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Mining in Cornwall and Devon

Mining in Cornwall and Devon, in the southwest of England, began in the early Bronze Age, around 2150 BC, ended with the closure of South Crofty tin mine in Cornwall in 1998. Tin, copper, were the most extracted metals; some tin mining continued. Tin and copper as well as a few other metals have been mined in Cornwall and Devon; as of 2007 there are no active metalliferous mines remaining. However, tin deposits still exist in Cornwall, there has been talk of reopening the South Crofty tin mine. In addition, work has begun on re-opening the Hemerdon tin mine in south-west Devon. In view of the economic importance of mines and quarries, geological studies have been conducted. Quarrying of the igneous and metamorphic rocks has been a significant industry. In the 20th century the extraction of kaolin was important economically; the intrusion of granite into the surrounding sedimentary rocks gave rise to extensive metamorphism and mineralisation. As a result, Cornwall was one of the most important mining areas in Europe until the early 20th century.

It is thought. Over the years, many other metals have been mined in Cornwall. Alquifou is a lead ore found in Cornwall, used by potters to give pottery a green glaze. Cornwall and Devon provided most of the United Kingdom's tin and arsenic until the 20th century. Tin was found as alluvial deposits of cassiterite in the gravels of stream beds. Tin was mined underground. Tin lodes were found in outcroppings of cliffs. Tin is one of the earliest metals to have been exploited in Britain. Chalcolithic metal workers discovered that by putting a small proportion of tin in molten copper, the alloy bronze was produced; the alloy is harder than copper. The oldest production of tin-bronze is in Turkey about 3500 BC, but exploitation of the tin resources in Britain is believed to have started before 2000 BC, with a thriving tin trade developing with the civilisations of the Mediterranean; the strategic importance of tin in forging bronze weapons brought the south west of Britain into the Mediterranean economy at an early date.

Tin was used in the production of pewter. Mining in Cornwall has existed from the early Bronze Age Britain around 2150 BC. Cornwall was traditionally thought to have been visited by Phoenician metal traders from the eastern Mediterranean, but this view changed during the 20th century, Timothy Champion observed in 2001 that "The direct archaeological evidence for the presence of Phoenician or Carthaginian traders as far north as Britain is non-existent". Britain is one of the places proposed for the Cassiterides, "Tin Islands", first mentioned by Herodotus; the tin content of the bronze from the Nebra Sky Disc dating from 1600 BCE, was found to be from Cornwall. It is that alluvial deposits in the gravels of streams were exploited, but underground mining took root. Shallow cuttings were used to extract ore; as demand for bronze grew in the Middle East, the accessible local supplies of tin ore were exhausted and searches for new supplies were made over all the known world, including Britain. Control of the tin trade seems to have been in Phoenician hands, they kept their sources secret.

The Greeks understood that tin came from the Cassiterides, the "tin islands", of which the geographical identity is debated. By 500 BC Hecataeus knew of islands beyond Gaul. Pytheas of Massalia travelled to Britain in about 325 BC where he found a flourishing tin trade, according to the report of his voyage. Posidonius referred to the tin trade with Britain around 90 BC but Strabo in about 18 AD did not list tin as one of Britain's exports; this is to be because Rome was obtaining its tin from Spain at the time. William Camden, in his Britannia of 1607, identified the Cassiterides with the Scilly Isles and first gave currency to the belief that the Phoenicians traded to Britain. However, there is no evidence of tin mining on the Scilly Isles apart from minor exploratory excavations. Timothy Champion found it that the trade of the Phoenicians with Britain was indirect and under the control of the Veneti of Brittany. Champion, discussing Diodorus Siculus's comments on the tin trade, states that "Diodorus never says that the Phoenicians sailed to Cornwall.

