Mini is a British automotive marque founded in 1969, owned by German automotive company BMW since 2000, used by them for a range of small cars. The word Mini has been used in car model names since 1959, in 1969 it became a marque in its own right when the name "Mini" replaced the separate "Austin Mini" and "Morris Mini" car model names. BMW acquired the marque in 1994; the original Mini was a line of British small cars manufactured by the British Motor Corporation, which in 1966 became part of British Motor Holdings. This merged with Leyland Motors in 1968 to form British Leyland. In the 1980s, British Leyland was broken-up and in 1988 Rover Group, including Mini, was acquired by British Aerospace. Mini models included the Morris Mini-Minor and the Austin Seven, the Countryman, Moke, 1275GT and Clubman. Performance versions of these models used the name Cooper, due to a partnership with racing legend John Cooper; the original Mini continued in production until 2000. In 1994, Rover Group was acquired by BMW.
Development of a modern successor to the Mini began in 1995 and an new Mini model was launched in 2001 by BMW. The current Mini range includes the Hardtop/Hatch/Convertible, Countryman, Coupe/Roadster and Paceman; the Mini Hatch/Hardtop, Clubman and Roadster are assembled at BMW's Plant Oxford in Cowley, England. The Mini Convertible and Countryman are assembled at VDL Nedcar in Born, the Mini Hatch/Hardtop is assembled here besides the Oxford plant; the Paceman was. A total of 301,526 Mini vehicles were sold worldwide in 2012. Mini vehicles have been active in rallying and the Mini Cooper S won the Monte Carlo Rally on three occasions, in 1964, 1965 and 1967. Mini has participated in the World Rally Championship since 2011 through the Prodrive WRC Team. In April 2013, Peter Schwarzenbauer became new Mini's managing director. On 1 April 2019, BMW named Bernd Körber as director of the Mini brand and replaced Peter Schwarzenbauer; the original two-door Mini was a small car produced by the British Motor Corporation and its successors from 1959 until 2000.
It is considered an icon of the 1960s, its space-saving front-wheel-drive layout influenced a generation of car-makers. The vehicle is in some ways considered the British equivalent to its German contemporary, the Volkswagen Beetle, which enjoyed similar popularity in North America. In 1999 the Mini was voted the second most influential car of the 20th Century, behind the Ford Model T; this distinctive two-door car was designed for BMC by Sir Alec Issigonis. It was manufactured at the Longbridge and Cowley plants in England, the Victoria Park / Zetland British Motor Corporation factory in Sydney and also in Spain, Chile, Portugal, South Africa, Uruguay and Yugoslavia; the Mini Mark I had three major UK updates: the Mark II, the Clubman and the Mark III. Within these was a series of variations including an estate car, a pickup truck, a van and the Mini Moke—a jeep-like buggy; the Mini Cooper and Cooper "S" were sportier versions that were successful as rally cars, winning the Monte Carlo Rally four times from 1964 through to 1967, although in 1966 the Mini was disqualified after the finish, along with six other British entrants, which included the first four cars to finish, under a questionable ruling that the cars had used an illegal combination of headlamps and spotlights.
Minis were marketed under the Austin and Morris names, as the Austin Seven and Morris Mini-Minor, until Mini became a marque in its own right in 1969. The Mini was again marketed under the Austin name in the 1980s. In the 1990s, BMW was seeking to broaden its model range through the addition of compact cars and SUVs; this sparked a series of compact car concept vehicles from the company during the early 1990s. The first were the E1 and Z13, powered by an electric motor and a rear-mounted 1100 cc BMW motorcycle engine, respectively. In early 1994, BMW acquired the Rover Group from British Aerospace, which owned Mini, among other brands. BMW insisted that a compact model must feature traditional BMW characteristics to uphold the company's standards and image; the "MINI" brand, did not share these standards and BMW saw this as an opportunity to create a competitively priced, yet premium, compact car. This formed BMW's plan to launch the mid-range Mini, it was at around this time that Rover, was working on a successor to the original Mini.
