Seonbi were virtuous scholars during the Goryeo and Joseon periods of Korea who served the public without a government position, choosing to pass up positions of wealth and power to lead lives of study and integrity. Those who chose to serve the government were obliged to assist the king in governing the nation properly, once out of office, lead a quiet life in the countryside and leading the people in the right direction. Today, Seonbi is a figurative word for a learned man who does not covet wealth but values righteousness and principles, it is used as a metaphor for a well-behaved and gloomy person. The seonbi followed a strict code of conduct and believed they had the moral duty to lead society in the right direction. Seonbi were to live life in modesty and perpetual learning in order to attain perfection of character, not only through knowledge but by adhering to the rightful path; the goal of the seonbi was to achieve social justice. Seonbi were expected to possess the Confucian virtues of filial piety and loyalty to the king, disdain power and private interest, be ready to lay down their life in order to remain faithful to their principles and maintain their integrity.
They venerated scholars such as Jeong Mong-ju, the six martyred ministers, Jo Gwang-jo as embodiments of the seonbi spirit and as examples to follow. Education was of great importance and referred to as "enlightenment", seonbi gathered and studied at seowon institutions. Seonbi masculinity denotes mental attainment rather than physical performance, is still valued by many South Koreans and considered by some scholars to be the ideal model of Korean masculinity; the seonbi had deep sympathy for the hardships of the common class. In their pursuit of social justice, the seonbi submitted blunt petitions to the king despite the dangerous consequences and suffered many purges as a result. Due to their reputation for integrity and incorruptibility, the seonbi were idealized and romanticized in popular imagination as men of honor in contrast to the ruling yangban class though seonbi came from the same class; the seonbi was a common figure in traditional Korean depictions of the Joseon period. For instance, a seonbi appears as one of the characters in the traditional mask dance preserved at the Hahoe Folk Village, where he competes with a yangban character depicted as corrupt and greedy.
Modern depictions of seonbi in popular media are ubiquitous, with some examples being: Lee Joon-gi in the Korean drama The Scholar Who Walks the Night Kim Soo-hyun in the Korean drama My Love from the Star Bae Yong-joon in the Korean film Untold Scandal the seonbi mascot in the game Crossy Road Cho Jae-hyun in the Korean drama Jeong Do-jeon Korean culture Korean Confucianism Silhak Neo-Confucianism Yangban
Society in the Joseon Dynasty
Society in the Joseon Dynasty was built upon Neo-Confucianist ideals, namely the three fundamental principles and five moral disciplines. There were four classes, the yangban nobility, the "middle class" chungin, sangmin, or the commoners and the cheonmin, the outcasts at the bottom. Society was ruled by the yangban, who had several privileges. Slaves were of the lowest standing. During this period clan structure became bloodline was of utmost importance. Family life was regulated by law enforcing Confucian rituals. Compared to Goryeo practices before, marriage rituals were aggravated. Noblemen could have only one wife and several concubines but their children born from commoner or slave concubines were considered illegitimate and denied any yangban rights; the roles and rights of women were reduced compared to previous eras in Korean history. Yangban women were hidden from the outer world and every woman had to conform to Confucian ideals of purity, obedience and faithfulness. Women were subjects of male dominance throughout their lives, obliged to listen to their fathers, fathers-in-law and firstborn sons.
Homes were divided into female quarters to separate the sexes. Korean society has always been hierarchical and the conscious, government-backed spreading of Neo-Confucianism reinforced this idea. Though the philosophy originates in China and Vietnam adopted it, Korea integrated Confucianism into daily life, transformed it to fit the nation's needs and developed it in a way that became specific to Korea. Korean society in Joseon was built upon the three fundamental principles and five moral disciplines: samgang: chung: loyalty to the king hyo: filial obedience to the parents yeol: differentiation between men and women oryun: ui: righteousness and justice: the relationship between monarch and the people chin: warmth and closeness between parents and children byeol: differentiation between husband and wife seo: order between seniors and juniors sin: trust between friendsThis means that Korean society placed utmost importance on hierarchy between classes and younger people, emphasized family values, the keeping of order and harmony and the inferior social status of women.
