to replace his Chancellor of the Exchequer, Selwyn Lloyd, with Reginald Maudling. Lloyd had clashed with Macmillan over his economic strategies, Maudling was considered to be more amenable to the economic policies Macmillan wished to implement; the reshuffle was an attempt to reinvigorate the party, bringing in younger and more dynamic figures and replacing some of the older and less capable ministers.

After discussions with Conservative Party chairman Iain Macleod and Home Secretary Rab Butler, a reshuffle was planned for Autumn 1962. Macmillan was overtaken by events when Butler leaked the details of the reshuffle to press baron Lord Rothermere over lunch on 11 July; the newspapers reported the impending changes on 12 July, Macmillan made the decision to press ahead with the reshuffle at once. Lloyd was dismissed; the remaining six were informed 13 July. Macmillan faced sharp criticism over the scale of the changes, his political opponents both within the Conservative Party and in the Opposition characterised him as ruthless and opportunistic. Despite an initial sharp drop in his approval ratings, opinion swung back in his favour and the Party recovered. Macmillan regretted the way the reshuffle was carried out, was concerned about his treatment of Lloyd, a loyal confidant. Despite the dramatic changes in the Cabinet, the Conservatives were rocked by a series of scandals in 1963 and Macmillan retired in October of that year after being misdiagnosed with cancer.

He was replaced as Prime Minister by Sir Alec Douglas-Home, defeated in the 1964 general election. The Conservatives won a convincing majority at the 1959 general election, increasing their lead over their nearest rivals, Labour; the Labour party were further weakened by internal disputes, but the Conservatives' economic policies unveiled in the 1960 Budget proved damaging. The tax cuts of 1959 were reversed, decreasing the government's popularity while the Liberals began a revival; the Conservatives were forced into third place in several by-elections, culminating in the loss of the safe seat of Orpington in a March 1962 by-election victory for the Liberal candidate, Eric Lubbock. The by-election result, announced on 14 March, came one day after the Blackpool North by-election, another former Conservative safe seat; the Conservatives were struggling with deep unpopularity over their economic policies. A pay-pause and rising prices, together with discontent at high taxation, demonstrably inequitable, drove voters to protest against government policies by switching their votes to the Liberals, or by abstaining from voting Conservative.

Macmillan saw in the by-election results evidence that former Conservative voters would abandon their candidates in support of the Liberals, who were well placed in Conservative safe seats. In instances where the Liberals had no candidate standing, such as the Labour safe seat of Pontefract, the Conservatives maintained their share of the vote; when a Liberal candidate was fielded, such as at the Stockton-on-Tees by-election in April, in a seat Macmillan himself held, the Conservatives saw large numbers of voters desert them for the Liberals. By-elections confirmed the trend. By July the Chairman of the Conservative Party Iain Macleod warned that a government reshuffle was necessary to revitalise flagging support, a view confirmed by Martin Redmayne, the Conservative Chief Whip. Macmillan met with Rab Butler on 21 June. With Conservative unpopularity stemming from economic issues, they discussed replacing Selwyn Lloyd as Chancellor of the Exchequer with Reginald Maudling. Lloyd and Macmillan had clashed over economic policy: Lloyd was opposed to an incomes policy and reflation, his austerity measures were causing discontent.

The Cabinet was relatively elderly, with younger political leaders on the scene, like American President John F. Kennedy, at a time of dramatic social changes, Macmillan resolved to bring some younger men into important posts; the seven ministers earmarked for replacement averaged 59 years of age. The incoming seven would have an average age of 50. Butler was in favour of the move, together with Macleod, they worked out an orderly reshuffle of several Cabinet posts, including the Chancellor of the Exchequer. In all, seven ministers were to be replaced, amounting to one third of the total Cabinet of twenty-one. Macmillan intended to carry out the reshuffle in autumn 1962 after parliament returned from its summer recess. Events overtook him when, on 11 July, Butler lunched with Lord Rothermere, proprietor of several newspapers, including the Daily Mail. Butler let slip the details of the impending reshuffle, the following day the Daily Mail broke the plans to the public with the headline "Mac's Master Plan".

