José Cristóbal Hurtado de Mendoza y Montilla known as Cristóbal Mendoza, was a Venezuelan lawyer, politician and academic. Cristobal is best known for serving as the first official President of Venezuela from 1811 to 1812. After earning a master's degree in philosophy in Caracas and his doctor utriusque juris in the Dominican Republic, early in his professional career he served in various law firms in Trujillo, Mérida, Caracas, he moved to Barinas in 1796 to practice law, in 1807 was elected Mayor of Barinas. In 1810, Mendoza joined the insurgent movement started by wealthy Caracan citizens against the Spanish crown, in 1811 was elected to represent the province of Barinas in the newly founded Constituent Congress of Venezuela. Days he was appointed the first president of the First Republic of Venezuela, a role he shared as part of a triumvirate; until his term ended in March 1812, Mendoza began the war for independence against the parts of Venezuela that still supported the Spanish monarchy, authored the Venezuelan Declaration of Independence, took part in constructing the first Constitution of the Republic of Venezuela.
In 1813 Mendoza fled a royalist invasion and moved to Grenada, soon after he joined Simon Bolivar's effort to liberate South America from Spanish rule. Bolivar appointed Mendoza the governor of Mérida in May 1813, Mendoza was appointed governor of Caracas several months later. Fleeing Venezuela again in 1814 when José Tomás Boves conquered Caracas, Mendoza moved to Trinidad, where from 1819 and 1820 he was an active political writer for the Correo del Orinoco. In 1826, Francisco de Paula Santander appointed Mendoza as Mayor of the Department of Venezuela in the empire of Gran Colombia. After a short exile under General Jose Antonio Paez, in 1827 Bolivar re-appointed him Mayor of the Department of Venezuela, a role Medoza kept until resigning in the middle of 1828. In commemoration of Mendoza, in 1972, Venezuela enacted National Lawyer Day on Mendoza's birth date of 23 June. José Cristóbal Hurtado de Mendoza y Montilla was born in the Trujillo city and area of Venezuela on 23 June 1772 to his parents Luis Bernardo Hurtado de Mendoza y Valera and Gertrudis Eulalia Montilla y Briceño.
He was educated by his father in a Franciscan Monastery under the tutelage of Friar Antonio de Pereira. At the age of 16, he was sent to Caracas to complete his education at the university, where he earned a bachelor of arts degree in philosophy in 1791, he studied for his master's degree at the university until 1793. He afterwards began attending university in Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic, where in 1794 obtained his doctorate degree in both canonical rights and civil rights, becoming a doctor utriusque juris. After obtaining his doctorate, Mendoza returned to Venezuela in his early twenties to begin working in his hometown, he first worked in the law office of Antonio Nicolás Briceño in Trujillo, in the city of Mérida in 1975 he practiced law with Juan Marimón y Henríquez e Hipólito Elías González. In 1795 he taught as a professor of philosophy at the seminary college of San Buenaventura de Mérida. Mendoza moved to Caracas to finish his academic and vocational training in law, he had the lawyer title conferred to him by the Real Audiencia of Caracas on 10 July 1796.
He continued to practice law. After obtaining his law degree, Mendoza moved to Barinas, where he became known for defending local tribal groups and helping invest their profits in several agricultural properties. In January 1807, he was elected Mayor of Barinas by the Council of Barinas. After charges of nepotism in the election process that had led to Mendoza's appointment, the Royal Court ruled in favor of Mendoza retaining the governorship in 1808. On 19 April 1810, Mendoza joined the insurgent movement started by the Caracas elite against the Spanish crown. In May 1810, he was elected the secretary of the newly created Board of Local Government of Barinas, he led a movement among Caracas' wealthy citizens with the slogan "Peace and tranquility are our desires. Die or be free is our currency." Both Mendoza and his brother Luis Ignacio Mendoza were among those elected to represent the province of Barinas when the Constituent Congress of Venezuela was founded on 2 March 2011. Mendoza was not given the opportunity serve in the congress, before he was informed he had been appointed as president of the First Republic of Venezuela as of 5 March 1811.