Rituals became important, paying respect to one's ancestors and the need for lifelong learning were valued. Neo-Confucians considered hard work, purity and refraining from improper behaviour as desirable and valuable human qualities, they could be regarded as prudish, since showing passionate emotions was something noble people were expected to avoid. It was important that everyone behaved accordingly; the Korean language reflects this notion today, by the use of honorifics, which signal whether the speaker addresses a senior person or someone of a higher social standing. Direct communication between the king and the common people was possible through the sangeon written petition system and the gyeokjaeng oral petition system. Through the gyeokjaeng oral petition system, commoners could strike a gong or drum in front of the palace or during the king's public processions in order to appeal their grievances or petition to the king directly; this allowed the illiterate members of Joseon society to make a petition to the king.
More than 1,300 gyeokjaeng-related accounts are recorded in the Ilseongnok. The basis of Joseon society was a system similar to caste systems. Historian Baek Ji-won considers the Korean system comparable to that of India. According to Michael Seth, the Korean system could, in principle, be compared to India's. In practice, classes may not have been as impenetrable and separated as in India. Bruce Cumings, on the other hand, thinks that the Korean structure cannot be called a true caste system but a system where certain castes existed. In theory, there were three social classes; the top class were the yangban, or "scholar-gentry", the commoners were called sangmin or yangmin, the lowest class was that of the cheonmin. Between the yangban and the commoners was a fourth class, the chungin, "middle people"; the ruling class and the recipient of privileges was the yangban class. This elite aristocracy was held most of the wealth, the slaves and the land, they were called sadaebu, "scholar-officials", because when compared to Goryeo aristocracy or the Japanese bushido, they were not landowners who engaged in military actions.
Yangban strove to do well at the royal examinations to obtain high positions in the government. They did not pay any form of taxes, they avoided manual labor and conscription; however they had to excel in calligraphy, classical Chinese texts, Confucian rites. In theory, commoners could apply for royal exams but in practice, from the 1600s, the family background of applicants was checked and had to provide evidence of yangban status on their father's side up to three generations and one generation on the mother's side. Nobles lived separately from commoners, in designated areas of a town or village and spent most of their free time at Confucian academies or gisaeng houses. Yangban families were rare in the northern and eastern parts of the country and on Jeju Island and were demoted yangban that were exiled there. High government positions were filled by yangban from Chungcheong provinces mainly; the scholar-aristocracy made up about 10% of Korea's population. Civilian offices, as well as military posts were occupied by yangban men, the latter were filled by provincial yangban, whose only w
Korean literati purges
The term "Literati purges" is a translation of the Korean term'sahwa', whose literal meaning is "scholars' calamity". It refers to a series of political purges in late 15th and 16th century, in which Sarim scholars suffered persecution at the hands of their political rivals; the politics during Middle Joseon Dynasty were marked by a power struggle between two social groups among the yangban aristocracy. People in place were the'Meritorious Subjects', rewarded for helping the establishment of Joseon against the former Goryeo, subsequent accomplishments. Referred as the Hungu faction, they held the key positions in the State Council and the Six Ministries that carried out state affairs; the newcomers were the so-called Sarim, who belonged to neo-Confucian school of Kim Jong-jik and other thinkers. The Sarim scholars shunned the royal court and studied neo-Confucianism in rural provinces after King Sejo's usurpation of throne in 1455. During the reign of King Seongjong, Sarim scholars started to occupy key positions in what was known as the "Three Offices", the collective name for three government watchdog organizations: the Office of Inspector General, whose main role was to impeach government officials for corrupt or improper actions.
Using the Samsa as a stronghold, the Sarim scholars challenged the power of the central government and the Hungu faction as a whole, impeaching them about alleged corruption or impropriety. The subsequent conflict between these two factions resulted in violent purges, having a specific pattern among the political purges that occurred in Joseon from 1453 to 1722. While the Sarim faction lost each of the four confrontations, their moral influence keep increasing and they evinced the former Hungu faction; the first and second literati purges took place during the reign of Yeonsangun, successor to Seongjong. The First Literati Purge of 1498 called Muo Sahwa, began as a personal grudge of Yi Guk-don against Kim Il-son, who once impeached him. Both were assigned to compile records related to King Seongjong's reign for Annals of Joseon Dynasty, Kim Il-son, a disciple of Kim Jong-jik, included the latter's writing, critical of King Sejo's usurpation in the compilation; when Yi Guk-don, Kim Il-son's superior, found this out, he sensed a chance of revenge.
