A burqa known as chadri or paranja in Central Asia, is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions to cover themselves in public, which covers the body and the face. Originating from Arabic: برقع, burquʻ or burqaʻ, Urdu: بُرقع, it is transliterated burkha, burka, burqua, or burqu' and is pronounced Arabic pronunciation:.aThe term burqa is sometimes conflated with niqab. In more precise usage, niqab is a face veil that leaves the eyes uncovered, while a burqa covers the entire body from the top of the head to the ground, with only a mesh screen allowing the wearer to see in front of her; the burqa and other types of face veils have been attested since pre-Islamic times, in particular among Pashtun and Arab women. Face veiling has not been regarded as a religious requirement by most Islamic scholars, past or present. However, some scholars those belonging to the Salafi movement, view it as obligatory for women in the presence of non-related males. Women may wear the burqa for a number of reasons, including compulsion, as was the case in Afghanistan during Taliban rule.
There are 13 nations that have banned the burqa, including Austria, the Canadian province of Quebec, France, Tajikistan, Bulgaria, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Netherlands and Morocco. The face-veil was part of women's dress among certain classes in the Byzantine Empire and was adopted into Muslim culture during the Arab conquest of the Middle East. However, although Byzantine art before Islam depicts women with veiled heads or covered hair, it does not depict women with veiled faces. In addition, the Greek geographer Strabo, writing in the first century AD, refers to some Median women veiling their faces. Clement of Alexandria commends the contemporary use of face coverings. There are two Biblical references to the employment of covering face veils in Genesis 38.14 and Genesis 24.65, by Tamar and by Rebeccah and Abraham's daughters-in-law respectively. These primary sources show that some women in Egypt, Arabia and Persia veiled their faces long before Islam. In the case of Tamar, the Biblical text,'When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a harlot.
The Afghan chadri style of burqa has been worn by Pashtun women since pre-Islamic times and was seen as a mark of respectability. Most Islamic scholars and most contemporary Islamic jurists have agreed that women are not required to cover their face. Although the Quran commands both men and women to behave modestly and contains no precise prescription for how women should dress, certain Quranic verses have been used in exegetical discussions of face veiling. Coming after a verse which instructs men to lower their gaze and guard their modesty, verse 24:31 instructs women to do the same, providing additional detail: Tell the believing women to lower their eyes, guard their private parts, not display their charms except what is apparent outwardly, cover their bosoms with their veils and not to show their finery except to their husbands or their fathers or fathers-in-law The verse goes on to list a number of other types of exempted males. Classical Quranic commentators differed in their interpretation of the phrase "except what is apparent outwardly".
Some argued that it referred to face and hands, implying that these body parts need not be covered, while others disagreed. Another passage, known as the "mantle verse", has been interpreted as establishing women's security as a rationale for veiling: O Prophet, tell your wives and daughters, the women of the faithful, to draw their wraps over them, they will thus be recognized and no harm will come to them. God is kind. Based on the context of the verse and early Islamic literature, this verse has been understood as establishing a way to protect the Muslim women from a hostile faction who had molested them on the streets of Medina, claiming that they confused them with slave girls; the exact nature of garments referred to in these verses and jilbab, has been debated by traditional and modern scholars. Islamic scholars who hold that face veiling is not obligatory base this on a narration from one of the canonical hadith collections, in which he tells Asma', the daughter of Abu Bakr: "O Asmaʿ, when a woman reaches the age of menstruation, it does not suit her that she displays her parts of body except this and this", pointing to her face and hands.