In fact, he says quite the opposite: the production of Cornish tin was in the hands of the natives of Cornwall, its transport to the Mediterranean was organised by local merchants, by sea and over land through France, well outside Phoenician control." In his Bibliotheca historica, written in the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus described ancient tin mining in Britain. "They that inhabit the British promontory of Belerion by reason of their converse with strangers are more civilised and courteous to strangers than the rest are. These are the people that prepare the tin, which with a great deal of care and labour, they dig out of the ground, that being done the metal is mixed with some veins of earth out of which they melt the metal and refine it, they cast it into regular blocks and carry it to a certain island near at hand called Ictis for at low tide, all being dry between there and the island, tin in large quantities is brought over in carts." Pliny, whose text has survived in eroded condition, quotes Timaeus

Boca Chita Key Historic District

The Boca Chita Key Historic District is a U. S. historic district within the Biscayne National Park in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Located on the northwest section of Boca Chita Key, delimited by Biscayne Bay in the north and west and a half ruined stone wall on its southern side, it contains three historic buildings and the Boca Chita Lighthouse. On 1 August 1997, it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places for its architectural and recreational values. Boca Chita Key Historic District covers an area of 110 acres within the larger Biscayne National Park of 180,000 acres area, it is bounded on the southern and western border by the Biscayne Bay and the remnant of a stone wall. Mark C. Honeywell, a wealthy industrialist and his wife who owned the island off their house in the Miami beach, built the structures as part of his development plan after he bought the island in 1937, built up the structures between 1937 and 1940.. The Honeywells built it as their holiday resort, they built many structures which included a chapel, a lighthouse, a pavilion for holding picnic, a generator room, a garage.

An arch bridge was built across an existing canal. The August Geiger Firm were the architects and builders of the structures, which were built in modern architectural style with use of limestone and asphalt; the retreat was a popular venue for holding parties when Honeywells and their guests crossed over to the island from the Miami beach in luxury vessels. On such occasions, a canon located near the lighthouse on the harbour was fired as a welcome gesture to the guests. After his wife's death, Honewell's interest in the island waned, he got married again to Eugenia Hubbard and sold the island to Florence Emerman in 1942. The structures were built with Miami oolite limestone, in the existing structures the external faces have a quarry finish, typical of the area; some of the historic structures are the chapel and the open air picnic pavilion. Notable are the stone wall and the cannon; the island's 65-foot lighthouse was built by Mark C. Honeywell in the 1930s. Built at the north end of the harbour, in a tapered shape with “concrete bricks laid in common bond with the exterior clad in uncoursed limestone.”

At the base the tower is founded on a 28 feet square concrete base. The observation deck has protective rails painted in white paint, The dome fitted with the lantern light is steel frame cage; the entrance door has a stone projection. There is a circular staircase, cantilevered from the wall of the tower; the owner of the island had built it with the objective of using it as a navigation guide for his business operations on the island. However, a few hours after the lighthouse was lighted and commissioned, it had to close down, as Honeywell had failed to inform and obtain permission of the U. S. Coast Guard, the Lighthouse Service authorities, about the purpose of his project; the U. S. Coast Guard considered it. During Hurricane Andrew in 1992, the windows of the lighthouse were damaged and were replaced with funds provided by a friend of Honeywell; the dome of the lighthouse was under repairs since July 2013 and was expected to be ready by end of August 2013. The repairs to the lighthouse involved up-gradation with Hurricane-proof glass for the dome, apart from repairs and providing new vents for ventilation.

Painting of the entire structure was on the anvil. As the lighthouse is not functional it can be visited only when the park staff or volunteers are available there; the top deck of the lighthouse provides scenic views of the bay, Miami, Key Biscayne, the sky line of the Miami Beach. The chapel is concrete structure of 12 by 20 feet size built with uncoursed stone, it has a concave shaped roof with a steep slope. Entrance doors are provided on the walls on eastern sides; the southern door is flanked by a low level wall, curved. Two identical openings are provided on the walls; the picnic pavilion is an open-air structure, located across the lighthouse. It is founded on a concrete raft as base. Above the concrete rafts ten square piers are raised along the longer length of the pavilion; the cornice and frieze are supported by the piers and above this is the roof in a hip shape covered with asphalt shingles. A cannon is one of the historic objects. IT is located on the northeastern part of the key near the lighthouse.

