The Polygone Scientifique is a neighborhood of the city of Grenoble in France. It includes a significant number of research centers in a presque-isle between Drac. Polygon hosts in 1956 the first French Atomic Energy Commission outside Paris and created by Professor Louis Néel. In 1962, it hosts a campus CNRS. In 1967, the Laboratoire d'électronique des technologies de l'information was founded by CEA and became one of the world’s largest organizations for applied research in microelectronics and nanotechnology. Three international organizations are implanted between 1973 and 1988 with the Institut Laue–Langevin, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and one of the five branches of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory. In 2006, the complex Minatec specializing in nanotechnology opens on the Polygon and in 2007, the Institut Néel, specializing in condensed matter physics, is founded. National Laboratory for Intense Magnetic Fields has numerous collaborations in terms of technical and technological innovations with these institutions.
In 2008, the new innovation campus is called GIANT. In 2012, Clinatec is founded on Polygone Scientifique by the professor Alim-Louis Benabid; the polygon is served by Grenoble tramway. National Institute for Materials Science Malecki, Edward J.. The Digital Economy: Business Organization, Production Processes and regional developments. Routledege. Ramani, Shyama V.. Nanotechnology and Development: What's in it for Emerging Countries?. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-03758-8. Official website of GIANT Project GIANT in 2007. Nims.go.jp NIMS and GIANT Conclude a Memorandum of Understanding on Collaborative Research Center
Grenoble Institute of Technology
The Grenoble Institute of Technology is a French technological university system consisting of six engineering schools. Grenoble INP has a two-year preparatory class programme, an adult education department, as well as 21 laboratories and a graduate school in Engineering Sciences. More than 1,100 engineers graduate every year from Grenoble INP, making it France's biggest grande école. Most of Grenoble INP is located in Grenoble, except for the ESISAR, located in Valence. Grenoble INP was born in the Alpine environment, it was founded in 1900 with the creation of the Electrical Engineering Institute. Industrial pioneers of a century ago found that after mastering hydraulic power and creating the initial industrial applications, they had created a need for well-trained engineers; the first of its type in France, Grenoble INP became polytechnical and grew continuously in scale, becoming the National Polytechnical Institute in 1971 with Louis Néel, Nobel Laureate in Physics as its first President.
Grenoble INP is contributing to the Minatec project, one of Europe's biggest nanosciences research center. Since December 2014, Grenoble Institute of Technology is member of the Community Grenoble Alpes University. Academic staff and researchers: 1250 teaching staff 1400 researchers 450 administrative and technical staffStudents: 1,428 degree students 3,036 masters students 842 doctorate studentsThe total number of students in 2014-2015 was 5,306 students, including 1,152 international students. Most of the students enter Grenoble INP after a two-year undergraduate program, the French classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles, the selection being made according to the results of an entrance exam; however a few students can be admitted at the INPG without needing to take an entrance exam. Such students have to follow another two-year undergraduate program called the CPP Preparatory Course and to have a minimum entrance average at the end of the program; this program has been created by the French INPs in in order to attract more French high school-leavers as well as students with particular sporting or musical talents.
Each year, Grenoble INP graduates: 1,046 engineers with a "Diplôme d'ingénieur" 332 DEA 146 The École nationale supérieure de l'énergie, l'eau et l'environnement or Ense3, founded in 2008, created from the merge of the former schools ENSHMG and ENSIEG. The Ecole nationale supérieure d'informatique et de mathématiques appliquées de Grenoble or Ensimag, founded in 1960: trains engineers to master the design and use of computer and mathematical tools: VLSI and computer design, software engineering, telecommunications and networks, distributed applications and systems, image processing and synthesis and financial systems modeling, scientific computation; the Département Télécommunications founded by ENSIMAG and ENSERG in 1999 has merged with Ensimag. The École nationale supérieure en systèmes avancés et réseaux or Esisar, founded in 1995 and based in Valence; the school trains engineers of communication. The École nationale supérieure de génie industriel or Génie industriel founded in 1990, is the industrial and system engineering department of the institute.
