Ministry of Munitions (Japan)
The Ministry of Munitions was a cabinet-level ministry in the final days of the Empire of Japan, charged with the procurement and manufacture of armaments, spare parts and munitions to support the Japanese war effort in World War II The Ministry of Munitions was created on 1 November 1943 out of the Board of Planning of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, subsequently abolished. With an increasing portion of Japan's industrial base and infrastructure damaged by Allied air raids, the Japanese government felt it necessary to unify the administration of munitions production to improve efficiency and to increase production levels that of military aircraft; the concept was inspired by the German Ministry of Armaments and Munitions under Fritz Todt and Albert Speer, which had increased Nazi Germany's industrial production under similar adverse conditions, was an unsuccessful political move by the military to impose more control over the zaibatsu. Although Prime Minister Tōjō concurrently was first Minister of Munitions, the actual day-to-day running of the Ministry devolved to his deputy, Nobusuke Kishi.
Key firms were designated as components of the nationalized Munitions Companies System, managers were given positions as government officials. Production staff was not allowed to quit, or go on strike. State-controlled financial institutions provided working capital and subsidized the firms for any losses; the Ministry of Munitions was abolished in 1945, by the American occupation authorities, its functions were absorbed into the modern Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Munitions Minister Secretariat General Operations Bureau Aircraft Production Bureau Mechanical Bureau Iron & Steel Bureau Light Metals Bureau Non-Metallic Materials Bureau Chemical Bureau Fuels Bureau Electricity Bureau Hoshi, Takeo. Corporate Financing and Governance in Japan: The Road to the Future. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-08301-9. Neary, Ian; the State and Politics in Japan. Polity. ISBN 0-7456-2134-1. Roth, Andrew. Dilemma in Japan. Roth Press. ISBN 1-4067-6311-X. Friedman, David; the Misunderstood Miracle: Industrial Development and Political Change in Japan.
Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9479-6. National Diet Library. "Resolution of the Cabinet of the Empire of Japan. Modern Historical Documents. Archived from the original on December 12, 2007. National Diet Library. "Chronological table 1. Retrieved November 16, 2007
Ministry of Finance (Japan)
The Ministry of Finance is one of the cabinet-level ministries of the Japanese government. The ministry was named the Ōkura-shō until 2001; the Ministry is headed by the Minister of Finance, a member of the Cabinet and is chosen from members of the Diet by the Prime Minister. The Ministry's originated in the 6th century, when the Ōkura was established as a state treasury in ancient Japan; when a modern system of government was introduced after the Meiji Restoration, the Ministry of Finance was established as a government body in charge of public finance and monetary affairs. It is said that new ministry employees are subtly reminded that the Ōkura-shō predates by some 1269 years when the new Constitution was imposed on the nation by the U. S. occupation forces in 1947. The Ministry has long been regarded as the most powerful ministry in the Japanese government. After various financial scandals revealed in the 1990s, the Ministry lost its power over banking supervision to a newly established Financial Services Agency.
It lost most of its control over monetary policy to the Bank of Japan when the Diet passed a new Bank of Japan Law in 1998. In addition, it lost its ancient Japanese name when it was renamed the Zaimu-shō in January 2001, although its English name remained the same. Despite this renaming, the Japanese people still use the older term Ōkura-daijin, meaning a person controlling a budget. In financial markets, the Ministry is famous for its active foreign exchange policy, its top civil servant on the international side, Vice Minister of Finance for International Affairs, is quoted in the financial press. Former Vice Minister Eisuke Sakakibara was known as "Mr Yen", whereas his successors Haruhiko Kuroda and Zenbei Mizoguchi were referred to as "Mr. Asian Currency" and "Mr. Dollar", respectively; the current Minister of Finance is Tarō Asō. The Ministry is organized in six bureaus that provide the overall functions of the ministry: Minister's Secretariat Budget Bureau Tax Bureau Customs and Tariff Bureau Financial Bureau International Bureau Six Independent Administrative Institutions are under the Ministry's control: Japan Mint National Printing Bureau National Research Institute of Brewing Nippon Automated Cargo Clearance System Commemorative Organization for the Japan World Exposition'70 Japan Housing Finance Agency Minister of Finance Monetary and fiscal policy of Japan Ministry of International Trade and Industry National Tax Agency Hartcher.