At the time of being appointed to president, he had been preparing to travel to Caracas while fulfilling his duties with the newly formed Board of Governors. In March 1811 during the Spanish American wars of independence, the first Venezuelan constitutional congress established as the executive power a triumvirate in which three men shared executive power and rotated the presidency every week. At age 39, Mendoza became a member of the triumvirate that headed the First Republic of Venezuela and was unanimously elected by the other two as the first to go in rotation on 5 March 1811. With Manuel Moreno de Mendoza serving as the interim first president in his absence, Mendoza arrived in Caracas to begin serving his first week-long term on 25 April 1811; as part of the triumvirate, Mendoza began the war for independence against the parts of Venezuela that still supported the Spanish monarchy. He was the author of the Venezuelan Declaration of Independence, issued on 5 July 1811. While in office he formed part of the constitutional convention that designed and promulgated the first Constitution of the Republic of Venezuela in December 1811.
In March 1812, a second presidential triumvirate was appointed, with Mendoza, Ju
José María Vargas
José María Vargas Ponce was the President of Venezuela from 1835–1836. He graduated with a degree in philosophy from the Seminario Tridentino, obtained in 1809 his medical degree from the Real y Pontificia Universidad de Caracas. Vargas was imprisoned in 1813 for revolutionary activities. Upon his release in 1813, he travelled to Europe for medical training. Vargas performed cataract surgery, he was one of the earliest oculists in Puerto Rico after his arrival there in 1817. He returned to Venezuela to practice medicine and surgery in 1825, he resigned from his presidency in 1836. José María Vargas was married to Encarnación Maitín, who served as First Lady of Venezuela from 1835–1836. Presidents of Venezuela List of presidents of Venezuela Doctor José María Vargas — Official biography. José María Vargas José María Vargas at Find a Grave
Bolivarian Navy of Venezuela
The Navy of Venezuela is called the Bolivarian Navy of Venezuela. It serves the purpose of defending the naval sovereignty of the country, including inland and fluvial security, it serves to prevent illegal activities in the Venezuelan borders and collaborates with international organizations to safeguard international waters from criminal activities; the Navy was born as a coastal defense force during the beginning of the Venezuelan War of Independence. In May 1810, Commander Lino de Clemente, a veteran officer of the Spanish Navy who joined the April 1810 coup against the colonial government, was appointed the first Minister of Defense of the republic and began the long building of the armed forces including the formation of the navy. In April 1811 the Nautical School, with Ensign Vicente Parrado as its first superindentent, was opened by order of the national government in La Guaira to train future naval officers, months before the Venezuelan Declaration of Independence, thus the Navy's origins start from this date, with its first vessels being those used by the naval forces of the Captaincy General of Venezuela, participated in its first actions in the campaigns in Guayana in 1811-12, the baptism of fire for the fledgling naval service.
Colonel Antonio Mendoza from the Venezuelan Army was its first commanding general. For a long time their vessels if obsolete, were maintained properly by its sailors. In 1937 the Navy acquired from Italy two gunboats of the Azio class and rechristened them General Soublette and General Urdaneta. In September, 2008, the Russian Navy's nuclear-powered missile cruiser Pyotr Velikiy, accompanied by three other ships of Russia's Northern Fleet, sailed from its base in Severomorsk on a cruise to the Caribbean Sea for a joint exercise with the Venezuelan Navy; this action represented the first major Russian power projection in that region since the end of the Cold War. The fleet of ships, headed by the nuclear-powered Pyotr Velikiy, set off from its base at Severomorsk in the Arctic on 22 September. Russian Navy spokesman Igor Dygalo told the AFP news agency, "It's the nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser Peter the Great, the anti-submarine warship Admiral Chebanenko and other accompanying ships".
