Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
National Library Board
The National Library Board is a statutory board of the Ministry of Communications and Information, Singapore. Tasked to manage the public libraries and to lead them into the Information Age where non-print resources are making their mark, the NLB is aimed towards the creation of "borderless libraries," an initiative aimed at bringing the libraries closer to Singaporeans, to connect Singaporeans with the outside world; the National libraries of Singapore house books in all four official languages of Singapore: English, Chinese and Tamil. Other than paper books, the libraries loans CD-ROMs, DVD-ROMs, VCDs, video cassettes, audiobooks on CDs, magazines and periodicals, DVD-videos and music CDs, its flagship institution, the National Library, has moved to its new premises at Victoria Street since 22 July 2005. Although the NLB was formed on 1 September 1995 only, its history began way back in the 1820s when Sir Stamford Raffles, founder of modern Singapore, first proposed the idea of establishing a public library in the thriving colony.
This library was to evolve into the National Library of Singapore in 1960, before expanding into the suburbs with the setting up of branch libraries in the various new towns. In 1995, when the NLB took over the duties of the National Library of Singapore, it was entrusted with bringing to reality the findings of the Library 2000 Review Committee, set up in June 1992 to review the public library system; this committee, headed by Dr Tan Chin Nam, considered the role of information technology in contemporary library services for the next decade, with the aims of Establishing Singapore as an international information hub. The committee took into consideration the library needs of public library users in general, the linguistic needs of an bilingual populace, the catering to the needs of professions who require extensive information databases, the establishment of the library as a nucleus of national culture and heritage. After a year-long review, the Committee published their findings on 5 March 1994, which calls for six "strategic thrusts", which are An Adaptive Public Library System A Network of Borderless Libraries A Coordinated National Collection Strategy Quality Service Through Market Orientation Symbiotic Linkages With Business And Community A Global Knowledge ArbitrageIn addition, the report speaks of three "key enablers" to bring about these changes, which are the setting up of a new statutory board staff development, the exploiting of new technology.
The NLB was thus formed as a result of this Report. The NLB implements initiatives arising from the Report's recommendations, to help Singapore stay competitive in the global knowledge economy and become "a more gracious society"; the NLB serves Permanent residents and foreigners. Annual basic membership, free for Singapore citizens and Permanent Residents, allows borrowers to loan up to eight items at any one time, which includes a maximum of 3 AV items. A one-time non-refundable registration fee of $10.50 is charged during registration. 21 days is the loan period given for books, 14 days for magazines. If the borrower returns the book/magazine after the loan period, he or she will need to pay a fine of S$0.15 per day for books, S$0.50 for magazines. The book/magazine may be renewed for free from 1 April 2009 onwards, subject to the fact that the book/magazine is not reserved by someone else beforehand. All books/magazines can be renewed once only. For members on premium membership, they will be able to borrow up to 4 additional books, audio-visual materials and music scores.
The annual non-refundable membership fee for the Premium Membership is S$21.00. The loan period for music scores is 21 days and for 14 days. For foreigners who are interested in borrowing library materials, a non-refundable registration fee of S$10.50 as well as an annual foreign membership fee of S$42.80 is charged. This entitles them to borrow up to 4 books or magazines, 4 additional AV items; the loan period is the same as for citizens and Permanent residents. In July 2014, the NLB announced that it was pulping three children's books, And Tango Makes Three, The White Swan Express, Who's In My Family?, following a user's complaint that the books' homosexual themes did not promote family values. In protest, several poets and writers resigned from the Singapore Writers Festival and the Singapore Literature Prize, while several boycotted a panel discussion hosted by the NLB. A petition was signed by 3,800 signatories to reinstate the books or relocate the books to a different section, while another petition supporting the NLB's decision was signed by 26,000.
