Šilutė is a city in the south of the Klaipėda County, Lithuania. The city was part of the Klaipėda ethnographic Lithuania Minor. Šilutė was the interwar capital of Šilutė County and is the capital of Šilutė District Municipality. Šilutė's origin dates to an inn catering to travelers and their horses, located halfway between Memel and Tilsit. The German name of Heydekrug referred to a Krug in the Heide; the inn was known for being in the region where most people spoke the Memelland-Samogitian dialect Šilokarčema. A famous fish market was opened in Šilutė 500 years ago, when Georg Tallat purchased the inn together with the land and fishing rights in 1511; the town was a gathering place for peasants from nearby Samogitia and Curonian and Prussian fishermen from Rusnė, Karklė, Lesnoye. Next to the inn a church of Werden was built in 1550. Heydekrug sought city rights, but was opposed by Memel and Tilsit in 1721 and 1725. In 1722 Heydekrug in 1818 the capital of Landkreis Heydekrug; the settlement was amalgamated with the villages of Werden and Cynthionischken in 1910, although it still did not receive city rights.
Following World War I, the town became part of Lithuania when it acquired the Klaipėda Region in 1923. The town was reclaimed by Nazi Germany in 1939. In 1941 the town received city rights. During World War II, the Stalag Luft VI prisoner-of-war camp was located near Heydekrug. There remain many old buildings in Šilutė: an old post office, a fire station, a court building and prison, a bridge across the Sziesze, an estate of H. Scheu, an old market square, a harbor, railway station and a bridge, the Vydūnas gymnasium; the town, a regional center, has a well-developed infrastructure. There is an amateur theatre, a museum, three churches, a few hotels, many cafés, bars. There are large industrial enterprises in Šilutė as well: Šilutės Rambynas, producing butter and cheese, is one of the oldest factories in the area. Newly founded enterprises are prospering: Šilutės Girnos. In order to speed up capital investments, the region council has established land tax bonuses for investors. Šilutė maintains sister city relationships with the following cities: Ljungby, Sweden Emmerich, Germany Ostróda, Poland Slavsk, Russia Gdańsk, Poland Saldus, Latvia Cittaducale, Italy Vellinge, Sweden Alanya, Turkey Hermann Sudermann and novelist Vydūnas Prussian-Lithuanian teacher, poet and philosopher Katharina Szelinski-Singer, sculptor Cornell Borchers, actress Herbert Schernus German choral conductor Hans-Georg Reimann former East German race walker Doris Nefedov maiden name Treitz, German singer under the stage name "Alexandra" Raimondas Rumšas, cyclist, 3rd place in 2002 Tour de France Mindaugas Timinskas, basketball player Deividas Dulkys, basketball player Evaldas Petrauskas, boxer.
3rd place in 2012 Summer Olympics Municipal website
A head coach, senior coach, or manager is a professional at training and developing athletes. They hold a more public profile and are paid more than other coaches. In some sports, the head coach is instead called the "manager", as in association football and professional baseball. In other sports such as Australian rules football, the head coach is termed a senior coach. Other coaches are subordinate to the head coach in offensive positions or defensive positions, proceeding down into individualized position coaches. Head coaches in American football have different responsibilities depending on what level of the sport they are coaching; the head coach has a much more complete hold on the intricacies of the team. He may have to perform the duties of a offensive coordinator. High school head coaches have to do more work off the field than on, it is important that head coaches in high school hire a competent and proactive coaching staff because when the head coach is pulled away from practice he must be confident that his team is in good hands with his other coaches and staff.
One of the most difficult issues that head coaches must deal with off of the field is the parent, although many coaches do not allow parental interactions in many cases. He must be able to handle any issues that parents may have with the way that the head coach is running the program, all along while staying professional and not being demeaning. Furthermore, a high school's head football coach serves as his school's Athletic Coordinator or Director, which adds further responsibilities to his job. In some jurisdictions, a high school head coach must have a paying job within the school always as a teacher. One of the major features of head coaching in college football is the high turnover rate for jobs. With few exceptions college coaches routinely change jobs staying at a school for more than a decade; some coaches have been known to leave a school and return to the program after a period of time. Many head coaches at the college level have a paid staff and as such are more free to concentrate on the overall aspect of the team rather than dealing with the nuances of training regimens and such.