The Ministry: The Inside Story of Japan's Ministry of Finance. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-255854-8. Department of Finance. Financial and Economical Annual of Japan. Tokyo: Government Printing Office – via Hathi Trust. 1901- Official website
Baron Iwamura Michitoshi was a Japanese statesman, active in Meiji period Japan. Iwamura was born in Kōchi as the eldest son to a samurai family serving the Tosa Domain, he studied swordsmanship under Okada Izō. During the Boshin War of the Meiji Restoration, he fought under the imperial banner, in the Battle of Hokuetsu in 1868-1869. In July 1874, Iwamura was appointed governor of Saga Prefecture. Coming shortly after the Saga Rebellion, this was regarded as a hardship posting. In 1876, he was reported to the Yamaguchi Prefecture regional office, where he coordinated central government preparations in the Satsuma Rebellion, he was appointed governor of Kagoshima Prefecture, in which capacity he supervised the funeral ceremonies for Saigō Takamori. As a reward for his services, he returned to Tokyo as a member of the Genrōin and Chairman of the Board of Audit. From April to December 1883, he served as the 3rd Governor of Okinawa Prefecture. After serving in Okinawa for two years, Iwamura was reassigned to the other end of Japan, serving as first Director of the Hokkaidō Agency from January 26, 1886 through June 15, 1888.
During his time in Hokkaidō, he supervised the completion of the Hokkaidō Agency HQ in Sapporo, promoted the development of Asahikawa. He returned to Tokyo, where he held the post of chairman of the Genrōin from June 14, 1888 to October 20, 1890, he was selected to serve as Minister of Agriculture and Commerce under the 1st Yamagata administration from December 24, 1889 to May 17, 1890. On June 5, 1896, Iwamura was awarded the title of viscount under the kazoku peerage system, received the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure the same year, he served as an advisor to Emperor Meiji, was appointed to a seat in the House of Peers. He was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun, 1st class on June 23, 1904, he died in Tokyo on February 12, 1915, his grave is at the Yanaka Cemetery in Tokyo. Weiner, Michael. Race and Migration in Modern Japan. P. 231. Sims, Richard. Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation 1868-2000. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23915-7
Count Kaneko Kentarō was a statesman and diplomat in Meiji period Japan. Kaneko was born into a samurai family of Fukuoka Domain. At the age of 9, he began his studies at the Shuyukan Han school, he was selected to be a student member of the Iwakura Mission, was left behind in the United States to study at Harvard University while the rest of the mission continued on to Europe and around the world back to Japan. While at Harvard, Kaneko shared lodgings with fellow Japanese student and future fellow-diplomat Komura Jutarō, he developed a wide circle of contacts in America, including lawyers, scientists and industrialists. While at Harvard, Kaneko made a telephone call to fellow exchange student Itō Junji; this was the first instance of a telephone conversation between two Japanese people. After graduation from Harvard in 1878, Kaneko returned to Japan as a lecturer at Tokyo Imperial University. In 1880, Kaneko was appointed as a secretary in the Genrōin, in 1884 had joined the Office for Investigation of Institutions, the body organized by the Genrōin to study the constitutions of various western nations with the aim of creating a western-style constitution for Japan.
Kaneko worked with Itō Hirobumi, Inoue Kowashi and Itō Miyoji, became personal secretary to Itō Hirobumi when the latter became first Prime Minister of Japan. In 1889, Kaneko became first president of the predecessor to Nippon University, a post he held until 1893. Kaneko was appointed to the House of Peers of the Diet of Japan in 1890, becoming its first Secretary, he was subsequently appointed as Vice Minister briefly Minister of Agriculture and Commerce in 1898 in the third Itō administration. He was awarded an honorary doctorate by Harvard in 1899 for his work on the Meiji Constitution. In 1900 Kaneko was appointed as Minister of Justice under the fourth Itō administration and was made baron in the kazoku peerage system in 1907. In 1904 during the middle of the Russo-Japanese War, at the personal request of Itō Hirobumi, Kaneko returned to the United States as a special envoy from the Japanese government to enlist American diplomatic support in bringing the war to a speedy conclusion. In April 1904, Kaneko addressed before the Japan Club of Harvard University that Japan was fighting to maintain the peace of Asia and to conserve the influence of Anglo-American civilization in the East.