According to Yusuf al-Qaradawi, traditional hadith scholars have not viewed this narration as providing proof on its own, because its recorded chain of transmission made them uncertain about its authenticity, but those who argued that face veiilng is not required have used it as supporting evidence strengthened by other textual sources, such as those recording customary practice at the time of Muhammad and his companions. According to Mona Siddiqui, in classical Sunni jurisprudence, Shafi'i and Hanbali jurists counted a woman's face among her awra which should be covered in public, while Hanafi and Maliki jurists did not, though Yusuf al-Qaradawi quotes classical Shafi'i and Hanbali jurists stating that covering the face is not obligatory. In the Shi'a Ja'fari school of fiqh, covering the face is no
Bengali literature denotes the body of writings in the Bengali language. The earliest extant work in Bengali literature is the Charyapada, a collection of Buddhist mystic songs dating back to the 10th and 11th centuries. Thereafter, the timeline of Bengali literature is divided into two periods − modern. Medieval Bengali literature consists of various poetic genres, including Hindu religious scriptures, Islamic epics, translations of Sanskrit and Persian texts, Vaishnava texts, secular texts by Muslim poets. Novels were introduced to Bengali literature in the mid-19th century. Rabindranath Tagore, playwright, painter, essayist and social reformer, is the best known figure of Bengali literature to the world, he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. After the post-partition era, Bengali literature comprises literature of erstwhile East Pakistan and of West Bengal; the first works in Bengali, written in new Bengali, appeared between 10th and 12th centuries C. E, it is known as the Charyapada.
These are mystic songs composed by various Buddhist seer-poets: Luipada, Kukkuripada, Bhusukupada, Dhendhanpada, Shabarapada etc. The famous Bengali linguist Haraprasad Shastri discovered the palm leaf Charyapada manuscript in the Nepal Royal Court Library in 1907. Pre-Chaitanya or Early Vaishnava literature denotes the literature of the time preceding the time of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism; these include: Sri Krishna Kritana by Boru Chandidas. Basanta Ranjan Roy Bidyatvallava discovered the torn manuscript of the Sri Krishna Kirtana from the cowshed of Debendranath Chatterjee's house at Kakinlya village, Bankura district in modern-day Paschimbanga. Sri Krishna Kirtana was written by Boru Chandidas in the half of 14th century CE, it is considered as the second oldest work of Bengali literature after Charyapada. The 15th century is marked by the padavali in Bengal; the poetry of Vidyapati, the great Maithili poet, though not written in Bengali, influenced the literature of the time so that it makes him a vital part of Middle Bengali literature.
He flourished in the modern-day Darbhanga district of India in the 14th century. His Vaishnava lyrics became popular among the masses of Bengal; the first major Bengali poet to write Vaishnava lyrics was Chandidas, who belonged to the modern-day Birbhum district, Paschimbanga in the 15th century. Chandidas is known for his humanist proclamation—"Sabar upare manush satya, tahar upare nai" —"The supreme truth is human, there is nothing more important than he is.". The Bengali translations of two great Sanskrit texts the Bhagavata Purana and the Ramayana played a crucial role in the development of Middle Bengali literature. Maladhar Basu's Sri Krishna Vijaya, chiefly a translation of the 10th and 11th cantos of the Bhagavata Purana, is the earliest Bengali narrative poem that can be assigned to a definite date. Maladhar Basu flourished in the modern-day Bardhaman district of Paschimbanga in the 15th century. Composed between 1473 and 1480 C. E. Sri Krishna Vijaya is the oldest Bengali narrative poem of the Krishna legend.
The Ramayana, under the title of Sri Rama Panchali, more popularly known as the Krittibasi Ramayana, was translated by Krittibas Ojha who belonged to the modern-day Nadia district, Paschimbanga. He like Maladhar Basu, flourished in the 15th century. Post-Chaitanya or Late Vaishnava literature denotes the literature of the time succeeding the time of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu; these include: biographies of Chaitanya by Gaudiya Vaishnava scholar-poets and Vaishnava Padavali with a special subgenre based on the life of Chaitanya. Major figures of the Late Vaishnava literature are Krishnadasa Kaviraja, Vrindavana Dasa Thakura, Govindadasa, Balaram Dasa etc. Mangal-Kāvya, a group of Hindu narrative poetry, composed more or less between 13th Century and 18th Century, eulogise the indigenous deities of rural Bengal in the social scenario of the Middle Ages. Mansa Mangal, Chandi Mangal and Dhormo Mangal, the three major genus of Mangal-Kāvya tradition include the portrayal of the magnitude of Manasā, Chandī and Dharmathakur, who are considered the greatest among all the native divinities in Bengal, respectively.