Unlike head coaches at other levels, college coaching staffs are responsible for the composition and development of players on the team. The ability to recruit and develop top players plays a major role in success at this level. A college coach acts as the face of a team, at an age when many young players do not wish to be hounded by media, they are called upon to discuss off-the-field incidents such as rule infractions or player antics. Sometimes, the coach becomes a celebrity in e.g. Lou Holtz. At the end of the year there are numerous college football coach of the year awards given out; the awards all go to the same coach but there are some discrepancies. Major annual coaching honors include the Home Depot Coach of the Year, The Liberty Mutual Coach of the Year Award, the Associated Press College Football Coach of the Year Award, The Paul'Bear' Bryant Award. At the professional level, coaches may work for millions of dollars a year. Since he or she does not have to travel the country recruiting high school players, the head coach at the pro level has much more time to devote to tactics and playbooks, which are coordinated with staff paid more than at the college level.
They report to the General Manager. Head coaching, due to the lack of job security and long hours, is a stressful job. Since the money is good at high levels and firings are common, many coaches retire in their early fifties. Many factors are part of National Football League coaches' contracts; these involve the NFL's $11 billion as the highest revenue sport, topping the Major League Baseball's $7 billion. The NFL's coaches are the highest-paid professional coaches with professional football topping the list in Forbes' highest-paid sports coaches. Bill Belichick is in the number one spot for the second year in a row with no MLB or National Hockey League coaches making the list. Another major element of NFL coaches' contracts, negotiated between individual coaches and NFL "teams"/owners, are NFL demanded provisions in the coaches employment contracts, that authorize the employing NFL teams to withhold part of a coach's salary when league operations are suspended, such as lockouts or television contract negotiations.
The average salary for a head coach in the National Football League is $6.45 million a year. In association football, a head coach has the same responsibilities as in any other sport. A head coach has an option to pick his own coaching staff. In some countries there is a position of senior coach who acts as the first assistant of the head coach or runs a junior squad in the club. In the absence of a head coach, a senior coach temporarily fulfills his role as interim. There is the UEFA Convention on the Mutual Recognition of Coaching Qualifications that has three levels: Pro, A, B. In Australian rules football the head coach or senior coach is responsible for development and implementing an appropriate training program to the players so that they ensure they perform on game day; the senior coach in AFL has to be responsible for the rotations and team line up for the games. A senior coach in AFL is not the only coach involved in making the team operate, in AFL teams there are up to five different coaches that all have different responsibilities, for example, there is a forward and defence coach, these coaches focus on the particular positions on the grou
The 1995 FIBA European Championship called FIBA EuroBasket 1995, was the 29th FIBA EuroBasket basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which served as Europe qualifier for the 1996 Summer Olympics, giving a berth to each of the top four teams in the final standings. It was held in Greece between 21 June and 2 July 1995. Fourteen national teams entered the event under the auspices of FIBA Europe, the sport's regional governing body; the city of Athens hosted the tournament. FR Yugoslavia won its sixth FIBA European title by defeating Lithuania with a 96–90 score in the final. Lithuania's Šarūnas Marčiulionis was voted the tournament's MVP; this edition of the FIBA EuroBasket tournament saw the successful return of the Lithuania national basketball team to the tournament, since its last triumph in 1939. The tournament's official anthem was "Wings of Tomorrow" by Finnish band Stratovarius. All games were played at the O. A. C. A. Olympic Indoor Hall in Athens; the teams were split in two groups of seven teams each.
The top four teams from each group advance to the knockout quarterfinals. The winners in the semifinals compete for the European Championship, while the losers from the semifinals play a consolation game for the third place; the losers in the quarterfinals compete in a separate bracket to define 5th through 8th place in the final standings. Times given below are in Eastern European Summer Time. One of the most intense matches in Eurobasket history, the finals match-up between Yugoslavia and Lithuania on Sunday, 2 July 1995 ended in scandal. Played in the boiling atmosphere of the Athens' OAKA, more than 20,000 people filled up the arena, most of them local Greeks vociferously cheering for Lithuania, or more cheering against Yugoslavia because it eliminated Greece in the semifinals. From the start, the two teams matched up evenly, as Lithuania's Šarūnas Marčiulionis and Arvydas Sabonis and Yugoslavia's Aleksandar Đorđević and Predrag Danilović exchanged points. At halftime, the Lithuanians were ahead by a point, 49–48.