While in the United States, Kaneko revived contacts with Theodore Roosevelt, with whom he had been contemporaneously at Harvard, requested that Roosevelt help Japan mediate a peace treaty. When Kaneko met Roosevelt, the president asked for a book that would help explain the character of the Japanese people—what motivates them, their culture and spiritual education in Japan. Kaneko gave Roosevelt a copy of'Bushido', several months Roosevelt thanked Kaneko, remarking that it enlightened within him a deeper understanding of the Japanese culture and character. Thereafter, Roosevelt eagerly took on the task and presided over the subsequent Treaty of Portsmouth negotiations. From 1906, Kaneko served as a member of the Privy Council, was elevated in title to viscount in 1907. In his years he was engaged in the compilation of a history of the Imperial family and served as secretary general of the association for compiling historical materials about the Meiji Restoration, he completed an official biography of Emperor Meiji in 1915.
He was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun in 1928, elevated to hakushaku in 1930. Kaneko was a strong proponent of good diplomatic relations with the United States all of his life. In 1900, he established the first American Friendship Society. According to the records of the America-Japan Society, Kentaro Kaneko founded that organization in Tokyo, on March 1917, became its first president. In 1938, during a time of strident anti-American rhetoric from the Japanese government and press, he established the Japan-America Alliance Association, a political association calling for a "Japanese-American Alliance", together with future Prime Minister Takeo Miki, he was one of the few senior statesmen in Japan to speak out against war with the United States as late as 1941. On his death in 1942, Kaneko was posthumously awarded the Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum. Suematsu Kenchō – sent on the same mission as Kaneko in 1904 but to Europe Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. - his home teacher Katz, Stan S.
The Art of Peace, an illustrated biography about Prince Iesato Tokugawa and his allies, Horizon Productions ISBN 978-0-9903349-6-5 Duus, Peter. The Abacus and the Sword: The Japanese Penetration of Korea, 1895-1910. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21361-0. Hane, Mikiso. Modern Japan: A Historical Survey. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3756-9 Jansen, Marius B.. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674003347. Nichi-Ro senso to Kaneko Kentaro: Koho gaiko no kenkyu. Shinyudo. ISBN 4-88033-010-8, translated by Ian Ruxton as Baron Kaneko and the Russo-Japanese War: A Study in the Public Diplomacy of Japan ISBN 978-0-557-11751-2 Preview Kaneko, Kentaro, A sketch of the history of the constitution of Japan. Unwin Brothers ASIN: B00086SR4M Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex. Modern Library. ISBN 0-8129-6600-7 Osatake, T. Communications, IEEE Transactions on Volume 20, Issue 4, Aug 1972 Page: 687 - 688 Nation
Viscount Kōno Togama was a Japanese statesman in Meiji period Japan. Kōno was born in Tosa Province as the eldest son of a local low-ranking samurai, he was sent to Edo in 1858 where he studied under Yasui Sokken. On his return to Tosa in 1861, he joined the Tosa Kinnōtō movement organized by Takechi Hanpeita and Sakamoto Ryōma and became active in the Sonnō jōi movement. In 1862, along with 59 other Tosa samurai, he marched on Kyoto and Edo in an attempt to influence national policy, but was captured by security forces of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1863 and sentenced to six years in prison. Tortured while in prison, he refused to recant and his sentence was extended to life imprisonment. After the Meiji Restoration, Kōno was freed and was recruited by fellow Tosa countryman Gotō Shōjirō to assist Etō Shimpei in the administration of Osaka. With the establishment of the Samurai Administration Bureau, he was sent to Hiroshima in 1874. However, with increasing ex-samurai discontent erupted into open rebellion in various locations, he was assigned to assist Ōkubo Toshimichi in restoration of central government authority in Kyūshū.
In this capacity, he faced his former mentor Etō Shimpei in the Saga Rebellion. He treated Etō roughly during his trial, refusing him a chance to defend his actions in court, pushing for an early death verdict. Kōno was appointed to the Genrōin in 1875, becoming its vice-chairman in 1878. In 1880, he was appointed Education Lord under the initial Daijō-kan system of the Meiji government, became Agriculture and Commerce Lord under the same system in 1881. Politically, he allied himself with Ōkuma Shigenobu, joining his Rikken Kaishintō political party as its vice-chairman. In 1888, he was appointed to the Privy Council. In 1892, Kōno joined the first Matsukata Masayoshi cabinet with overlapping portfolios the Minister of Agriculture & Commerce, Home Minister, Minister of Justice and Minister of Education, he continued to hold the post of Minister of Education under the Second Itō Hirobumi administration. In 1893, Kōno was ennobled with the rank of shishaku in the kazoku peerage system, he died in 1895, his grave is at Aoyama Cemetery in Tokyo.