It trains engineers specialized in organization and technological management. The Génie industrie has a formal link with Grenoble's Social Sciences University and its business School whose faculty participate in ENSGI's curriculum. Génie industriel is created from the merge of the former schools ENSGI and ENSHMG The École internationale du papier, de la communication imprimée et des biomatériaux or Pagora named Ecole Française de Papeterie et des Industries Graphiques was founded in 1907 It trains engineers for the paper and graphics industries: physical chemistry and mechanics, process engineering, paper production and conversion, printing techniques; the École nationale supérieure de physique, électronique et matériaux or Phelma, founded in 2008, created from the merge of the former schools ENSPG, ENSEEG and ENSERG. Nanotech is an instruction open in September 2004 in collaboration between Grenoble INP and two other schools, the Polytechnic University of Turin and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
The instruction given in English in the three cities focuses on microelectronics micro technology and nanotechnology. In 2008, some schools merged, some other changed their names. From 10 schools or department, the group reorganized the courses and reduces the number of school down to 6. · Département Télécommunications, founded in 1999: trains engineers to master the design and use of computer and telecommunication tools: VLSI and computer design, software engineering, telecommunications and networks, electronics. It merged in 2008 with Ensimag. École Nationale Supérieure de Physique de Grenoble, founded in 1985: trains engineers in physical sciences, materials science and optoelectronic devices and nuclear engineering and physical instrumentation. ENSPG trains physics engineers with a strong scientific background. Graduates are employed in basic and applied research or in development, its activity was transferred in 2008 in the new school Phelma. École Nationale Supérieure d'Électrochimie et d'Électrométallurgie de Grenoble, founded in 1921: trains engineers in the fields of physical chemistry, materials science, process engineering
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre; the city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenoble's history goes back to a time when it was a small Gallic village, it gained somewhat in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France. Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries; this started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, ended with a post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968.
The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research and innovation centers, with each fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains. The population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832; the residents of the city are called "Grenoblois". The many suburb communes that make up the rest of the metropolitan area include three with populations exceeding 20,000: Saint-Martin-d'Hères, Échirolles, Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble; the first references to what is now Grenoble date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a small Gallic village of the Allobroges tribe, near a bridge across the Isère. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD; the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381.
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city; until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble". After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. Arletian rule was interrupted between 970 due to Arab rule based in Fraxinet. Grenoble grew in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region; the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné. Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble.
One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, a regular and leper hospital were built; the inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal, which settled at Grenoble in 1340, he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Without an heir, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin; the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the Estates of Dauphiné were created; the only Dauphin who governed his province was the future Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule.
The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement, strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city. At that time, Grenoble was a crossroads between Vienne, Geneva and Savoy, it was the industrial centre of the Dauphiné and the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one. Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I went several times to Grenoble, its people had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers. The nobility of the region took part in doing so gained significant prestige; the best-known of its members was Bayard, "the knight without fear and beyond reproach". Grenoble suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion; the Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts.
The baron des Adrets, the leader of the Huguenots, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins. In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry
A cleanroom or clean room is a facility ordinarily utilized as a part of specialized industrial production or scientific research, including the manufacture of pharmaceutical items and microprocessors. Cleanrooms are designed to maintain low levels of particulates, such as dust, airborne organisms, or vaporized particles. Cleanrooms have an cleanliness level quantified by the number of particles per cubic meter at a predetermined molecule measure; the ambient outdoor air in a typical urban area contains 35,000,000 particles for each cubic meter in the size range 0.5 μm and bigger in measurement, equivalent to an ISO 9 cleanroom, while by comparison an ISO 1 cleanroom permits no particles in that size range and just 12 particles for each cubic meter of 0.3 μm and smaller. The modern cleanroom was invented by American physicist Willis Whitfield; as employee of the Sandia National Laboratories, Whitfield created the initial plans for the cleanroom in 1960. Prior to Whitfield's invention, earlier cleanrooms had problems with particles and unpredictable airflows.
Whitfield designed his cleanroom with a constant filtered air flow to flush out impurities. Within a few years of its invention in the 1960s, Whitfield's modern cleanroom had generated more than US$50 billion in sales worldwide; the majority of the integrated circuit manufacturing facilities in Silicon Valley were made by three companies: MicroAire, PureAire, Key Plastics. These competitors made laminar flow units, glove boxes, clean rooms and air showers, along with the chemical tanks and benches used in the'Wet Process' building of integrated circuits; these three companies were the pioneers of the use of Teflon for airguns, chemical pumps, water guns, other devices needed for the production of integrated circuits. William C. McElroy Jr. worked as engineering manager, drafting room supervisor, QA/QC, designer for all three companies and his designs added 45 original patents to the technology of the time. McElroy wrote a four page article for MicroContamination Journal, wet processing training manuals, equipment manuals for wet processing and clean rooms.