Vlade Divac got a technical foul early in first half. In second half, an American referee George Toliver signaled Lithuanian center Arvydas Sabonis for a technical foul, which led to Lithuanian protestations. After a few more fouls signaled by the referee, one offensive and one technical against Lithuania, the Lithuanian team refused to return to the court after timeout. After a few minutes, Aleksandar Đorđević, the leading scorer with 41 points, tried to convince Marčiulionis to continue playing; the persuasions were successful, five Lithuanians returned to the court. Yugoslavia was leading 93–89 with 2 minutes remaining in the game. Players Arvydas Sabonis and Rimas Kurtinaitis could not return to the court, as they fouled out before the Lithuanian refusal to play, and although the Lithuanian team tried their hardest to catch up with the Yugoslavian team, they lost 96–90. After the Yugoslavs' victory, the Greek crowd that cheered against Yugoslavia throughout the final further showed their displeasure during the winners ceremony by chanting "Lithuania is the champion!".
Furthermore, there was controversy during the medal ceremony as right before the winning Yugoslav team were about to receive their gold medals, the third-placed Croatian team, in an unprecedented move, stepped down from the medal podium and walked off the court due the ongoing war between the two countries. 1995 European Championship for Men, FIBA.com
The 2003–04 Euroleague was the fourth season of the professional basketball competition for elite clubs throughout Europe, organised by Euroleague Basketball Company, it was the 47th season of the premier competition for European men's clubs overall.. The 2003–04 season featured 24 competing teams from 13 different countries; the final of the competition was held in Nokia Arena, Tel Aviv, with hosts Maccabi Elite, defeating Skipper Bologna, by a score of 118-74. The first phase was a regular season, in which the competing teams were drawn into three groups, each containing eight teams; each team played every other team in its group at home and away, resulting in 14 games for each team in the first stage. The top 5 teams in each group and the best sixth-placed team advanced to the next round; the complete list of tiebreakers was provided in the lead-in to the Regular Season results. If one or more clubs were level on won-lost record, tiebreakers were applied in the following order: Head-to-head record in matches between the tied clubs Overall point difference in games between the tied clubs Overall point difference in all group matches Points scored in all group matches Sum of quotients of points scored and points allowed in each group match The surviving teams were divided into four groups of four teams each, again a round robin system was adopted resulting in 6 games each, with the top team advancing to the Final Four.
Tiebreakers were identical to those used in the Regular Season. This was the last season. A quarterfinal round was introduced in the 2004–05 season; the draw was held in accordance with Euroleague rules. The teams were placed into four pools, as follows: Level 1: The three group winners, plus the top-ranked second-place team CSKA Moscow, FC Barcelona, Maccabi Elite, Efes PilsenLevel 2: The remaining second-place teams, plus the top two third-place teams Skipper Bologna, Pamesa Valencia, Benetton Treviso, CibonaLevel 3: The remaining third-place team, plus the three fourth-place teams Union Olimpija, Ülker, Montepaschi Siena, Tau CerámicaLevel 4: The fifth-place teams, plus the top ranked sixth-place team Pau-Orthez, Olympiacos, ŽalgirisEach Top 16 group included one team from each pool; the draw was conducted under the following restrictions: No more than two teams from the same Regular Season group could be placed in the same Top 16 group. No more than two teams from the same country could be placed in the same Top 16 group.
If there is a conflict between these two restrictions, would receive priority. Another draw was held to determine the order of fixtures. In the case of two teams from the same city in the Top 16 they were scheduled so that every week only one team would be at home. April 29, Nokia Arena, Tel Aviv May 1, Nokia Arena, Tel Aviv May 1, Nokia Arena, Tel Aviv Lynn Greer Arvydas Sabonis Arvydas Sabonis Anthony Parker Anthony Parker & Miloš Vujanić Šarūnas Jasikevičius Marcus Brown Dejan Bodiroga Mirsad Türkcan Arvydas Sabonis Miloš Vujanić Lynn Greer David Vanterpool Andrés Nocioni Nikola Vujčić Euroleague.net - Official Euroleague homepage. Eurobasket.com - Popular basketball news site. TalkBasket.net - Basketball forum
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
The 2002–03 Euroleague was the third season of the professional basketball competition for elite clubs throughout Europe, organised by Euroleague Basketball Company, it was the 46th season of the premier competition for European men's clubs overall. The 2002–03 season featured 24 competing teams from 13 different countries; the final of the competition was held in Palau Sant Jordi, Spain, with hosts FC Barcelona defeating Benetton Treviso 76-65. The first phase was a regular season, in which the competing teams were drawn into three groups, each containing eight teams; each team played every other team in its group at home and away, resulting in 14 games for each team in the first stage. The top 5 teams in each group and the best sixth-placed team advanced to the next round; the complete list of tiebreakers was provided in the lead-in to the Regular Season results. If one or more clubs were level on won-lost record, tiebreakers were applied in the following order: Head-to-head record in matches between the tied clubs Overall point difference in games between the tied clubs Overall point difference in all group matches Points scored in all group matches Sum of quotients of points scored and points allowed in each group match The surviving teams were divided into four groups of four teams each, again a round robin system was adopted, resulting in 6 games each, with the top team advancing to the Final Four.