Kim Il-son and other followers of Kim Jong-jik were accused of treason by the Hungu faction, many of whom gained power from their support of Sejo. Because Yeonsangun's lineage came from Sejo, Sarim faction's view of Sejo's usurpation was considered to be treasonable. Yeonsangun - who disliked academia and was notorious for turning the Seonggyungwan, royal study hall, into his personal brothel - found an opportunity to purge the Sarim scholars and weaken Three Offices. Kim Il-son and two others were "quartered" while three were beheaded. Kim Jong-jik's remains were excavated and beheaded, at least 18 others were exiled. Yeonsangun ordered the entire court officials to watch Kim's execution and ordered that those who did not attend or turned face away be reported so that they might be punished; the Second Literati Purge of 1504, or Kapcha Sahwa, followed when Yeonsangun discovered that his real mother was not Queen Jung-hyeon but Consort Yoon, executed in 1482 for poisoning one of Seongjong's concubines out of jealousy and making a scratch mark on Seongjong's face.
When Yeonsangun was told of details of his mother's death and was presented with a piece of clothing stained with blood vomited by her upon poisoning, he killed two of Seongjong's concubines who were responsible and ordered the execution of officials who supported Consort Yoon's death. This event struck both the Hungu and the remnants of Sarim factions indiscriminately, including the instigators of the first purge. At least 36 officials were executed and remains of eight deceased officials were mutilated; the actual death toll was much greater because the victims' families and relatives were punished as well - male members being killed and the female members enslaved. In the end, 239 officials were affected by the event with exile, or dismissal. Yeonsangun was deposed by the remaining Hungu officials, his half-brother Jungjong became the eleventh king of Joseon in 1506; the Third Literati Purge of 1519 called Kimyo Sahwa or Gimyo Sahwa, is one of the most discussed literati purges in Joseon Dynasty because the Sarim faction held political power and was in the process of carrying out significant reforms at the time of their purge.
Jungjong worked to remove excesses of Yeonsangun and return to Seongjong's era, but his royal authority was limited due to powerful presence of coup leaders who put him on the throne. Only when the three main leaders of coup died of old age and natural causes eight years Jungjong began to assert his authority and look for ways to restrain Hungu faction's power, he soon found an answer in Jo Gwang-jo, a young and energetic leader of the Sarim faction, who soon became Jungjong's most trusted official. He enjoy
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876 known as the Japan-Korea Treaty of Amity in Japanese or Treaty of Ganghwa Island in Korean, was made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Kingdom of Joseon in 1876. Negotiations were concluded on February 26, 1876. In January 1864, King Cheoljong died without an heir and Gojong ascended the throne at the age of 12. However, King Gojong was too young and the new king's father, Yi Ha-ŭng, became the Daewongun or lord of the great court, ruled Korea in his son's name; the term Daewongun referred to any person, not the king but whose son took the throne. The Daewongun initiated reforms to strengthen the monarchy at the expense of the yangban class. Before the nineteenth century, the Koreans had only maintained diplomatic relations with its suzerain China and with neighboring Japan. Foreign trade was limited to China conducted at designated locations along the Korean-Manchurian border, with Japan through the Waegwan in Pusan. By the mid-nineteenth century Westerners had come to refer to Korea as the Hermit Kingdom.
The Daewongun was determined to continue Korea's traditional isolationist policy and to purge the kingdom of any foreign ideas that had infiltrated into the nation. The disastrous events occurring in China, including the First and Second Opium wars, reinforced his determination to separate Korea from the rest of the world. From the early to mid-nineteenth century Western vessels began to make frequent appearances in Korean waters, surveying sea routes and seeking trade; the Korean government was wary and referred to these vessels as strange-looking ships. Several incidents took place. In June 1832, a ship from the British India Company, the Lord Amherst, appeared off the coast of Hwanghae Province seeking trade but was refused. In June 1845 another British warship, surveyed the coast of Cheju-do and Chŏlla province; the following month the Korean government filed a protest with British authorities in Guangzhou through the Chinese government. In June 1846, three French warships dropped anchor off the coast of Chungcheong Province and conveyed a letter protesting persecution of Catholics in the country.
In April 1854, two armed Russian vessels sailed along the eastern coast of Hamgyong Province, causing some deaths and injuries among the Koreans they encountered. This Prompted the Korean government to issue a ban forbidding the people of the province from having any contact with foreign vessels. In January and July 1866, ships manned by the German adventurer Ernst J. Oppert appeared off the coast of Chungcheong Province, seeking trade. In August 1866, an American merchant ship, the General Sherman, appeared off the coast of Pyongan Province, steaming along the Taedong River to the provincial capital of Pyongyang, asked permission to trade. Local officials demanded the ship's departure. A Korean official was taken hostage aboard the vessel and its crew members fired guns at enraged Korean officials and civilians onshore; the crew landed ashore and plundered the town in the process killing seven Koreans. The governor of the province Pak Kyu-su ordered his forces to destroy the ship. In the event the General Sherman ran aground on a sandbar and Korean forces burned the ship and killed the ship's entire crew of 23.