The gun's trunnions are fitted on either side of the cannon over the base, an inclined with indentures. The cannon is rusted; the stone wall was built with limestone on reinforced cement concrete foundation. The Honeywells built it to enclose the structures that were built in the Boca Chita area; the wall was built in several stretches. The first stretch was for 400 feet from the Biscayne Bay to the south of the picnic, it turned for a length of 35 feet in curved alignment from t where it was extended to the west for further 309 feet. The next orientation of the wall was to turned north for a length 155 feet and ending close to the engine house; the wall had seven gate at different locations of which there only three are extant. The third gate 4 feet in width has an arched opening. Hurricane Andrew destroyed the eastern two-thirds part of this wall, stone gate house and gate posts; the remaining one third of the wall has the arc

Immigration equality

Immigration equality is a citizens' equal ability or right to immigrate their family members. It applies to fair and equal execution of the laws and the rights of non-citizens regardless of nationality or where they are coming from. Immigration issues can be a LGBT rights issue, as government recognition of same-sex relationships vary from country to country. In 1999, President Bill Clinton sent a bill to Congress that would have equalized immigration rights for people from Central America and Haiti. Clinton said the bill would correct the imbalance in immigration laws that gave advantage to people who fled communist regimes such as Cuba and Nicaragua. Like Nicaraguans and Cubans, many Salvadorans, Guatemalans and Haitians fled human rights abuses or unstable political economic conditions in the 1980s and 1990s, but the latter received unequal treatment that granted to the Nicaraguans and Cubans; the "Central American and Haitian Parity Act of 1999" never passed, but would have offered immigration equality protections to migrants from Haiti, El Salvador and Honduras.

Haitians sought immigration equality in the Elián González affair in 2000 when they organized demonstrations in Miami during an international tug of war between Cuba and the US. They protested what they said was discrimination against Haitian immigrants by the INS and the behavior of elected officials who lobbied for Elián González to stay in the US, yet ignored the plight of Haitian refugees and the repatriation of Haitian children. In 2004, The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR, expressed concern about the plight of the Haitian people as the country was sliding further into chaos. Cuba and Canada said they will not send people back to Haiti, but President George W. Bush warned Haitians they will be sent home if they try to flee to the US. In a matter of a few days, the US Coast Guard intercepted some 500 people in boats fleeing Haiti and sent them back; the US was not sending back Cubans fleeing similar situations and regimes, many argue that immigration equality rights between the two nationalities should apply.

In 2006, protests continued for immigration equality rights for the Haitians as Lawyers protest Deportation of Illegal Immigrants to Haiti. Until 2013, LGBT Americans were not afforded the same rights and responsibilities under current immigration law as their heterosexual counterparts; the Defense of Marriage Act had forbidden the federal government from conferring any benefits upon same-sex couples. Under DOMA, persons in same-sex marriages were not considered married for immigration purposes. U. S. citizens and permanent residents in same-sex marriages could not petition for their spouses, nor could they be accompanied by their spouses into the U. S. on the basis of a family or employment-based visa. A non-citizen in such a marriage would not have been able to use it as the basis for obtaining a waiver or relief from removal from the U. S. On June 26, 2013, the Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Windsor that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act is unconstitutional. Following this decision, the administration of President Barack Obama began recognizing same-sex couples for immigration purposes.

Legislation to establish immigration equality, the Uniting American Families Act, has been introduced in the US Congress since 2000. Since 2003, fear of persecution has been accepted as grounds for granting asylum to LGBT persons; the Board of Immigration Appeals denied an application for asylum on the part of a gay Indonesian man. It doubted his fear of persecution if he returned to Indonesia in part because "closeted homosexuality is tolerated in Indonesia"; the case, Kadri v. Mukasey, is on appeal to the First Circuit Court of Appeals. At present a number of countries recognise same-sex relationships for immigration purposes; this may occur through the recognition of same-sex marriage, through some other form of registered relationship, or through specific provisions made in immigration law. These countries are: There are several organizations in the United States that deal with LGBT/HIV+ immigration issues and represent LGBT/HIV+ persons in legal immigration to the U. S. Immigration Equality is a national organization fighting for equality under U.

S. immigration law for lesbian, bisexual, HIV-positive individuals. Founded in 1994 as the Lesbian and Gay Immigration Rights Task Force, it has grown to a membership of 10,000 people in cities all over the country. Immigration Equality maintains a list of LGBT/HIV-friendly private immigration attorneys to provide legal representation for those who contact them, they provide technical assistance to attorneys who are working on sexual orientation, transgender identity, or HIV status-based asylum applications, or other immigration applications where the client’s LGBT or HIV-positive identity is at issue in the case. Out4Immigration is a volunteer grassroots organization that addresses the widespread discriminatory impact of U. S. immigration laws on the lives of Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and HIV+ people and their families through education, outreach and the maintenance of a resource and support network. They maintain a blog Change.org as well as a letter writing campaign urging representatives to support Immigration Reform that includes LGBT Families.