Keene, Donald. Emperor Of Japan: Meiji And His World, 1852–1912. Tokyo: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12341-9. Ozaki, Yukio; the Autobiography of Ozaki Yukio: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in Japan. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-05095-9
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Allied occupation of Japan following World War II. It issued SCAP Directive to the Japanese government, aiming to transform it into a non-terrorist nation. In Japan, the position was referred to as GHQ, as SCAP referred to the offices of the occupation, including a staff of several hundred U. S. civil servants as well as military personnel. Some of these personnel wrote a first draft of the Japanese Constitution, which the National Diet ratified after a few amendments. Australian, British and New Zealand forces under SCAP were organized into a sub-command known as British Commonwealth Occupation Force; these actions led MacArthur to be viewed as the new Imperial force in Japan by many Japanese political and civilian figures being considered to be the rebirth of the shōgun-style government which Japan was ruled under until the start of the Meiji Restoration. Biographer William Manchester argues that without MacArthur's leadership, Japan would not have been able to make the move from an imperial, totalitarian state, to a democracy.
At his appointment, MacArthur announced that he sought to "restore security and self-respect" to the Japanese people. One of the largest of the SCAP programs was Public Health and Welfare, headed by U. S. Army Colonel Crawford F. Sams. Working with the SCAP staff of 150, Sams directed the welfare work of the American doctors, organized new Japanese medical welfare systems along American lines; the Japanese population was physically badly worn down and medicines were scarce, sanitary systems had been bombed out in larger cities. His earliest priorities were in distributing food supplies from the U. S. Millions of refugees from the defunct overseas Empire were pouring in in bad physical shape, with a high risk of introducing smallpox and cholera; the outbreaks that did occur were localized, as emergency immunization, quarantine and delousing prevented massive epidemics. Sams, promoted to Brigadier General in 1948, worked with Japanese officials to establish vaccine laboratories, reorganize hospitals along American lines, upgrade medical and nursing schools, bring together Japanese, U.
S. teams that dealt with disasters, child care, health insurance. He set up an Institute of Public Health for educating public health workers and a National Institute of Health for research, set up statistical divisions and data collection systems. SCAP arrested 28 suspected war criminals on account of crimes against peace, but it did not conduct the Tokyo trials. President Harry Truman had negotiated Japanese surrender on the condition the Emperor would not be executed or put on trial. SCAP carried out that policy; as soon as November 26, 1945, MacArthur confirmed to admiral Mitsumasa Yonai that the emperor's abdication would not be necessary. Before the war crimes trials convened, SCAP, the IPS and Shōwa officials worked behind the scenes not only to prevent the imperial family being indicted, but to slant the testimony of the defendants to ensure that no one implicated the Emperor. High officials in court circles and the Shōwa government collaborated with Allied GHQ in compiling lists of prospective war criminals, while the individuals arrested as Class A suspects and incarcerated in Sugamo Prison solemnly vowed to protect their sovereign against any possible taint of war responsibility.
As Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, MacArthur decided not to prosecute Shiro Ishii and all members of the bacteriological research units in exchange for germ warfare data based on human experimentation. On May 6, 1947, he wrote to Washington that "additional data some statements from Ishii can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as "War Crimes" evidence." The deal was concluded in 1948. According to historian Herbert Bix in Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, "MacArthur's extraordinary measures to save the Emperor from trial as a war criminal had a lasting and profoundly distorting impact on Japanese understanding of the lost war." Above the political and economic control SCAP had for the seven years following Japan's surrender, SCAP had strict control over all of the Japanese media, under the formation of the Civil Censorship Detachment of SCAP. The CCD banned a total of 31 topics from all forms of media.