There are minor Mongolkabbosomogro known as Shivāyon, Kālikā Mangal, Rāy Mangal, Shashthi Mangal, Shitol Mangal and Komolā Mangal etc. Major poets of Mangalkavya tradition are Bijay Gupta, Rupram Chakrabarty etc.. In the middle of 19th century, Bengali literature gained momentum. During this period, the Bengali Pandits of Fort William College did the tedious work of translating the text books in Bengali to help teach the British some Indian languages including Bengali; this work played a role in the background in the evolution of Bengali prose. In 1814, Raja Ram Mohan Roy engaged in literary pursuits. Translating from Sanskrit to Bengali, writing essays on religious topics and publishing magazines were some the areas he focussed on, he established a cultural group in the name of'Atmiya Sabha' in 1815. Another significant contributor o
Islamic architecture is the range of architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam. It encompasses religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day. Early Islamic architecture was influenced by Roman, Persian and all other lands which the Muslims conquered in the 7th and 8th centuries. Further east, it was influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam spread to Southeast Asia, it developed distinct characteristics in the form of buildings, the decoration of surfaces with Islamic calligraphy and geometric and interlace patterned ornament. The principal Islamic architectural types for large or public buildings are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths and domestic architecture. Many of the buildings which are mentioned in this article are listed as World Heritage Sites; some of them, like the Citadel of Aleppo, have suffered significant damage in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.
The most recent building that can be known as a true example modern of Islamic architecture is Imam Sadiq University, this building was the winner of Aga Khan fundation as well. This building designed by Nader Ardalan, Iranian architect teaching at Harvard University; the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is one of the most important buildings in all of Islamic architecture. It is patterned after the nearby Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Byzantine Christian artists were employed to create its elaborate mosaics against a golden background; the great epigraphic vine frieze was adapted from the pre-Islamic Syrian style. The Dome of the Rock featured interior vaulted spaces, a circular dome, the use of stylized repeating decorative arabesque patterns. Desert palaces in Jordan and Syria served the caliphs as living quarters, reception halls, baths, were decorated to promote an image of royal luxury; the horseshoe arch became a popular feature in Islamic structures. Some suggest the Muslims acquired this from the Visigoths in Spain but they may have obtained it from Syria and Persia where the horseshoe arch had been in use by the Byzantines.
In Moorish architecture, the curvature of the horseshoe arch is much more accentuated. Furthermore, alternating colours were added to accentuate the effect of its shape; this can be seen at a large scale in the Great Mosque of Córdoba. The Great Mosque of Damascus, built on the site of the basilica of John the Baptist after the Islamic invasion of Damascus, still bore great resemblance to 6th and 7th century Christian basilicas. Certain modifications were implemented, including expanding the structure along the transversal axis which better fit with the Islamic style of prayer; the Abbasid dynasty witnessed the movement of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, from Baghdad to Samarra. The shift to Baghdad influenced politics and art; the Great Mosque of Samarra, once the largest in the world, was built for the new capital. Other major mosques built in the Abbasid Dynasty include the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Abu Dalaf in Iraq, the great mosque in Tunis. Abbasid architecture in Iraq as exemplified in the Fortress of Al-Ukhaidir demonstrated the "despotic and the pleasure-loving character of the dynasty" in its grand size but cramped living quarters.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan is considered the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world. Its original marble columns and sculptures were of Roman workmanship brought in from Carthage and other elements resemble Roman form, it is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques, founded in 670 AD and dating in its present form from the Aghlabid period. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is constituted of a massive square minaret, a large courtyard surrounded by porticos and a huge hypostyle prayer hall covered on its axis by two cupolas; the Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq, completed in 847 AD, combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base above which a huge spiraling minaret was constructed. The Hagia Sophia in Istanbul influenced Islamic architecture; when the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines, they converted the basilica to a mosque and incorporated Byzantine architectural elements into their own work. The Hagia Sophia served as a model for many Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, the Rüstem Pasha Mosque.