They worked with National Center for Lesbian Rights' Immigration Project to provide a monthly free legal clinic where participants get to consult with an immigration attorney to discuss their cases. The National Center for Lesbian Rights, founded in 1977, is a national legal organization committed to advancing the civil and human rights of lesbian, gay and transgender people and their families through litigation, public policy advocacy, public education. What We Do

Ouabain

Ouabain or known as g-strophanthin, is a plant derived toxic substance, traditionally used as an arrow poison in eastern Africa for both hunting and warfare. Ouabain is a cardiac glycoside and in lower doses, can be used medically to treat hypotension and some arrhythmias, it acts by inhibiting the Na/K-ATPase known as the sodium-potassium ion pump. It is classified as an hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U. S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities. Ouabain can be found in the roots, stems and seeds of the Acokanthera schimperi and Strophanthus gratus plants, both of which are native to eastern Africa. Ouabain is a cardiac glycoside. Once ouabain binds to this enzyme, the enzyme ceases to function, leading to an increase of intracellular sodium; this increase in intracellular sodium reduces the activity of the sodium-calcium exchanger, which pumps one calcium ion out of the cell and three sodium ions into the cell down their concentration gradient.

Therefore, the decrease in the concentration gradient of sodium into the cell which occurs when the Na/K-ATPase is inhibited reduces the ability of the NCX to function. This in turn elevates intracellular calcium; this results in an increase in cardiac vagal tone. The change in ionic gradients caused by ouabain can affect the membrane voltage of the cell and result in cardiac arrhythmias. An overdose of ouabain can be detected by the presence of the following symptoms: rapid twitching of the neck and chest musculature, respiratory distress and irregular heartbeat, rise in blood pressure, wheezing and gasping rattling. Death is caused by cardiac arrest. Ouabain is a toxic compound with a LD50 of 5 mg/kg when administered orally to rodents. However, ouabain has a low bioavailability and is absorbed poorly from the alimentary tract as so much of the oral dose is destroyed. Intravenous administration results in greater available concentrations and has been shown to decrease the LD50 to 2.2 mg/kg in rodents.

After intravenous administration, the onset of action occurs within 3–10 minutes in humans with the maximum effect enduring for 1.5 hours. Ouabain is eliminated by renal excretion unchanged. In 1991, a specific high affinity sodium pump inhibitor indistinguishable from ouabain was first discovered in the human circulation and proposed as one of the potential mediators of long term blood pressure and the enhanced salt excretion following salt and volume loading; this agent was an inhibitor of the sodium pump that acted to digitalis. A number of analytical techniques led to the conclusion that this circulating molecule was ouabain and that humans were producing it as an endogenous hormone. A large portion of the scientific community agreed that this inhibitor was endogenous ouabain and that there was strong evidence to indicate that it was synthesized in the adrenal gland. One early speculative interpretation of the analytical data led to the proposal that endogenous ouabain may have been the 11 epimer, i.e. an isomer of plant ouabain.

However, this possibility was excluded by various methods including the synthesis of the 11 epimer and the demonstration that it has different chromatographic behavior from ouabain. Critically, the primary observations concerning the identification of ouabain in mammals were repeated and confirmed using a variety of tissue sources on three different continents with advanced analytical methods as summarized elsewhere Despite widespread analytical confirmation, some questioned whether or not this endogenous substance is ouabain; the arguments were based less upon rigorous analytical data but more on the fact that immunoassays are neither specific nor reliable. Hence, it was suggested that some assays for endogenous ouabain detected other compounds or failed to detect ouabain at all. Additionally, it was suggested that rhamnose, the L-sugar component of ouabain, could not be synthesized within the body despite published data to the contrary, yet another argument against the existence of endogenous ouabain was the lack of effect of rostafuroxin on blood pressure in an unselected population of hypertensive patients.

Although ouabain is no longer approved for use in the USA, in France and Germany, intravenous ouabain has a long history in the treatment of heart failure, some continue to advocate its use intravenously and orally in angina pectoris and myocardial infarction despite its poor and variable absorption. The positive properties of ouabain regarding the prophylaxis and treatment of these two indications are documented by several studies; the African crested rat has a broad, white-bordered strip of hairs covering an area of glandular skin on the flank. When the animal is threatened or excited, the mane on its back erects and this flank strip parts, exposing the glandular area; the hairs in this flank area are specialised. The rat is known to deliberately chew the roots and bark of the Poison-arrow tree, which contains ouabain. After the rat has chewed the tree, instead of swallowing the poison it slathers the resulting masticate onto its specialised flank hairs which are adapted to absorb the poisonous mixture.