A horrified Macmillan, suspecting that the plans were delib

Titus Salt

Sir Titus Salt, 1st Baronet, born in Morley, near Leeds, was a manufacturer and philanthropist in Bradford, West Riding of Yorkshire, England. He is best known for having built Salt's Mill, a large textile mill, together with the attached village of Saltaire. Salt's father Daniel was a drysalter, a farmer, sent Titus to a school in Batley, identified in some sources as Batley Grammar School, to another near Wakefield, named in some sources as Heath School, his mother Grace was the daughter of Isaac Smithies, of The Manor House, Morley. The Salt family lived at Manor Farm in Crofton, near Wakefield between 1813 and 1819. After working for two years as a wool-stapler in Wakefield he became his father's partner in the business of Daniel Salt and Son; the company used Russian Donskoi wool, used in the woollens trade, but not in worsted cloth. Titus visited the spinners in Bradford trying to interest them in using the wool for worsted manufacture, with no success, so he set up as a spinner and manufacturer.

In 1836, Salt came upon some bales of Alpaca wool in a warehouse in Liverpool and, after taking some samples away to experiment, came back and bought the consignment. Though he was not the first in England to work with the fibre, he was the creator of the lustrous and subsequently fashionable cloth called'alpaca'.. In 1833 he took over his father's business and within twenty years had expanded it to be the largest employer in Bradford. In 1848 Titus Salt became mayor of Bradford. Smoke and pollution emanated from mills and factory chimneys and Salt tried unsuccessfully to clean up the pollution using a device called the Rodda Smoke Burner. In 1848, by now the senior Alderman of Bradford, Salt became Liberal MP, although he lost the seat two years later. Around 1850, he decided to build a mill large enough to consolidate his textile manufacture in one place, but he "did not like to be a party to increasing that over-crowded borough", bought land three miles from the town in Shipley next to the River Aire, the Leeds and Liverpool Canal and the Midland Railway and began building in 1851.

He opened Saltaire Mills with a grand banquet on his 50th birthday, 20 September 1853, set about building houses, bathhouses, an institute, hospital and churches, that make up the model village of Saltaire. He built the Congregational church, now Saltaire United Reformed Church, at his own expense in 1858–59, donated the land on which the Wesleyan Chapel was built by public subscription in 1866–68, he forbade'beershops' in Saltaire, but the common supposition that he was teetotal himself is untrue. He was a county JP, a Deputy Lord Lieutenant. Salt was a private man, left no written statement of his purposes in creating Saltaire. In David James's assessment: "Salt's motives in building Saltaire remain obscure, they seem to have been a mixture of sound economics, Christian duty, a desire to have effective control over his workforce. There were economic reasons for moving out of Bradford, the village did provide him with an amenable, handpicked workforce, yet Salt was religious and sincerely believed that, by creating an environment where people could lead healthy, godly lives, he was doing God's work.

Diffident and inarticulate as he was, the village may have been a way of demonstrating the extent of his wealth and power. Lastly, he may have seen it as a means of establishing an industrial dynasty to match the landed estates of his Bradford contemporaries. However, Saltaire provided no real solution to the relationship between worker, its small size, healthy site, comparative isolation provided an escape rather than an answer to the problems of urban industrial society." Salt was Chief Constable of Bradford before its incorporation as a borough in 1847, afterwards a senior alderman. He was the second mayor, in office from 1848–49, was Deputy Lieutenant for the West Riding of Yorkshire. In 1857 he was President of the Bradford Chamber of Commerce, served as Liberal Member of Parliament for Bradford from 1859 until he retired through ill health on 1 February 1861. On 30 October 1869 he was created a Baronet, of Crow Nest in the County of York, he died at Crow Nest, near Halifax in 1876 and was buried at Saltaire Congregational Church.

"Estimates vary, but the number of people lining the route exceeded 100,000." Sir Titus Salt married Caroline, daughter of George Whitlam, of Great Grimsby on 21 August 1830, had five sons and three daughters. Sir William Henry Salt, 2nd baronet, married in 1854 Emma Dove Octaviana Harris, only child of John Dove Harris and Emma Shirley of Knighton, Leicester George Salt married in 1875, Jennie Louisa Fresco of Florence Edward Salt of Bathampton House married firstly in 1861, Mary Jane Susan, eldest daughter of Samuel Elgood, of Leicester. Joseph Rowntree Geo


Haukelifjell is a mountain area and a mountain pass in South Norway. The area is located in Vinje municipality in the county of Telemark and Odda municipality in the county of Hordaland; the mountain area overlaps the Hardangervidda mountain plateau, is defined by the villages of Røldal to the west and Haukeli in the east. The mountain pass was opened in 1886 and is part of the European route E134; the road passes through the Haukeli Tunnel, the longest tunnel in Norway between its opening in 1968 and 1982. At the former road over Dyrskar, one of the oldest road tunnels in Norway, the Old Dyrskartunnel was opened in 1900. European route E134 over Haukelifjell is the most important transport link between Haugesund and Oslo. In the winter, column driving through the mountain pass and closed roads is not uncommon, due to a lot of snow and heavy winds. Haukelifjell Ski Resort and Haukeliseter Fjellstue Hostel are in the mountain area; the mountain range is a popular destination for skiing in the winter and hiking in the mountains in the summer