The other ships included supply ships. During the crisis in Venezuela, the Venezuelan Navy became engaged in the conflict when it began to prevent the entry of humanitarian aid into the country. A ship departing from Puerto Rico attempted to ship aid into the Venezuelan port city of Puerto Cabello. Six vessels of the Venezuelan Navy, including the Mariscal Sucre-class frigate Almirante Brion and patrol boats, were deployed to prevent the entry of the aid shipment; the ship, carrying civilians, returned to Puerto Rico after the Venezuelan Navy threatened to "open fire" on the humanitarian ship. Governor of Puerto Rico Ricardo Rossello, who ordered the return of the ship, stated that the act by the Venezuelan Navy was "unacceptable and shameful" and that Puerto Rico "notified our partners in the U. S. government about this serious incident". As of 2016, Admiral Orlando Miguel Maneiro Gaspar is the Commanding General of the National Navy; the Naval Operations Command is commanded by the Chief of Naval Operations Vice Admiral Antonio Díaz Clemente.
This command is aimed towards the defense of the territorial maritime and inland waters and the coastline of the nation, by extension into its ground and air territories. The command serves as the air arm of the Venezuelan Navy, with responsibility for air operations and transport for the entire Navy. Headquartered in La Guaira, Vargas, it is responsible for the surveillance of Venezuelas jurisdictional waters; the following was the roster of active duty vessels and ships of the Venezuelan Navy as of October 2001. Three Lupo/Mariscal Sucre-class missile frigates classF-21 Mariscal Sucre, in service 1980 F-22 Almirante Brion, in service 1981 F-24 General Soublette, in service Four Spanish-made offshore patrol vessels of the Guaiquerí class. PC-21 Guaiquerí, in service PC-22 Warao, out of service after grounding off Fortaleza, Brazil in August 2012 PC-23 Yekuana, in service PC-24 Kariña, in service Four Spanish-made offshore patrol vessels of the BVL class. GC-21 Guaicamacuto, in service GC-22 Yavire, in service GC-23 Naiguata, in service GC-24 Tamanaco, completed in Venezuela 2014 Four Capana-class LST.
T-61 Capana, into service 1983, as of 2001. T-64 Los Llanos, into service 1983, as of 2001. Four Los Frailes-class LST One Ciudad Bolívar-class supply ship. T-81 Ciudad Bolívar, in service since 09-23-2001 One Bricbarc type/Simón Bolívar training sailboat. BE-11 Simón Bolívar, in service since 08-6-1980 One Almirante Francisco de Miranda-class tugboatRA-11 Almirante Francisco de Miranda, in service since 28-03-2007 Four USCG Point-class patrol boats, as of 2006. 16 Gavion-class patrol boats. Damen Stan 2600 vessels, built in Venezuela, similar to the United States Coast Guard's Marine Protector class, as of 2008. One in service, 1 completed, 5 more to be built Note: The Navy has others two or three light aircraft. Sitio oficial del Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Defensa de Venezuela Sitio oficial de la Armada Bolivariana de Venezuela
Antonio Guzmán Blanco
Antonio José Ramón de La Trinidad y María Guzmán Blanco was a Venezuelan military leader, statesman and politician. He was President of Venezuela for three separate terms, from 1870 until 1877, from 1879 until 1884, from 1886 until 1887 And General during the Venezuelan Federal War, he was a member of the party known as "Liberalismo Amarillo". Guzmán was born in Caracas as the son of Antonio Leocadio Guzmán, a Venezuelan journalist, politician as well as founder of the Liberal Party and Carlota Blanco Jerez de Aristeguieta, he was banished by the administration of General Julián Castro, accompanied General Juan Crisóstomo Falcón in his invasion of Venezuela, becoming his general secretary. After the final defeat of Falcón at the Battle of Coplé in September, 1860, Guzmán accompanied his chief in his flight, was sent to the West Indies to solicit assistance. Toward the end of 1861 he landed again with Falcón on the coast of Coro, after numerous engagements signed on 22 May 1863, the Treaty of Coche, by which arms were laid down, a general assembly called at La Victoria, which elected Falcón president and Guzmán vice president.
The latter was at the same time secretary of the treasury, went to London to negotiate a loan. In 1863, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Venezuela. On August 7, 1863, Guillermo Tell Villegas was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs of Venezuela when he temporarily assumed the role of Guzman during Guzman's absence. Tell Villegas remained the 65th Minister of Foreign Affairs of Venezuela until January 21, 1864, when Guzman returned to the role to finish out his term. Guzman was the Venezuelan ambassador to Spain from 1863 until 1866. Upon his return he was for a short time in charge of the executive, afterward was elected president of congress. After the overthrow of Falcón in 1868, Guzmán left the country, but headed a revolution in 1869, in 1870 became provisional president with extraordinary powers, ruling the country for seven years as a dictator. In 1871 Blanco created by decree the Territorio Colón which included Los Roques and other adjacent islands; the Palacio Federal Legislativo known as the Capitolio, is a historic building in Caracas, Venezuela which now houses the National Assembly.