In 1866 after the execution of several of its Catholic missionaries and Korean Catholics, the French launched a punitive expedition against Korea. Five years in 1871, the Americans launched an expedition to Korea. Despite this, the Koreans continued to adhere to isolationism and refused to negotiate to open up the country. During the Edo period, Japan's relations and trade with Korea were conducted through intermediaries with the Sō family in Tsushima. A Japanese outpost called; the traders were confined to the outpost and no Japanese were allowed to travel to the Korean capital at Seoul. During the aftermath of the Meiji restoration in late 1868, a member of the Sō daimyō informed the Korean authorities that a new government had been established and an envoy would be sent from Japan. In 1869 the envoy from the Meiji government arrived in Korea carrying a letter requesting to establish a goodwill mission between the two countries, it used the character ko rather than taikun to refer to the Japanese emperor.
The Koreans only used this character only to refer to the Chinese emperor, to the Koreans it implied ceremonial superiority to the Korean monarch which would make the Korean monarch a vassal or subject of the Japanese ruler. The Japanese were however just reacting to their domestic political situation where the Shogun had been replaced by the emperor; the Koreans remained in the sinocentric world where China was at the centre of interstate relations and as a result refused to receive the envoy. The bureau of foreign affairs wanted to change these arrangements to one based on modern state-to-state relations. In Korea, Heungseon Daewongun, who instituted a policy of closing doors to European powers, was forced into retirement by his son King Gojong and Gojong's wife, Empress Myeongseong. France and the United States had made several unsuccessful attempts to begin commerce with the Joseon dynasty during Heungseon Daewongun's era. However, after he was removed from power, many new officials who supported the idea of opening commerce with foreigners took power.
While there was political instability, Japan developed a plan to open and exert influence on Korea before a European power could. In 1875, their plan was put into action: the Un
Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)
The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea's southern coastal provinces; the invasions were launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering the Korean Peninsula and China, which were ruled by the Joseon and by the Ming dynasty, respectively. Japan succeeded in occupying large portions of the Korean Peninsula, but the contribution of reinforcements by the Ming, as well as the disruption of Japanese supply fleets along the western and southern coasts by the Joseon Navy forced a withdrawal of Japanese forces from Pyongyang and the northern provinces to the south, in Busan and nearby southern regions. Afterwards, with guerrilla warfare waged against the Japanese with righteous armies and supply difficulties hampering both sides, neither the Japanese nor the combined Ming and Joseon forces were able to mount a successful offensive or gain any additional territory, resulting in a military stalemate.
The first phase of the invasion lasted from 1592 until 1596, was followed by unsuccessful peace negotiations between Japan and the Ming between 1596 and 1597. In 1597, Japan renewed its offensive by invading Korea a second time; the pattern of the second invasion mirrored that of the first. The Japanese had initial successes on land, capturing several cities and fortresses, only to be halted and forced to withdraw to the southern coastal regions of the peninsula; the pursuing Ming and Joseon forces, were unable to dislodge the Japanese from their remaining fortresses and entrenched positions in the southern coastal areas, where both sides again became locked in a ten-month long military stalemate. With Hideyoshi's death in 1598, limited progress on land, continued disruption of supply lines by the Joseon navy, the Japanese forces in Korea were ordered to withdraw back to Japan by the new governing Council of Five Elders. Final peace negotiations between the parties followed afterwards and continued for several years resulting in the normalization of relations.
In Korean, the first invasion is called the "Japanese Disturbance of Imjin". The second invasion is called the "Second War of Jeong-yu". Collectively, the invasions are referred to as the Imjin War. In Chinese, the wars are referred to as the "Wanli Korean Campaign", after the reigning Chinese emperor, or the "Renchen War to Defend the Nation", where renchen is the Chinese reading of imjin. In Japanese, the war is called Bunroku no eki. Bunroku referring to the Japanese era name of Emperor Go-Yōzei, spanning the period from 1592 to 1596; the second invasion is called "Keichō no eki". During the Edo period, the war was called "Kara iri", because Japan's ultimate purpose at the commencement of the invasion was the conquest of Ming China, although with the reality that the conflict was confined to the Korean Peninsula for the duration of the war, the armies of Toyotomi Hideyoshi would alter their immediate objectives during the course of the campaign. In 1592, with an army of 158,000 troops, Toyotomi Hideyoshi launched what would end up being the first of two invasions of Korea, with the intent of conquering Joseon Korea and Ming-dynasty China.