Domes are a major structural feature of Islamic architecture. The dome first appeared in Islamic architecture in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock, a near replica of the existing Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other Christian domed basilicas situated nearby. Domes remain in use, being a significant feature of many mosques and of the Taj Mahal in the 17th century; the distinctive pointed domes of Islamic architecture originating with the Byzantines and Persians, have remained a distinguishing feature of mosques into the 21st century. Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture have always been the mathematical themes of ordered repetition, radiating structures, rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility for mosques and palaces. Other significant features employed as motifs include columns and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes. From the eighth to the eleventh century, Islamic architectural styles were influenced by two different ancien
Moroccan architecture dates from 110 BCE with the massive pisé buildings. The architecture has been influenced by Islamization during the Idrisid dynasty, Moorish exiles from Spain. Morocco is in Northern-Africa bordering the Atlantic; the country's diverse geography and the land's long history marked by successive waves of settlers and military encroachments are all reflected in Morocco's architecture. Morocco's first independent state called the Berber kingdom of Mauretania was ruled by the Berbers clan, it was first documented during 110 BC. During the time of the Berbers, the country has been through several sieges by a number of invaders; the Berbers ritual and beliefs still remained and became the country's cultural heritage including its antique architecture. The Berbers are known for their use of earth or mud brick called pisé. Many of the massive pisé buildings had defensive functions as main trading posts and ports or guard walls against pirates and rivals; this ancient building method prevails in all sizes of buildings.
Since pisé is a water- permeable material, the foundation is required to be rebuilt regularly. Moreover, Moroccan traditional architecture gained influences from neighboring countries and intruders; the conversion of the Berber tribes in Morocco to Islam by Idris I of Morocco influenced the overall architectural style of the country. The elegance of Islamic features is blended in and adapted into buildings and interior designs such as the use of tiling, geometric design and floral motifs. Which could be seen in mosques, plazas as well as homes; the materials chosen for the interiors of Moroccan classical architecture, are due in part to the necessity of cooling in the arid land climate of Morocco. Tiles – Zellige tiling wrongly labelled "mosaic", is used to decorate the surfaces of buildings and objects, principally interior walls and fountains. Modern use of zellige has extended the use to furniture and other interiors. Fountains – Before the conversion, water was an important part of Moroccan culture.
Thus, fountains representing paradise, could be found everywhere in order to serve everyone. Mosques – Following the introduction of Islam, mosques were built in Morocco with their distinct architectural features. Geometric Design and Floral Motifs Arabesque – Based on Islamic beliefs, avoiding the use of human or animal images is preferable resulting in the spread of floral motifs and geometric patterns; the motifs in Moroccan architectural decor are chiefly carved into stone and wood. Moroccan Islamic architecture is not confined to the country. For example, Sheikha Salama Mosque in the UAE city of Al Ain has two minarets which look Moroccan. Modern day Spain was a Moorish domain from the early 8th century to the late 15th century and was known as Al-Andalus 711 AD to 1492 AD. During the 11th century the berber dynasty of the Almohad Caliphate, ruled Morocco and the southern part of modern-day Spain the most famous of their remaining buildings are the Koutoubia Mosque in Marrakesh, the Giralda of Seville and the Hassan Tower, in Rabat, Morocco.
The Almoravid dynasty ruled the southern half of Spain through the 12th century. The Marinid dynasty from the 13th through the 15th century, rule both Moroccan and Southern Spain until the Reconquista with the fall of Granada in 1492 ending the Moorish era in Iberia. Moorish architecture therefore evolved into a distinct form; the elements of which are as follows Arches – Arches are common feature in Morocco, which can be divided into two types. The first arch is the horseshoe, clover shaped; the second is cusped like a rounded keyhole. These are called Moorish arches. Tiling – Overlapping roof tiling became popular after the influence of Spain. France occupied Morocco in 1912; as a result of the unorganized growth of real estate in the late 1800s to early 1900s, the French protector declared regulations for building standards which directly affected the architecture at that time, as follows: Buildings could not be higher than four stories. Land use regulation required twenty percent of a planned area to be gardens.
Balconies must not overlook neighboring residences. Roofs of all buildings should be flat; the building regulations maintained the country's preexisting architectural features and balanced the rapid urbanization. The Riad known as Dar is the Moroccan traditional house, which has two or more storeys around a courtyard. Villas are larger stand-alone housing in the urbanized area which do not need to follow traditional architectural style. Arches, most the horseshoe arch are used in every aspect of Moroccan housing whether it is doors, windows or niches. Domes are integrated with altars or commemorative monuments as well as modern villas; the interior doors of villas are oversized and decorative. In contrast small doors are used in dars. Doors are adorned with delicate metal work, carving or color. In contrast with doors, windows in Moroccan architecture are unremarkable, they are arched glass panes with fewer adornments compared to doors. Mashrabiya is an Islamic dowel work, made by carving large wood partitions in elaborate geometric patterns.