It thereby creates a defense mechanism that can sicken or kill predators which attempt to bite it. The t

Gaiety Theatre, Isle of Man

The Gaiety Theatre and Opera House is a theatre in Douglas, Isle of Man which together with the Villa Marina forms the Villa-Gaiety complex. The Gaiety is situated on Douglas promenade, overlooking the sea and adjacent to the Villa Gardens and Butts. Built in 1899 to the designs of architect Frank Matcham as an opera house and theatre the Gaiety, along with the nearby Villa Marina, stands on the site of a lodge occupied in the early 19th Century by Castle Mona architect and Atholl family retainer George Steuart, later bought by benefactor Henry Bloom Noble and donated for recreational use; the Pavilion had been built in 1893 at the height of the Island's tourism boom and was owned by Richard Maltby Broadbent, the man who turned Groudle Glen into pleasure gardens and was instrumental in the construction of the Groudle Glen Railway. The venue was operated by the Pavilion Company Ltd; the idea was that the Pavilion would match the theatres and dance halls at other resorts such as Blackpool. To create the space needed a "Belfast Roof" was built, meaning a barrel vaulted roof was formed from iron sections bolted together into hoops which were reinforced and faced with laminated wood.

However the venture was not a success, the Pavilion closed after only six seasons following which Broadbent sold the land to the Palace and Derby Castle Company. The new owners enlisted the services of Frank Matcham in order to carry out an extensive renovation of the venue with Matcham presenting his plans for the theatre to Douglas Corporation in March, 1899. Part of the plans saw the creation of a glass ceiling in order to afford maximum light together with an elegant and playful interior inside the narrow shell of the Pavilion's Belfast Roof and the remains of the Villa house; the stage was extended by 42 ft and the resulting loss of seating was made up for by enlarging the circle and adding the third level. The under-stage machinery was installed by the Douglas firm of J. L. Killip & Collister of Tynwald Street; the new entrance facade, with its upstairs loggia, pedimented towers and flamboyant stucco decoration, took its inspiration from the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, while the interior, with its ceiling paintings and ornate plasterwork, combined Baroque and Elizabethan elements.

An ingenious feature found in Matcham's theatre in Buxton, was what was known as a "sunburner". This consisted of a main roof air vent about a large circular glass window in which there was a gaslight; as the window heated up, it caused the air around it to rise and fresh air would rush in through vents to replace it. The theatre opened on 16 July 1900 with a West End production of "The Telephone Girl" featuring Ada Blanche; the theatre enjoyed considerable success in the Edwardian era until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, but much harder times set in after the war and the theatre fell into decline along with the Island's tourist industry. Various attempts were made to regain its former commercial success, including installation of cinema equipment in the 1920s and a 1938 ice show; the Second World War period and aftermath saw deterioration of the building outside the means of the owners to repair and by 1970 the theatre came "just one signature away" from being demolished. In 1971 the Isle of Man Government acquired the dilapidated building from the Palace and Derby Castle Company for the sum of £41,000.

It granted a further £9,000 for essential repairs, as the circle bar and stage all needed a revamp. In 1976 the restoration began under the direction of Victor Glasstone; the theatre underwent further restoration, under the direction of Mervin Stokes, MBE, from the 1990s to replicate its 1900 opening condition in time for the centenary celebration in 2000. 100 years after opening, on 16 July 2000, the centenary was celebrated with a performance of "The Telephone Girl" which opened the Gaiety in 1900 and following, a performance of "The Corsican Brothers," a popular play which in Victorian times and a special'Corsican Trap' was constructed for the performance. It is believed to be the only working Corsican Trap in the World. Another unique feature of the theatre is the working Act Drop depicting a dancing lady; the restoration of the Gaiety Theatre was directed over several years by the Theatre Manager of the day, Mervin Russell Stokes, made an MBE for his contribution to the project. It was he who, with help, arranged for the funding and supervised the work done, carrying out some of it himself, always with a view to strict authenticity down to having the original paint colours and carpeting recreated.