Its first concept was the ACV30, unveiled at the 1997 Monte Carlo Rally. The name was an acronym of Anniversary Concept Vehicle, whilst the'30' represented the 30 years that had passed since a Mini first won the Monte Carlo Rally; the vehicle itself was a two-door coupe powered by a rear-mounted MG F engine. Just months Rover released another concept, this time, a pair of vehicles called Spiritual and Spiritual Too; these vehicles were a more realistic attempt to create a modern Mini, coincided with BMW's official creation of the Mini project. Although the two-door and four-door pair wore Mini badges, both vehicles remained purely concepts. In 1998, BMW set out on creating the production Mini; the first aspect, considered was the design, chosen from 15 full-sized design studies. Five of these designs came from BMW Germany, another five fro
Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp-Eutin was a cadet of the reigning ducal House of Holstein-Gottorp who became prince of Eutin, prince-bishop of Lübeck and regent of the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp. He was the father of Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden, the maternal grandfather of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia, he was a younger son of Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and Princess Frederica Amalia of Denmark, daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark. His elder brother, Frederick IV, succeeded their father as ruler of the duchy, Christian August being given the small fiefdom of Eutin in 1695, whereupon he took the title Duke of Holstein-Eutin. Additionally, he was appointed coadjutor of Lübeck, a Lutheran Imperial state within the Holy Roman Empire, in 1701, his family managed to have him elected as the bishop on 26 April 1706, his eldest brother died in 1702, leaving only an underage son, Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, as his heir. From 1702 to 1708 Christian August was co-regent with his widowed sister-in-law, Hedvig Sophia of Sweden, for Charles Frederick, having been first installed as administrator under her authority.
Upon her death in 1708, Christian August became sole regent of Holstein-Gottorp, which duchy was ravaged by the violence of the Great Northern War. Christian August married Margravine Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach, on 2 September 1704, with whom he had ten children: Hedwig Sophie Auguste of Holstein-Gottorp, Abbess of Herford, 1750–1764 Charles Augustus of Holstein-Gottorp, engaged to marry the future Elizabeth of Russia, but died before the wedding Frederica Amalia of Holstein-Gottorp, a nun at Quedlinburg Anne of Holstein-Gottorp, wed Prince Wilhelm of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, no issue, he was a brother of Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, mother of George III of Great Britain Adolf Frederick of Eutin, King of Sweden. He was named crown prince of Sweden in 1743 and ascended the throne in 1751 as Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden. Frederick August of Eutin, Duke of Oldenburg, he was bishop of Lübeck, after his brother moved to Sweden, he inherited Eutin as well. In 1773, as part of a family agreement involving Denmark and Holstein-Gottorp, he received a new duchy, consisting of the counties of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst.
Joanna Elisabeth, wed Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, became the mother of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia. William Christian of Holstein-Gottorp, died in infancy Frederick Conrad of Holstein-Gottorp, died in infancy Georg Ludwig of Holstein-Gottorp, his son Peter inherited the Duchy of Oldenburg from his childless cousin, the son of Frederick AugustChristian August was succeeded by his eldest son Charles Augustus, who died before taking up the office, by his second son, Adolf Frederick
A Passion Play is the sixth studio album by Jethro Tull, released in July 1973 in both UK and US. Like its predecessor, Thick as a Brick, it is a concept album comprising individual songs arranged into a single continuous piece of music; the theme of the concept is the spiritual journey of one man in the afterlife. In the original tour to support the album, three videos were used: one for the intro of the "play", a second for "The Story of the Hare Who Lost His Spectacles", a final short segment to conclude the act; the whole of the concert was the high water mark of Jethro Tull's elaborate stage productions. Despite receiving negative reviews, with many critics comparing it unfavourably to Thick as a Brick, A Passion Play became Jethro Tull's second No. 1 album in the United States. A Passion Play was undertaken when the band resolved to move to France, in the Château d'Hérouville studios - known in the'70s for being frequented by artists such as Pink Floyd, Elton John and T. Rex; the move was motivated to escape high British tax rates.