Tiebreakers were identical to those used in the Regular Season. The Final Four was played from 9 May until 11 May 2003 and was held in the Palau Sant Jordi in Barcelona. Euroleague.net - Official Euroleague homepage. Eurobasket.com - Popular basketball news site. TalkBasket.net - Basketball forum
College basketball today is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including the United States's National Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, the United States Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Junior College Athletic Association, the National Christian College Athletic Association. Governing bodies in Canada include the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association; each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes. Each organization has different conferences to divide up the teams into groups. Teams are selected into these conferences depending on the location of the schools; these conferences are put in due to the regional play of the teams and to have a structural schedule for each to team to play for the upcoming year. During conference play the teams are ranked not only through the entire NCAA, but the conference as well in which they have tournament play leading into the NCAA tournament.
The history of basketball can be traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The sport was created by a physical education teacher named James Naismith, who in the winter of 1891 was given the task of creating a game that would keep track athletes in shape and that would prevent them from getting hurt; the date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismith's rules is given as December 21, 1891. Basketball began to be played at some college campuses by 1893; the first known college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University, which played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee, on February 7, 1893. The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College's game against the New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893, in Beaver Falls, which Geneva won 3–0; the first recorded game between two college teams occurred on February 9, 1895, when Hamline University faced Minnesota A&M. Minnesota A&M won the game, played under rules allowing nine players per side, 9–3.
The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896. The Chicago team won the game 15-12, under the coaching of Amos Alonzo Stagg, who had learned the game from James Naismith at the Springfield YMCA. However, some sources state the first "true" five-on-five intercollegiate match was a game in 1897 between Yale and Penn, because although the Iowa team that played Chicago in 1896 was composed of University of Iowa students, it did not represent the university, rather it was organized through a YMCA. By 1900, the game of basketball had spread to colleges across the country; the Amateur Athletic Union's annual U. S. national championship tournament featured collegiate teams playing against non-college teams. Four colleges won the AAU tournament championship: NYU, Butler and Washburn. College teams were runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932 and 1934.
The first known tournament featuring college teams was the 1904 Summer Olympics, where basketball was a demonstration sport, a collegiate championship tournament was held. The Olympic title was won by Hiram College. In March 1908, a two-game "championship series" was organized between the University of Chicago and Penn, with games played in Philadelphia and Bartlett, Illinois. Chicago swept both games to win the series. In March 1922, the 1922 National Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament was held in Indianapolis – the first stand-alone post-season tournament for college teams; the champions of six major conferences participated: Pacific Coast Conference, Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Western Pennsylvania League, Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Indiana Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The Western Conference and Eastern Intercollegiate League declined invitations to participate. Wabash College won the 1922 tournament.
The first organization to tout a occurring national collegiate championship was the NAIA in 1937, although it was surpassed in prestige by the National Invitation Tournament, or NIT, which brought six teams to New York's Madison Square Garden in the spring of 1938. Temple defeated Colorado in the first NIT tournament championship game, 60–36. In 1939, another national tournament was implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the location of the NCAA Tournament varied from year to year, it soon used multiple locations each year, so more fans could see games without traveling to New York. Although the NIT was created earlier and was more prestigious than the NCAA for many years, it lost popularity and status to the NCAA Tournament. In 1950, following a double win by the 1949–50 CCNY Beavers men's basketball team, the NCAA ruled that no team could compete in both tournaments, indicated that a team eligible for the NCAA tournament should play in it. Not long afterward, assisted by the 1951 scandals based in New York City, the NCAA tournament had become more prestigious than before, with conference champions and the majority of top-ranked teams competing there.
The NCAA tournament overtook the NIT by 1960. Through the 1960s and 1970s, with UCLA leading the way as winner