A group supporting the reinstating of the affected books organised an event called "Let's Read Together" at the atrium of the National Library, where members of the public could bring books of any content to read along with a penguin stuffed toy, drawing 250 people on 13 July 2014. Communications and Information Minister Yaacob Ibrahim instructed the NLB to place And Tango Makes Three and The White Swan Express in the adult section instead of pulping them; the NLB later announced that book selection and review processes would be refined. List of libraries in Singapore Asian Children's Festival Official site
Cabinet of Singapore
The Cabinet of Singapore forms the Government of Singapore together with the President of Singapore. It is led by the Prime Minister of Singapore, the head of government; the Prime Minister is a Member of Parliament appointed by the President who selects a person that in his or her view is to command the confidence of a majority of the Parliament of Singapore. The other members of the Cabinet are Ministers who are Members of Parliament appointed by the President on the Prime Minister's advice. Cabinet members are prohibited from holding any office of profit and from engaging in any commercial enterprise; the Cabinet directs and controls the Government and is collectively responsible to Parliament. It has significant influence over lawmaking. Ministers may be designated by the Prime Minister to be in charge of particular ministries, or as Ministers in the Prime Minister's Office. Singapore's ministers are the best paid in the world. Prior to a salary review in 2011, the Prime Minister's annual salary was S$3.07 million, while the pay of ministerial-grade officers ranged between S$1.58 million and S$2.37 million.
On 21 May 2011, a committee was appointed by the Prime Minister to review the salaries of the Prime Minister as well as the President, political appointment holders, Members of Parliament. Following the recommended wage reductions by the committee which were debated and subsequently accepted in Parliament, the Prime Minister's salary was reduced by 36% to S$2.2 million. Nonetheless, the Prime Minister remains the highest-paid political leader in the world; the earliest predecessor of the Cabinet was the Executive Council of the Straits Settlements, introduced in 1877 to advise the Governor of the Straits Settlements. It wielded no executive power. In 1955, a Council of Ministers was created, made up of three ex officio Official Members and six Elected Members of the Legislative Assembly of Singapore, appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House. Following the general elections that year, David Saul Marshall became the first Chief Minister of Singapore. Constitutional talks between Legislative Assembly representatives and the Colonial Office were held from 1956 to 1958, Singapore gained full internal self-government in 1959.
The Governor was replaced by the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, who had power to appoint to the post of Prime Minister the person most to command the authority of the Assembly, other Ministers of the Cabinet on the Prime Minister's advice. In the 1959 general elections, the People's Action Party swept to power with 43 out of the 51 seats in the Assembly, Lee Kuan Yew became the first Prime Minister of Singapore; the executive branch of the Singapore Government remained unchanged following Singapore's merger with Malaysia in 1963, subsequent independence in 1965. Following the 2011 general election, a Cabinet reshuffle took place effective 21 May 2011. Lim Hng Kiang and Lim Swee Say retained their Trade and Industry and Prime Minister's Office portfolios, while other ministers were given new appointments to the remaining 11 ministries. Heng Swee Keat and Chan Chun Sing, both elected to Parliament for the first time, were assigned the posts of Minister for Education, Acting Minister for Community Development and Sports.
A Cabinet Reshuffle took place in May 2018 with the stated purpose was to better prepare for a leadership transition to the "4G" leaders, Minister for Trade and Industry Lim Hng Kiang, Minister for Manpower Lim Swee Say, Minister for Communications and Information Yaacob Ibrahim all retired and were succeeded by Chan Chun Sing, Josephine Teo, S. Iswaran all of whom had held other cabinet appointments. Up to the outbreak of World War II, Singapore was part of the Crown colony known as the Straits Settlements together with Malacca and Penang; the earliest predecessor of the Cabinet was arguably the Executive Council of the Straits Settlements, introduced in 1877 by letters patent issued by the Crown, though its function was different from that of today's Cabinet. The Council, composed of "such persons and constituted in such manner as may be directed" by royal instructions, existed to advise the Governor of the Straits Settlements and wielded no executive power; the Governor was required to consult the Executive Council on all affairs of importance unless they were too urgent to be laid before it, or if reference to it would prejudice the public service.