The original idea was to make the logical next step from Thick as a Brick. The concepts were as varied as the meaning of life and the comparison between the man and animal world. Although enough material was recorded to fill three sides of the intended double album, problems in the studio and discomfort of the band members made Ian Anderson discard the songs and start from scratch. Little of the material was re-used in A Passion Play, with the notable exception of "Critique Oblique", adapted to the new concept; some of the material would be used in the War Child album, like "Skating Away" and "Only Solitaire." Moving further into the progressive rock genre, A Passion Play featured the entire band playing a multitude of instruments toned with dominating minor key variation. The spoken word piece "The Story of the Hare Who Lost His Spectacles", has its relations in musical terms with Prokofiev’s Peter and the Wolf. Bruce Eder describes Anderson's singing in biblical-sounding references, interwoven with modern language as a sort of a rock equivalent to T.
S. Eliot's The Waste Land with the music a "dazzling mix of old English folk and classical material, reshaped in electric rock terms." A Passion Play borrows its title from a traditional type of play depicting the Passion of Jesus Christ, though the title is evidently ironic, since the album at first appears to present a generically Christian view of the afterlife but rejects Christian theological conclusions. A Passion Play is described in its album liner notes as though it were a staged theatrical "play" in four acts. Of this album, "the lyrics themselves are complicated, the story is unclear, much is left to the individual's interpretation." Knowledge of the characters and setting comes less from the music itself and more from the few brief words in the satirical, six-page Linwell Theatre "programme" included in the original album packaging, which names Rena Sanderone as the author of A Passion Play. A basic narrative plot can be loosely interpreted from the lyrics, liner notes, "theatre programme" of A Passion Play, centering on everyman protagonist Ronnie Pilgrim, named only in the album's programme.
Ronnie Pilgrim recognises his own death and, in ghostly form, attends his own funeral, before traversing a purgatorial desert and "icy wastes", where he is visited by a smiling angel guide. Pilgrim is next admitted into a video viewing room by a Peter Dejour, events of Pilgrim's life are replayed by a projectionist before a demanding jury. After a long-winded and bizarre evaluation process, the sardonic jury concludes that they "won't cross out", suggesting that he has led a decent life and so will be admitted into Heaven, which corresponds with the sudden start of a cheerful "Forest Dance" melody. At this time, the main plot is interrupted by an unrelated, spoken-word comedic interlude backed by instrumentation. Presented as an absurd fable, the interlude details the failure of a group of anthropomorphic animals to help a hare find his missing eyeglasses; the "Forest Dance" melody resumes, Ronnie Pilgrim now appears in Heaven, two days after his judgment at the viewing room, communicating two unexpected thoughts: "I'll go to the foot of our stairs" and "pie in the sky".
Pilgrim's dissatisfaction with Heaven appears to be linked to its mundane atmosphere where most of its residents endlessly reminisce, chronically obsessing over the living. Therefore, unable to adapt, Pilgrim goes to G. Oddie & Son to frankly request a relocation to Hell, feeling that he has a "right to be wrong". Descending into Hell, Pilgrim is confronted by Lucifer, who asserts his cold authority as Pilgrim's "overseer". Pilgrim finds Hell worse than Heaven and flees, understanding himself now as neither good nor evil, wishing that he could trade his "halo for a horn and the horn for the hat I once had", he speaks with a Magus Perdé about his dilemma and, having sampled and rejected both extremes of his afterlife options, he stands on a Stygian shore as a "voyager into life". On this beach, other people and animals prepare to "renew the pledge of life's long song"; the final triumphant lyrics include the phrases "ever-burning fire", "ever-door", "ever-life", moving "from the dark into ever-day", so