Cleanrooms can be large. Entire manufacturing facilities can be contained within a cleanroom with factory floors covering thousands of square meters, they are used extensively in semiconductor manufacturing, the life sciences, other fields that are sensitive to environmental contamination. There are modular cleanrooms; the air entering a cleanroom from outside is filtered to exclude dust, the air inside is recirculated through high-efficiency particulate air and/or ultra-low particulate air filters to remove internally generated contaminants. Staff enter and leave through airlocks, wear protective clothing such as hoods, face masks, gloves and coveralls. Equipment inside the cleanroom is designed to generate minimal air contamination. Only special mops and buckets are used. Cleanroom furniture is easy to clean. Common materials such as paper and fabrics made from natural fibers are excluded, alternatives used. Cleanrooms are not sterile. Particle levels are tested using a particle counter and microorganisms detected and counted through environmental monitoring methods.
Polymer tools used in cleanrooms must be determined to be chemically compatible with cleanroom processing fluids as well as ensured to generate a low level of particle generation. Some cleanrooms are kept at a positive pressure so if any leaks occur, air leaks out of the chamber instead of unfiltered air coming in; some cleanroom HVAC systems control the humidity to such low levels that extra equipment like air ionizers are required to prevent electrostatic discharge problems. Low-level cleanrooms may only require special shoes, with smooth soles that do not track in dust or dirt. However, for safety reasons, shoe soles must not create slipping hazards. Access to a cleanroom is restricted to those wearing a cleanroom suit. In cleanrooms in which the standards of air contamination are less rigorous, the entrance to the cleanroom may not have an air shower. An anteroom is used to put on clean-room clothing; some manufacturing facilities do not use realized cleanrooms, but use some practices or technologies typical of cleanrooms to meet their contamination requirements.
In hospitals, theatres are similar to cleanrooms for surgical patients' operations with incisions to prevent any infections for the patient. Cleanrooms maintain particulate-free air through the use of either HEPA or ULPA filters employing laminar or turbulent air flow principles. Laminar, or unidirectional, air flow systems direct filtered air downward or in horizontal direction in a constant stream towards filters located on walls near the cleanroom floor or through raised perforated floor panels to be recirculated. Laminar air flow systems are employed across 80% of a cleanroom ceiling to maintain constant air processing. Stainless steel or other non shedding materials are used to construct laminar air flow filters and hoods to prevent excess particles entering the air. Turbulent, or non unidirectional, air flow uses both laminar air flow hoods and nonspecific velocity filters to keep air in a cleanroom in constant motion, although not all in the same direction; the rough air seeks to trap particles that may be in the air and drive them towards the floor, where they enter filters and leave the cleanroom environment.
US FDA and EU have laid down guidelines and limit for microbial contamination, s
The Bastille is the name of a fortress culminating at 476 m above sea level, located at the south end of the Chartreuse mountain range and overlooking the city of Grenoble, France. The Bastille, which gives its name to the hill, is the main tourist site of the Grenoble area with 600 000 visitors per year; the fortress lies on the final promontory of Mount Rachais, a narrow mountain, the most southerly of the Chartreuse range. The plateau of the fortress' main fortifications is situated 264 metres above a singularly flat valley floor, glacial in origin; the melting of the Isère glacier 25,000 years ago led to the formation of a vast lake stretching from Voiron to Albertville and which remained for 10,000 years. The filling-in of this lake by alluvial deposits created the flat valley floors that are in evidence today; the location of the fort was chosen because it facilitated the surveillance and control of the city of Grenoble, from the 19th century onward, as well as the valleys of the Isère and the Drac, all the while being difficult to attack and overthrow because of the cliffs and steep ground by which it is surrounded.