Its purpose is to conceal the women from the visitor’s prying eyes according to Islamic tradition. The fountain is a conspicuous feature in every house made of marble or cement, it is built in the heart of the courtyard, living room or g
Sudano-Sahelian architecture refers to a range of similar indigenous architectural styles common to the African peoples of the Sahel and Sudanian grassland regions of West Africa, south of the Sahara, but north of the fertile forest regions of the coast. This style is characterized by the use of mudbricks and adobe plaster, with large wooden-log support beams that jut out from the wall face for large buildings such as mosques or palaces; these beams act as scaffolding for reworking, done at regular intervals, involves the local community. The earliest examples of Sudano-Sahelian style come from Jenné-Jeno around 250 BC, where the first evidence of permanent mudbrick architecture in the region is found; the earthen architecture in the Sahel zone region is noticeably different from the building style in the neighboring savannah. The "old Sudanese" cultivators of the savannah built their compounds out of several cone-roofed houses; this was an urban building style, associated with centres of trade and wealth, characterised by cubic buildings with terraced roofs comprise the typical style.
They lend a characteristic appearance to the close-built cities. Large buildings such as mosques, representative residential and youth houses stand out in the distance, they are landmarks in a flat landscape that point to a complex society of farmers and merchants with a religious and political upper class. With the expansion of Sahelian kingdoms south to the rural areas in the savannas, the Sudano-Sahelian style was reserved for mosques, the houses of nobility or townsfolk, whereas among commonfolk, there was a mix between either distinct Sudano-Sahelian styles for wealthier families, older African roundhut styles for rural villages and family compounds; the Sudano-Sahelian architectural style itself can be broken down into four smaller sub-styles that are typical of different ethnic groups in the region. The examples used here illustrate the construction of mosques as well as palaces, as the architectural style is concentrated around inland Muslim populations; as with the people, many of these styles produce buildings with shared features.
Any one of these styles is not exclusive to one particular modern countries borders, but are linked to the ethnicity of its builders or surrounding populations. For example, a Malian migrant community in traditionally Gur area may build in the style characteristic of their ancestral homeland, while neighbouring Gur buildings are built in the local style; these styles include: Malian -- of the various Manden groups of central Mali. Characterized by the Great Mosque of Djenne and the Kani-Kombole Mosque of Mali. Fortress style – predominantly used by the Zarma peoples of northern Nigeria and Niger, Hausa-Fulani and Arab mixed communities in Agadez, the Kanuri people of Lake Chad, Songhai of northeastern Mali. Military aspect to construction of high protective compound walls built around a central courtyard. Minaret is the only structure with support beams showing. Characterized by the Sankore Mosque of Timbuktu, the tomb of Askia in Gao Mali, the Agadez mosque of northern Niger. Tubali – The characteristic Hausa architectural style predominant in North and Northwestern Nigeria, Eastern Burkina Faso, Northern Benin, Hausa-predominant zango districts and neighbourhoods throughout West Africa.
Characterised by its attention of stucco detail in abstract design and extensive use of parapets. One to two storey buildings. Examples in the architecture of the Yamma Mosque and old town of Zinder, The Hausa quarter of Agadez Niger, the Gidan Rumfa of Kano, various Hausa districts across West Africa. Volta basin – of the Gur and Manden groups of Burkina Faso, northern Ghana and northern Cote d'Ivoire; the most conservative of the three styles. A single courtyard, characterized by high white and black painted walls, inward curved turrets supporting an exterior wall, a larger turret nearer the center. Characterized by the Larabanga mosque of Ghana and the Bobo-Dioulasso Grand Mosque. Sankore University Larabanga Agadez Great Mosque of Djenné Aradeon, Suzan B. "Al-Sahili: the historian's myth of architectural technology transfer from North Africa", Journal des Africanistes, 59: 99–131, doi:10.3406/jafr.1989.2279. Bourgeois, Jean-Louis. Second edition published in 1996. Prussin, Hatumere: Islamic design in West Africa, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-03004-4.