It was built in 1872 by Guzman to a design by the architect Luciano Urdaneta Vargas. In 1876, under Guzmán, the Universidad de Caracas was moved to the Palacio de las Academias building, whose former colonial façade was rebuilt in the Neo-Gothic style, his successor, General Francisco Linares Alcántara, died in office in December, 1878, there were several revolutionary uprisings, till Guzmán assumed the government again. Free and compulsory education for ages 7 to 14 was established by decree on 27 June 1880, under President Guzmán, was followed by the creation of the Ministry of Public Instruction in 1881 under Guzmán Blanco. In 15 years from 1870, the number of primary schools quadrupled to nearly 2000 and the enrolment of children expanded ten-fold, to nearly 100,000. Falcón Zulia was a state of Venezuela created by initiative of Guzmán in 1881, he established the Order of the Liberator on September 14, 1880, the highest distinction of Venezuela and was appointed for services to the country, outstanding merit and benefits made to the community.
"Gloria al Bravo Pueblo" was adopted as Venezuela's national anthem by Guzmán on May 25, 1881. In the elections of 1883 General Joaquín Crespo, one of his friends, was declared president, Guzmán became ambassador to France, living with great ostentation in Paris. In 1886, he again assumed the presidency. During the rule of Guzmán as governor of a few states in the late 1880s when he was known by the epithet “Illustrious American”, Venezuela witnessed all round development and coffee production in Venezuela increased as there was an additional support in the form of loans from foreign countries. According to some historians, Guzmán Blanco led a steady Venezuelan government, ripe with corruption. Guzmán Blanco stole money from the treasury, abused his power, after a disagreement with a bishop, expelled any clergy who disagreed with him and seized property belonging to the Catholic Church; when facing severe disapproval during his administration, Guzmán Blanco ordered the body of Simon Bolivar to be exhumed and reburied in the National Pantheon of Venezuela to espouse Bolivar's ideals, despite the two men's opposing views.
His successor, the undistinguished Hermógenes López, was understood to be under his influence. The autocratic nature of Guzmán's regimes was in sharp contradiction with the economic and legal reforms as well as with the achievements brought about, his government was responsible for the creation of the modern currency, the restoration of the national anthem, the second national census, the railroad between Caracas and La Guaira, the foundation of the Venezuelan Academy of the Language, the telephone service between Caracas and La Guaira, promotion of agriculture and education, stimulus to commerce, important public works According to historian Charles L. Davis, Guzman has been referred to as an example of a strongman politician. A freemason, he reduced the power of the Roman Catholic Church in Venezuela while in office. Guzmán was married to Ana Teresa Ibarra Urbaneja, who served as First Lady of Venezuela from 1870 until 1877, 1879 until 1884, 1887 until 1888, he is buried in Passy Cemetery in France.
Towards the end of the nineteenth centu
Andrés Narvarte Pimentel was President of Venezuela as interim caretaker. As Vice President of the Republic, Andrés Navarte assumed executive power between 20 January 1835 and 9 February 1835; the 55-year-old jurist returned to power after the resignation of Jose Maria Vargas, as Vice President he was left with executive authority between 24 April 1836 and 20 January 1837. Official biography
Manuel Felipe de Tovar
Manuel Felipe de Tovar was President of Venezuela from 1859–1861. Manuel Felipe de Tovar was married to Encarnación Rivas Pacheco, who served as First Lady of Venezuela from 1859–1861. Venezuela Presidents of Venezuela Manuel Felipe Tovar — Official biography. Manuel Felipe Tovar
Francisco de Miranda
Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez de Espinoza known as Francisco de Miranda, was a Venezuelan military leader and revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence liberated much of South America, he was known as "The First Universal Venezuelan" and "The Great Universal American". In the National Archive of Venezuela can be found the statute of the blood purity of the father of Francisco de Miranda. Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life in the general political and intellectual climate that emerged from the Age of Enlightenment that influenced all of the Atlantic Revolutions, he participated in three major historical and political movements of his time: the American Revolutionary War, the French Revolution and the Spanish American wars of independence. He described his experiences over this time in his journal. An idealist, he developed a visionary plan to liberate and unify all of Spanish America, but his own military initiatives on behalf of an independent Spanish America ended in 1812.