Requests to fortify this hill had been made by Francis I in 1538 and by Charles IX in 1566, but these were not acted upon. In December 1590 Lesdiguières, head of the Huguenots in the Dauphiné, took control of the city of Grenoble, until under Roman Catholic control; this took place during the last Wars of Religion. With an army of 1,200 men gathered at Moirans, he marched towards Grenoble, passing through Saint-Martin-le-Vinoux and over a spur of Mount Rachais called the Rabot, there avoiding a fortified stronghold. There was a single canon positioned on the slopes of Mount Rachais because this rocky spur was thought to be enough of a natural barrier to deter the advance of hostile forces, but in spite of a permanent state of alert and 24 watch points in the city, Grenoble fell to Lesdiguières after more than three weeks under siege. In 1591, having become governor of Grenoble, Lesdiguières ordered the construction of two new defensive elements for the city. First, a small fortified citadel around the Tour de l'Isle so as to have a safe place to withdraw to in case the city was attacked.
Second, a fortress on the summit of the hill so that no enemy could approach the city from the Chartreuse without being challenged. This fortress, or bastille, which would give its name to the hill, was completed the following year in 1592. Comprising a tower and a series of small bastions, with a building to lodge the troops, it was encircled by a wall 1.3 metres thick around an area 68 metres long and 50 metres wide. At the same time as these works were taking place, the Roman city wall, 13 centuries old and ill adapted to withstand the artillery of the time, was removed. New defensive walls were built, equipped with six bastions and two half-bastions capable of resisting artillery assault; the works encompassed the suburbs that had grown up around the original Roman city walls, thereby increasing the surface area of the city by 21 hectares, were finished by December 1606. In the first few years Lesdiguières used the Piedmont architect Ercole Negro later, from 1611, the royal engineer Jean de Beins.
In 1611, after a pause in the works, construction began on the fortifications descending from either side of the Bastille towards two new monumental gates situated at points on the banks of the Isère 1 km apart. The Porte Saint Laurent upstream on the Savoy side of Grenoble was finished in 1615, the Porte de France downstream was finished in 1620. For the first time, a road cut in the rocks along the banks of the Isère meant that it was no longer necessary to cross the rocky spur by the Montée de Chalemont to get from one gate to the other; these monumental gates still exist today, but as for the fortifications there remain only the vestiges of three bartizans and a staircase in the form of a tower in the Jardin des Dauphins. These works on the two branches of fortifications were completed in July 1619. A century after the construction of the Bastille, the military architect Vauban, during his first inspection of the fortifications of the Alps in September 1692, alerted the king, Louis XIV, to the weaknesses of the defences of Grenoble.
In his report, he described them as "weak, poorly maintained those of the Bastille", which he said were "badly cut, or rather a closed bauble, but without rhyme or reason, occupied by a vintner, the governor, or at least who has the keys, with twelve cows, eight goats, a mare and a donkey for the whole garrison!". However, his program of improvements to the fortifications of the Bastille would be ignored, as was his project for the enlargement of the city walls to the south that he proposed during a second visit in July 1700. Only a few terraces and two powder magazines were built. During the 18th century, the absence of any threat from the frontier of the Alps led to the lack of interest in any more military projects for Grenoble and the fortifications were no longer maintained. In addition, due to the extensive flooding of the Isere in September 1733 and December 1741, what monopolized the minds of the authorities were what to implement to overcome these disasters' possible occurrence in the future.
Many projects developed by engineers and surveyors between 1741 and 1787 were plans to divert waters of the river south of the city. But due to lack of resources, these projects remained for the approval by the board of Bridges and Roads. After the rout of Napoleon in Europe, the treaty of Fontainebleau in 1814 and that of Paris the
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Nanotechnology is manipulation of matter on an atomic and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers; this definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size.
Because of the variety of potential applications, governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Through 2012, the USA has invested $3.7 billion using its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the European Union has invested $1.2 billion, Japan has invested $750 million. Nanotechnology as defined by size is very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, energy storage, molecular engineering, etc; the associated research and applications are diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale. Scientists debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, biomaterials energy production, consumer products.
On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted; the concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term "nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not known. Inspired by Feynman's concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term "nanotechnology" in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a nanoscale "assembler" which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control.
In 1986, Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications. Thus, emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler's theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. Since the popularity spike in the 1980s, most of nanotechnology has involved investigation of several approaches to making mechanical devices out of a small number of atoms. In the 1980s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era. First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, was used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989; the microscope's developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986.
Binnig and Gerber invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year. Second, Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, Robert Curl, who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. C60 was not described as nanotechnology. In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society's report on nanotechnology. Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003. Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging; these products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.
Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U. S