Schutyser, S.. Tubali: hausa Architecture in Northern Nigeria Malian architecture Butabu, West Africa's Extraordinary Earthen Legacy Archnet Digital Library: Mud Mosques: The B&W prints
Iranian architecture or Persian architecture is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Its history dates back to at least 5,000 BC with characteristic examples distributed over a vast area from Turkey and Iraq to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, from the Caucasus to Zanzibar. Persian buildings vary from peasant huts to tea houses and garden, pavilions to "some of the most majestic structures the world has seen". In addition to historic gates and mosques, the rapid growth of cities such as the capital, Tehran has brought about a wave of demolition and new construction. Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, from a variety of traditions and experience. Without sudden innovations, despite the repeated trauma of invasions and cultural shocks, it has achieved "an individuality distinct from that of other Muslim countries", its paramount virtues are: "a marked feeling for scale. Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven".
This theme has not only given unity and continuity to the architecture of Persia, but has been a primary source of its emotional character as well. According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope, the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture; the supremacy of architecture applies to both pre- and post-Islamic periods. Traditional Persian architecture has maintained a continuity that, although temporarily distracted by internal political conflicts or foreign invasion, nonetheless has achieved an unmistakable style. In this architecture, "there are no trivial buildings. In expressiveness and communicativity, most Persian buildings are lucid - eloquent; the combination of intensity and simplicity of form provides immediacy, while ornament and subtle proportions reward sustained observation." Overall, the traditional architecture of the Iranian lands throughout the ages can be categorized into the six following classes or styles: Zoroastrian: The Parsian style including: Pre-Parsian style e.g. Chogha Zanbil, Median style, Achaemenid style manifesting in construction of spectacular cities used for governance and inhabitation, temples made for worship and social gatherings, mausoleums erected in honor of fallen kings, The Parthian style includes designs from the following eras: Seleucid era e.g. Anahita Temple, Parthian era e.g. Hatra, the royal compounds at Nysa, Sassanid era e.g. Ghal'eh Dokhtar, the Taq-i Kisra, Darband.
Islamic: The Khorasani style, e.g. Jameh Mosque of Nain and Jameh Mosque of Isfahan, The Razi style which includes the methods and devices of the following periods: Samanid period, e.g. Samanid Mausoleum, Ziyarid period, e.g. Gonbad-e Qabus, Seljukid period, e.g. Kharraqan towers, The Azari style, e.g. Soltaniyeh, Arg-i Alishah, Jameh Mosque of Varamin, Goharshad Mosque, Bibi Khanum mosque in Samarqand, tomb of Abdas-Samad, Gur-e Amir, Jameh mosque of Yazd The Isfahani style spanning through the Safavid, Afsharid and Qajarid dynasties starting from the 16th century onward, e.g. Chehelsotoon, Ali Qapu, Agha Bozorg Mosque, Shah Mosque, Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque in Naqsh-i Jahan Square. Available building materials dictate major forms in traditional Iranian architecture. Heavy clays available at various places throughout the plateau, have encouraged the development of the most primitive of all building techniques, molded mud, compressed as solidly as possible, allowed to dry; this technique, used in Iran from ancient times, has never been abandoned.
The abundance of heavy plastic earth, in conjunction with a tenacious lime mortar facilitated the development and use of brick. Iranian architecture makes use of abundant symbolic geometry, using pure forms such as circles and squares, plans are based on symmetrical layouts featuring rectangular courtyards and halls. Certain design elements of Persian architecture have persisted throughout the history of Iran; the most striking are a discerning use of simple and massive forms. The consistency of decorative preferences, the high-arched portal set within a recess, columns with bracket capitals, recurrent types of plan and elevation can be mentioned. Through the ages these elements have recurred in different types of buildings, constructed for various programs and under the patronage of a long succession of rulers; the columned porch, or talar, seen in the rock-cut tombs near Persepolis, reappear in Sassanid temples, in late Islamic times it was used as the portico of a palace or mosque, adapted to the architecture of roadside tea-houses.