The Japanese forces saw overwhelming success on land, capturing both Hanseong, the capital of Korea, Pyongyang, completing the occupation of large portions of the Korean Peninsula in three months. The Japanese forces, well trained and experienced after the numerous battles and conflicts of the Sengoku period held the field in most land engagements; this success on land, was constrained by the naval campaigns of the Korean navy which would continue to raid Japanese supply fleets in its coastal waters, hampering the Japanese advances as supply lines were disrupted along the Western Korean coast and Japanese naval reinforcements were repelled. These trends, with some exceptions on both sides, held true throughout much of the conflict. Under the rule of the Wanli Emperor, Ming China interpreted the Japanese invasions as a challenge and threat to the Imperial Chinese tributary system; the Ming's interest was to keep the war confined to the Korean peninsula and out of its own territory. In the engagements that followed, the majority of the Joseon army was focused on defending the northern provinces from Japanese offensives, while supporting Ming army campaigns to recapture territory occupied by the Japanese.
It was the combination of these Ming-led land campaigns and Joseon-led naval warfare that forced the Japanese army to withdraw from Pyongyang to the south, where the Japanese continued to occupy Hanseong and the southern regions with the exception of the southwestern Jeolla Province. The pursuing Ming and Joseon armies attempted to advance further into the south, but were halted by the Japanese army at the Battle of Byeokjegwan. Subsequently, the Japanese armies launched a counterattack in an attempt to reoccupy the northern provinces but were repelled by the defending Joseon army at Haengju fortress. Additionally, Joseon's civilian-led righteous armies waged guerrilla warfare against the Japanese forces in the south, which weakened the Japanese hold in the cities they occupied. Afterwards, with supply difficulties hampering bot
Joseon white porcelain
Joseon white porcelain or Joseon baekja refers to the white porcelains produced during the Joseon dynasty. White porcelains were preferred and praised over other porcelains during the time to represent Korean Confucian ethics such as frugality and pragmatism. In overall, Joseon ceramics underwent numerous transformations during the five hundred-year period and is divided into three major periods. Although the chronology of Joseon ceramics differs between scholars, three major events affected kiln production. A number of Joseon porcelain has been registered by the government as National Treasures. Joseon white porcelains are characterized by the beauty of unpretentious forms, understated decoration, subtle use of color, reflecting the ideals of Korean Confucian state. Blue and white porcelain Korean pottery and porcelain Dehua porcelain Jae-yeol Kim. Handbook of Korean Art. Laurence King Publishing. ISBN 1-85669-359-7. Yun, Yong-i. Korean Art from the Gompertz and Other Collections in the Fitzwilliam Museum.
Translated by Youngsook Pak. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83592-5. Keith Pratt. Korea: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-0464-7. Goro Akaboshi. Five Centuries of Korean Ceramics. Weatherhill. ISBN 0-8348-1514-1. Claire Roberts. Earth, Fire: Korean Masterpieces of the Choson Dynasty. Queensland Art Gallery. ISBN 1-86317-080-4. Lee, Soyoung. ""In Pursuit of White: Porcelain in the Chosôn Dynasty, 1392–1910 "". In Timeline of Art History; the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. Retrieved 2008-03-27. "White porcelain". Empas/EncyKorea. Retrieved 2008-03-27. "White porcelain". Empas/Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-03-27. Media related to Joseon porcelain at Wikimedia Commons Gallery of Korean Pottery and Porcelain at Korean Overseas Culture and Information Service
Later Jin invasion of Joseon
The Later Jin invasion of Joseon occurred in early 1627 when the Later Jin prince Amin lead an invasion of Korea's Joseon kingdom. The war ended after three months with the Later Jin establishing itself as sovereign tributary overlord over Joseon; however Joseon continued its relationship with the Ming dynasty and showed defiance in solidifying its tributary relationship with the Jurchens. It was followed by the Qing invasion of Joseon in 1636; the kingdom of Joseon had sent 10,000 musketeers and 3,000 archers to aid the Ming dynasty in attacking the Later Jin in 1619, which culminated in an allied defeat at the Battle of Sarhu. The Joseon general Gang Hong-rip surrendered with his remaining forces and insisted that Joseon did not hold anything against the Jurchens, having only sent reinforcements to repay an obligation to Ming. In 1623 a faction at the Joseon court known as the Westerners deposed King Gwanghaegun and installed Injo as king; the following year Yi Gwal rebelled against King Injo, but failed in ousting him, the rebellion was crushed.