In such urgent cases, the Governor had to inform the Council of the measures. Following the Second World War, the Straits Settlements were disbanded and Singapore became a Crown colony in its own right; the reconstituted Executive Council consisted of six officials and four nominated "unofficials". In February 1954, the Rendel Constitutional Commission under the chairmanship of Sir George William Rendel, appointed to comprehensively review the constitution of the Colony of Singapore, rendered its report. Among other things, it recommended that a Council of Ministers be created, composed of three ex officio Official Members and six Elected Members of the Legislative Assembly of Singapore appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House, who would be the leader of the largest political party or coalition of parties having majority support in the legislature; the recommendation was implemented in 1955. In the general election held that year, the Labour Front took a majority of the seats in the Assembly, David Saul Marshall became the first Chief Minister of Singapore.
Major problems with the Rendel Constitution were that the Chief Minister and Ministers' powers were il
Dr. Yaacob bin Ibrahim, MP is a Singaporean politician. A member of the governing People's Action Party until 2020, he is Minister for Communications and Information, Minister-in-charge of Muslim Affairs and Minister in charge of Cyber Security. A Member of Parliament since 1997, he was the Minister for Community Development and Sports from 2003 to 2004, as the Minister for the Environment and Water Resources from 2004 to 2011, as the Minister for the Information and the Arts from 21 May 2011 to 1 November 2012. Dr Yaacob has been active in community service since his school days and has been involved in the Association of Muslim Professionals, Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura and the Nature Society. A volunteer tutor, became the Chairman of the Council for the Development of Singapore Malay/Muslim Community in March 2002, he is married with a daughter. Questions about his son's citizenship and if he would serve national service were raised when a leaked US diplomatic cable from WikiLeaks stated the minister's two children as US citizens.
In response, he clarified that his children have dual American and Singaporean citizenship until the age of 18 because of the status of his wife as an American citizen. He confirms. Yaacob's eldest brother Ismail Ibrahim was the first Malay recipient of the President's Scholarship, his sister Zuraidah Ibrahim was a former Straits Times journalist now with South China Morning Post. His younger brother Latiff Ibrahim is a lawyer. Yaacob studied at Tanjong Katong Technical Secondary School, which turned coeducational during his time there, he graduated from the University of Singapore with an honours degree in civil engineering in 1980 and in 1989 obtained a Doctor of Philosophy from Stanford University. He was a postdoc at Cornell University, he returned to Singapore in 1990 and joined the National University of Singapore faculty in 1991. He received his department's teaching excellence award in 1994, he is on leave of absence from the university as an associate professor. A Member of Parliament since 1997, he represented the Jalan Besar Group Representation Constituency and the Moulmein-Kallang GRC since the 2011 general election.
Within both GRCs, he has been responsible for the Kolam Ayer ward. In April 2001 he became the first Mayor of Central District of Singapore until November 2001. Yaacob was Parliamentary Secretary and Senior Parliamentary Secretary at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, he became a Minister of State for at the Ministry of Community Development and Sports in November 2001. In March 2002, Yaacob became the Acting Minister for Community Development and Sports and Minister-in-charge of Muslim Affairs and made a full member of the Cabinet in May 2003, he became the Minister of Environment and Water Resources in 2004. In 2009, after the Bukit Timah canal burst its banks after a downpour, resulting in parts of Bukit Timah being submerged, Yaacob remarked it was a freak event that "occurs once in 50 years"; the country would go on to experience more than 70 flash floods between the year 2010 and 2013. In May 2011, in a cabinet rearrangement, Yaacob became Minister for Information and the Arts.
He continues to serve as the Minister-in-charge of Muslim Affairs. Yaacob is on the PAP Central Executive Committee as Vice-Chairman. In April 2015, Dr Yaacob was appointed the Minister in charge of Cyber Security and oversees the Cyber Security Agency, an agency formed under the Prime Minister's Office, he has been re-appointed to serve in this capacity following the September 2015 General Election. Yaacob stepped down from the cabinet on 30 April 2018. Profile of Yaacob Ibrahim at cabinet.gov.sg