Joseph S. Cullinan

Joseph Stephen Cullinan was a U. S. oil industrialist. Although he was a native of Pennsylvania, his lifetime business endeavors would help shape the early phase of the oil industry in Texas, he founded The Texas Company, which would be known as Texaco Incorporated. Cullinan was born to John Francis and Mary Cullinan on December 31, 1860, in Pulaski Township, Lawrence County, not far from Sharon, Pennsylvania, his first experience in the oil industry was when he was 14, working as a hand in the Pennsylvania oilfields. He was responsible for various oil-related duties including an oil distribution station in Oleopolis, Pennsylvania; this familiarity with all the aspects of the industry would on be beneficial for his wisdom and sound judgment in the oil business. On April 14, 1891, he married Lucy Halm. Together, they would have 5 children; when he was 22, he began to work for an affiliate of Standard Oil and for the next thirteen years, he performed various managerial duties. In 1895, he decided to venture into the business of manufacturing steel storage tanks and started his own company under the name Petroleum Iron Works located in New Castle, Pennsylvania.

The previous year, oil was discovered in Corsicana, Texas by accident when a water-well company encountered the resource while attempting to establish a water source for the city. By 1897, the production was so great that this prompted the mayor of the town to invite Cullinan to advise on the development of the oil production facilities there; the lack of refining facilities resulted in the dumping of the crude oil. The wasteful and polluting practices of some irresponsible prospectors prompted Texas legislators to enforce regulations on the industry. Cullinan took such an interest in the potential of refining there that he agreed to build a refinery. Using out of state funds for backing, the J. S. Cullinan Company was established which would have a facility online by 1900, processing 1,500 barrels per day, his refinery there was the first of its type west of the Mississippi. This company became part of the Magnolia Petroleum Company. With the breakthrough discovery of the Spindletop oilfield at Beaumont, Cullinan moved his operations to the Beaumont region to partner with Arnold Schlaet.

The Texas Fuel Company was formed on March 28, 1901 and went into production on January 2, 1902 with an initial 40 acres of land at Port Arthur and a storage site 1½ miles from Spindletop. The primary product of this company was kerosene. Due to Texas law, since integrated oil companies were prohibited, Cullinan organized the Producers Oil Company on January 17, 1902. One of the prominent investors in this new company was John Warne Gates, a businessman and industrialist from Illinois; the Producers Oil Company at this time supplied the oil. Within two months, The Texas Company was formed for the refining of the crude. From 1902 to 1913, Cullinan served as president of the company. In 1905, he began to move the headquarters of the company from Beaumont to Houston and completing this move by 1908; this relocation established Houston as the center of the oil operations of the Southwest as other oil companies followed this precedent. Many years The Texas Company changed its corporate name to Texaco Incorporated in 1959.

After leaving his position of president of the company, Cullinan continued to serve in the oil industry. He established other exploration companies and refineries, with most of the activity in the East Texas region along the Gulf Coast. Cullinan had a profound impact upon the city of Houston. In addition to being one of the key supporters for the development of the Houston Ship Channel, he built the North Side belt railway, he supported venues such as the Houston Symphony Orchestra as well as the Museum of Fine Arts. He served as president of the Houston Chamber of Commerce from 1913 until 1919. During World War I, he served under Herbert Hoover as a special advisor to the Food Administration. For five years starting in 1928 he served on the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Committee. On March 11, 1937, Cullinan died during his visitation with Hoover in Palo Alto, California where he was overcome with pneumonia. Afterward his interest in TEXACO was split six ways between his sister Mary Nicholson and his children.

Cullinan bought the land that would become the Shadyside subdivision in 1916, purchased from the estate of George H. Hermann. Cullinan said that his intention was to create a subdivision so that his business acquaintances and friends could live near him. In 1920 Cullinan put the subdivision, on the market, it sold out within six weeks. "Joseph Stephen Cullinan Family Collection MSS.1297." Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library. Texas Archival Resources Online, University of Texas at Austin. "Joseph S. Cullinan Papers, 1893-1939." University of Houston Libraries. Historical Marker information provided by Joseph S. Cullinan, Harvard Business School – 20th Century Great American Business Leaders. Joseph S. Cullinan at Find a Grave