Its survivors fled to the Jin court. General Gang Hong-rip was led to believe by the survivors that his family had died in the coup, so he pushed for the invasion out of a desire for revenge. Meanwhile the Westerners took on an explicitly pro-Ming and anti-Jurchen stance in their relations with the two states. Injo severed relations with the Later Jin on the advice of his advisers; the Ming general Mao Wenlong's army of 26,000 men engaged in raids against the Jurchens from an island base off the Korean peninsula. The Westerners aided him by allowing him to station his troops in Uiju; the Later Jin had lost at the Battle of Ningyuan the previous year and their khan Nurhaci died from his wounds afterwards. Peace negotiations with the Ming after the battle delayed an aggressive Ming response to the Jurchen loss, the Ming general Yuan Chonghuan was busy fortifying the border garrisons and training new musketeers; the new khan Hong Taiji was eager for a quick victory to consolidate his position as khan.
By invading Joseon he hoped to extract much needed resources for his army and subjects, who had suffered in the war against Ming. In 1627, Hong Taiji dispatched Amin, Jirgalang and Yoto to Joseon with 30,000 troops under the guidance of Gang Hong-rip and Li Yongfang; the Jurchens met sharp resistance at the border towns but Joseon border garrisons were defeated. The Jurchen army advanced into Uiju where Mao Wenlong was stationed, Mao fled with his men into the Bohai Sea. Next the Jurchens attacked Anju; when it became clear that defeat was inevitable, the Anju garrisons committed suicide by blowing up their gunpowder storehouse. Pyongyang fell without a fight and the Jin army crossed the Taedong River. By this time news of the invasion had reached the Ming court, which dispatched a relief contingent to Joseon, slowing the Jurchen advance into Hwangju. King Injo dispatched an envoy to negotiate a peace treaty, but by the time the messenger returned, Injo had fled from Hanseong to Ganghwa Island in panic.
Despite the Jin invasion's success, Amin was willing to negotiate a peace. The following settlement was agreed upon on Ganghwa Island: Joseon abandons the Ming era name Tianqi. Joseon offers Yi Gak as a hostage as a substitute for a royal prince. Jin and Joseon will not violate each other's territory. While negotiations were taking place the city of Pyongyang underwent several days of looting by the Jurchens before Amin was ordered by Hong Taji to sign the peace agreement; the Jin army withdrew to Mukden, ending the three-month-long invasion. In the postwar negotiations, the Later Jin forced Joseon to open markets near the borders because its conflicts with Ming had brought economic hardship and starvation to Jin subjects. Joseon was forced to transfer suzerainty of the Warka tribe to Jin. Furthermore, a tribute of 100 horses, 100 tiger and leopard skins, 400 bolts of cotton, 15,000 pieces of cloth was to be extracted and gifted to the Jin Khan. Injo's brother was sent to deliver this tribute; however in letters to the Joseon king, Hong Taiji would complain that the Koreans did not behave as if they had lost, were not abiding by the terms of the agreement.
Joseon merchants and markets continued to trade with Ming and aided Ming subjects by providing them with grain and rations. Hong Taiji rebuked them; the relationship between Joseon and Later Jin remained bleak. The invasion was bitterly resented by Joseon's statesmen and Confucian scholars, who believed that it was treacherous and unfilial for Joseon to abandon Ming considering the assistance it had provided against Japan in the past; this resentment was inflamed in 1636 when the Manchus demanded to change the terms of diplomatic relationship from equality to Sovereign-Vassal. The Joseon Court, dominated by anti-Manchu hawks, rejected the demand; this led to the Qing invasion of Joseon of 1636. The Ming general Yuan Chonghuan was impeached for having been duped by the Jin into entering peace negotiations, court officials accused him of lack of agency; this was the last time Ming would engage in peace negotiations with the Jurchens. Mao Wenlong was reported to Ming authorities by Joseon for treachery.
Mao began acting independently and minted his own coins in 1628, while conducting illicit trading in contravention of Ming law. He was caught by Yuan Chonghuan in 1629 and executed for smuggling on 24 July, 1629. Yuan reported the death of Mao Wenlong to the Joseon court, stating that it had been done to "properly establish the emperor's awesomeness." Prior to his execution, Yuan Chonghu