He was handed over to his enemies and four years died in a Spanish prison. Miranda was born in Caracas, Venezuela Province, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada, baptized on April 5, 1750, his father, Sebastian de Miranda Ravelo, was an immigrant from the Canary Islands who had become a successful and wealthy merchant, his mother, Francisca Antonia Rodríguez de Espinoza, was a wealthy Venezuelan. Growing up, Miranda attended the finest private schools. However, he was not a member of high society. Miranda's father, always strove to improve the situation of the family, in addition to accumulating wealth and attaining important positions, he ensured his children a college education. Miranda was first tutored by Jesuits, Jorge Lindo and Juan Santaella, before entering the Academy of Santa Rosa. On January 10, 1762, Miranda began his studies at the Royal and Pontifical University of Caracas, where he studied Latin, the early grammar of Nebrija, the Catechism of Ripalda for two years.
Miranda became an upperclassman. Between 1764 and 1766, Miranda continued his studies, studying the writings of Cicero and Virgil, history, religion and arithmetic. In June 1767, Miranda received his baccalaureate degree in the Humanities, it is unknown if Miranda received the title of Doctor, as the only evidence in favor of this title is his personal testimony stating he received it in 1767, at age 17. Beginning in 1767, Miranda's studies were disrupted in part due to his father's rising prominence in Caracas society. In 1764, Sebastian de Miranda was appointed the captain of the local militia known as the Company of the White Canary Islanders by the governor, Jose de Solano y Bote. Sebastian de Miranda directed his regiment for five years, but his new title and societal position bothered the white aristocracy. In retaliation, a competing faction formed a militia of its own and two local aristocrats, Don Juan Nicolas de Ponte and Don Martin Tovar Blanco, filed a complaint against Sebastian de Miranda.
Sebastian de Miranda requested and was granted honorary military discharge to avoid further antagonizing the local elite, spent many years attempting to clear the family name and establish the "purity" of his family line. The need to establish the "cleanliness" of the family bloodline was important to maintain a place in society in Caracas, as it was what allowed the family to attend university, to marry in the church, to attain government positions. In 1769, Sebastian produced a notarized genealogy to prove that his family had no African, Jewish or Muslim ancestors, according to the records in the National Archive of Venezuela. Miranda's father obtained a blood cleanliness certificate, which should not be confounded with the blood nobility certificate. In 1770, Sebastian won his family's rights through an official royal patent, signed by Charles III, which confirmed Sebastian's title and societal standing; the court ruling, created an irreconcilable enmity with the aristocratic elite, who never forgot the conflict nor forgave the challenge, which influenced subsequent decisions by Miranda.
After the court victory of his father, Miranda decided to pursue a new life in Spain, and, on January 25, 1771, Miranda left Caracas from the port of La Guaira for Cadiz, Spain, on a Swedish frigate, the Prince Frederick. Miranda landed at the Port of Cadiz on March 1, 1771, where he stayed for two weeks with a distant relative, Jose D'Anino, before leaving for Madrid. On March 28, 1771, Miranda travelled to Madrid and took an interest in the libraries and art that he found there. In Madrid, Miranda pursued his education modern languages, as they would allow him to travel throughout Europe, he sought to expand his knowledge of mathematics and political science, as he aimed to serve the Spanish Crown as a military officer. During this time, he pursued genealogical research of his family name to establish his ties to Europe and Christianity, important to him after his father's struggles to legitimize their family line in Caracas, it was in Madrid that Miranda began to build his personal library, which he added to as he traveled, collecting books and letters.
In January 1773, Miranda's father transferred 85,000 reales vell