He went to great lengths to return the building to as near its original appearance as possible. He was responsible for the Gaiety's famous'Corsican Trap,' and other period stage machinery, it is to him, more than any other individual, that credit must be given. Today the theatre continues with productions by local companies and touring productions of musicals and opera, it now forms a part of the Villa-Gaiety complex together with the Villa Marina, a nearby 1,500 seat auditorium. The Gaiety Theatre featured on Isle of Man commemorative stamps in 1987, 1994 and 2000. In February 2008, The Gaiety hosted a Hollywood movie Me and Orson Welles, starring Zac Efron, Christian McKay and Claire Danes; the Gaiety replicates the Mercury Theatre in New York in 1937. In 1978 the organisation Friends of the Gaiety was formed to help attract larger audiences to the theatre as well as undertaking fundraising. Villa Marina and Gaiety Theatre Website Unofficial Theatre website

Baltic Sea cruiseferries

The Baltic Sea is crossed by several cruiseferry lines. Some important shipping companies are Viking Line, Silja Line, Tallink, St. Peter Line, Eckerö Line and Birka Line. Tallink and Viking Line operate competing cruiseferries on the routes Stockholm - Turku and Stockholm - Helsinki, calling in Åland. Additionally, Tallink sails Stockholm - Mariehamn - Tallinn and Stockholm - Riga. Tallink, Viking Line and Eckerö Line compete on the Helsinki - Tallinn route, the busiest route in the Baltic Sea, travelled by over 6 million people in 2008. Baltic routes are served by new ships purpose-built for the routes. Older cruiseferries from the Baltic serve as ferries on other seas, or in some cases, as cruise ships. Viking Line and Eckerölinjen operate short routes from Sweden to Åland, sailing on Kapellskär - Mariehamn and Grisslehamn - Berghamn. Birka Line, owned by Eckerö operates short cruises out of Stockholm. GTS Finnjet of 1977 is considered to have been the first cruiseferry, she was the first ferry to offer cruise-ship quality services and accommodations, the first generation of cruiseferries operating from Finland to Sweden were influenced by Finnjet's interior and exterior designs.

After the fall of the Soviet Union the route connecting Helsinki to Tallinn became lucrative, which led to Estonia-based company Tallink to grow and rival the two long-established companies. Tallink purchased Silja Line in 2006; the size of Baltic cruiseferries is limited by various narrow passages in the Stockholm, Ålandian and Turku archipelagos, meaning ships not much in excess of 200 meters cannot traffic on these routes. The single narrowest point is Kustaanmiekka strait outside Helsinki, although ships making port at the city's west harbour do not have to pass through the strait. Viking and Silja Line have wished to keep their terminals in the South Harbour, however, as it is located right next to the city center; the longest ships to maintain scheduled service through the Kustaanmiekka strait were MS Finnstar and her sisters with a length of 219 meters. The longest ship to have navigated though the narrows past Suomenlinna sea fortress was MS Oriana, but, only possible due to good weather conditions.

The expansion of the European Union has limited the growth of the industry as duty-free sales on intra-EU routes are no longer possible. However, as the Åland Islands are outside the EU customs zone, duty-free sales are still possible on routes making a stop at Mariehamn or other harbours on the islands. Another popular destination is Estonia with its lower taxes on alcohol; the ferries have been criticized because of the low prices of alcoholic beverages which encourage passengers to become drunk and act irresponsibly. Due to the cheap price of the cruises and availability of duty-free alcohol many big parties involving vast amounts of alcohol consumption are held on the ships. Many Finns buy snus from ferries as its sale is illegal in Finland due to EU regulations. 14 January 1993, MS Jan Heweliusz sank near Rügen island. 4 March 1994, MS Sally Albatros ran aground near Porkkala, causing her to sink. 28 September 1994, MS Estonia sank claiming 852 lives. 19 January 2009, Åland due to water in its fuel.

When weighing the anchor, she hooked the cables of internet traffic to Åland. 29 August 2009, a fire was extinguished on MS Finnfellow, carrying 74 passengers at the time. 9 October 2010, MS Lisco Gloria caught fire while travelling through Fehmarn Belt. All 204 passengers and 32 crewmembers were rescued, but the ship was deemed a constructive total loss. Duty Free on Arrival - Consumer information for duty-free shopping on ferry boats