The dome on four arches, so characteristic of Sassanid times, is a still to be found in many cemeteries and Imamzadehs across Iran today. The notion of earthly towers reaching up toward the sky to mingle with the divine towers of heaven las
Islamic culture and Muslim culture refer to cultural practices common to Islamic people. The early forms of Muslim culture, from the Rashidun Caliphate to early Umayyad perioud, were predominantly Arab, Byzantine and Levantine. With the rapid expansion of the Islamic empires, Muslim culture has influenced and assimilated much from the Persian, Caucasian, Mongol, South Asian, Somali, Berber and Moro cultures. Islamic culture includes all the practices which have developed around the religion of Islam. There are variations in the application of Islamic beliefs in different traditions. Arabic literature is both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language; the Arabic word used for literature is "Adab", derived from a meaning of etiquette, which implies politeness and enrichment. Arabic literature emerged in the 5th century with only fragments of the written language appearing before then; the Qur'an regarded by people as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language, would have the greatest lasting effect on Arabic culture and its literature.
Arabic literature flourished during the Islamic Golden Age, but has remained vibrant to the present day, with poets and prose-writers across the Arab world, as well as rest of the world, achieving increasing success. Persian literature comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures, it spans over two-and-a-half millennia. Its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran, Afghanistan, the Caucasus, Turkey, regions of Central Asia and South Asia where the Persian language has been either the native or official language. For instance, one of best-loved Persian poets born in Balkh or Vakhsh, wrote in Persian and lived in Konya the capital of the Seljuks in Anatolia; the Ghaznavids conquered large territories in Central and South Asia and adopted Persian as their court language. There is thus Persian literature from Iran, Azerbaijan, the wider Caucasus, western parts of Pakistan, India and other parts of Central Asia.
Not all Persian literature is written in Persian, as some consider works written by ethnic Persians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic, to be included. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians, as Turkic and Indic poets and writers have used the Persian language in the environment of Persianate cultures. Described as one of the great literatures of humanity, including Goethe's assessment of it as one of the four main bodies of world literature, Persian literature has its roots in surviving works of Middle Persian and Old Persian, the latter of which date back as far as 522 BCE, the date of the earliest surviving Achaemenid inscription, the Behistun Inscription; the bulk of surviving Persian literature, comes from the times following the Arab conquest of Persia c. 650 CE. After the Abbasids came to power, the Iranians became the scribes and bureaucrats of the Arab empire and also its writers and poets; the New Persian language literature arose and flourished in Khorasan and Transoxiana because of political reasons, early Iranian dynasties such as the Tahirids and Samanids being based in Khorasan.
Persian poets such as Ferdowsi, Sa'di, Attar, Nezami and Omar Khayyam are known in the West and have influenced the literature of many countries. For a thousand years, since the invasion of India by the Ghaznavids, the Persian-Islamic culture of the eastern half of the Islamic world started to dominate the Indian culture. Persian was the official language of most Indian empires such as the Ghaznavids, the Delhi Sultanate, the Bengal Sultanate, the Deccan Sultanates and the Mughal Empire. Persian artistic forms in literature and poetry such as ghazals have come to affect Urdu and other Indian literature. More Persian literature was produced in India than in the Iranian world; as late as the 20th century, Allama Iqbal chose Persian for some of his major poetic works. The first Persian language newspaper was published in India, given that printing machines were first implemented in India. In Bengal, the Baul tradition of mystic music and poetry merged Sufism with many local images; the most prominent poets were Lalon Shah.
During the early 14th century, the liberal poet Kazi Nazrul Islam espoused intense spiritual rebellion against oppression and religious fundamentalism. Sultana's Dream by Begum Rokeya, an Islamic feminist, is one earliest works of feminist science fiction. From the 11th century, there was a growing body of Islamic literature in the Turkic languages. However, for centuries to come the official language in Turkish-speaking areas would remain Persian. In Anatolia, with the advent of the Seljuks, the practise and usage of Persian in the region would be revived. A branch of the Seljuks, the Sultanate of Rum, took Russian language and letters to Anatolia, they adopted Persian language as the official language of the empire. The Ottomans, which can "roughly" be seen as their eventual successors, took this tradition over. Persian was the official court language of the empire, for some time, the official language of the empire, though the lingua franca amongst common people from the 15th/16th century would become Turkish as well as having laid an active "foundation" for the Turkic language as earl