These topics included: Criticism of SCAP. All Allied countries. Criticism of Allied policy pre- and post-war. Any form of imperial propaganda. Defense of war criminals. Praise of "undemocratic" forms of government, though praise of SCAP itself was permitted; the atomic bomb. Black market activities. Open discussion of allied diplomatic relations. Although some of the CCD censorship laws relaxed towards the end of SCAP, some topics, like the atomic bomb, were taboo until 1952 at the end of the occupation. MacArthur was succeeded as SCAP by General Matthew Ridgway when MacArthur was relieved by President Harry S. Truman during the Korean War in April 1951; when the Treaty of San Francisco came into effect on April 28, 1952, the post of SCAP lapsed. Bix, Herbert P.. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019314-0. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04686-1.
Count Sano Tsunetami was a Japanese statesman and founder of the Japanese Red Cross Society. His son, Admiral Sano Tsuneha, was a leading figure in the establishment of the Scout Association of Japan. Sano was born in Hayatsue, Saga Domain as the fifth son of the low ranking samurai Shimomura Saburōzaemon. In 1831 he was adopted by the physician Sano Tsuneyoshi and was allowed to study at the domain academy Kōdōkan, he accompanied his step-father to Edo in 1837, where he studied Confucianism, but returned to Saga in 1839 to continue his medical education. In 1846, he was sent by the Nabeshima clan, rulers of Saga, to study rangaku in Kyoto under Hirose Genkyō, subsequently in Osaka under Ogata Kōan, he returned to Edo in 1849 to study under Itō Gemboku, Totsuka Seikai, others. In 1851, he returned to Saga to establish his own academy, which received official recognition from Nabeshima Naomasa, the daimyō of Saga in 1853. Nabeshima Naomasa had a strong interest in western technology and with the opening of the Nagasaki Naval Training Center in 1855.
Sano was selected by the domain as one of its first students. The goal of Saga Domain was to build a western-style steam warship, which Sano helped complete in 1865. Sano accompanied the Japanese delegation to the Paris Exposition of 1867, while in Paris learned of the International Red Cross, he traveled on to the Netherlands, where he ordered the Japanese warship Nisshin, stayed on to supervise its construction and to learn of western shipbuilding techniques, but the image of the Red Cross remained in his memory. After the Meiji Restoration, Sano was called upon to assist in the formation of the Imperial Japanese Navy and received a posting at the Ministry of War in 1870. In 1873, he was sent to visit the 1873 Vienna World Exposition, with Alexander von Siebold as his interpreter. In 1875, he was appointed to the Genrōin. With the start of the Satsuma Rebellion in 1877, Sano created the Hakuaisha, a relief organization to provide medical assistance to wounded soldiers from both sides of the conflict.
This idea met with tremendous opposition and incomprehension by many member of the government, but Sano was able to enlist the support of Prince Arisugawa Taruhito, nominal head of the Imperial Japanese Army and Prince Komatsu Akihito. Sano’s organization became the Japanese Red Cross Society in 1887, with Sano as its first president. Sano created the Ryuchikai, the forerunner of the Japan Art Association in 1879, in an attempt to stem the outflow of Japanese important cultural properties to overseas collectors. From 1880-1881, he served in the Ministry of Finance, in 1882 as president of the Genrōin. In 1886, he helped establish the first Red Cross Hospital in Japan. In 1887, Sano was recognized for his accomplishments with elevation to the kazoku peerage with the title of viscount and was appointed a member of the Privy Council in 1888. In 1892, during the 1st Matsukata administration, he was appointed as Minister of Agriculture and Commerce. In 1895, Sano was elevated to the title of count.
On his death at his home in Tokyo in 1902, he was posthumously awarded with the Order of the Rising Sun. His grave is at Aoyama Cemetery in Tokyo. In 1939, the Japanese government issued a series of four commemorative postage stamps honoring the 75th anniversary of the Red Cross Treaty. A portrait of Sano Tsunetami appears on two of the stamps. Brunton, Richard. Building Japan 1868–1876. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 1-873410-05-0 Checkland, Olive. Japan and Britain after 1859: Creating Cultural Bridges. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1747-1 Cobbing, Andrew; the Japanese Discovery of Victorian Britain. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 1-873410-81-6. Yoshikawa, Ryuko. Nisseki no soshisha Sano Tsunetami. Yoshikawa Kobunkan. ISBN 4-642-05518-5 Asahi, Keiko: Sano Tsunetami - kindai-Kokka no Paionia. In: W. Michel / Y. Torii / M. Kawashima: No rangaku Kyushu - ekkyō to Koryu. Kyoto: Shinbunkaku Shuppan, 2009 289–296. Sano Tsunetami Memorial Museum in Saga