The Ministry of Defense is a cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Japan charged with preserving the peace and independence of Japan and maintaining national security with the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Headed by the Minister of Defense, it is the largest organ of the Japanese government; the ministry is headquartered in Ichigaya, Tokyo, is required by Article 66 of the Constitution to be subordinate to civilian authority. On June 8, 2006, the Cabinet of Japan endorsed a bill elevating the Defense Agency under the Cabinet Office to full-fledged cabinet-level Ministry of Defense. 53 years after the establishment of the Defense Agency in 1954, the Ministry of Defense was founded on January 9, 2007. The Ministry of Defense is headquartered in Ichigaya, Tokyo, on a site which housed the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, built in 1874, the GHQ of the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II, of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force following the war; the Japanese Defense Agency was established on July 1, 1954.
Until May 2000, it was based in Akasaka. The Ministry of Defense is required by Article 66 of the Constitution to be subordinate to civilian authority, its head has the rank of Minister of State. He is assisted by one parliamentary and one administrative; the highest figure in the command structure is the Prime Minister, responsible directly to the National Diet. In a national emergency, the Prime Minister is authorized to order the various components of the Japan Self-Defense Forces into action, subject to the consent of the Diet. In times of extreme emergency, that approval might be obtained after the fact. In July 1986, the Security Council was established; the Council was presided over by the Prime Minister and includes the Ministers of State specified in advance in Article 9 of the Cabinet Law. The chairman of the Security Council can invite the chairman of the Joint Staff Council and any other relevant state minister or official to attend. Replacing the National Defense Council, which had acted as an advisory group on defense-related matters since 1956, the Security Council addresses a wider range of military and nonmilitary security issues, including basic national defense policy, the National Defense Program Outline, the outline on coordinating industrial production and other matters related to the National Defense Program Outline, decisions on diplomatic initiatives and defense operations.
The internal bureaus the Bureau of Defense Policy, Bureau of Finance, the Bureau of Equipment, are headed by officials from other ministries and are the main centers of power and instruments of civilian control in the Defense Agency. The Bureau of Defense Policy is responsible for drafting defense policy and programs, for determining day-to-day operational activities, for information gathering and analysis in the JSDF; the Bureau of Finance is instrumental in developing the Defense Agency budget and in establishing spending priorities for the Defense Agency and the JSDF. The Bureau of Equipment, organized into subunits for each of the military services, focuses on equipment procurement. Before any major purchase is recommended to the Diet by the Defense Agency, it has to be reviewed by each of these bureaus. Below these civilian groups are the uniformed JSDF personals, its senior officer is the chairman of the Joint Staff Council, a body that included the chiefs of staff of the ground and air arms of the Self-Defense Forces.
Its principal functions are to plan and execute joint exercises. The three branches maintain staff offices to manage operations in their branches. Although rank establishes echelons of command within the JSDF, all three branches are responsible to the director general and are coequal bodies with the Joint Staff Council and the three staff offices; this structure precludes the concentration of power of the pre-1945 Imperial General Staff general staffs, but it impedes interservice coordination, there are few formal exchanges among commanders from various branches. Moreover, some dissatisfaction has been reported by highranking officers who feel they have little power compared with younger civilian officials in the bureaus, who most have no military experience. To rectify this situation and to increase input by the JSDF in policy matters, in the early 1980s the Joint Staff Council was enlarged to establish better lines of communication between the internal bureaus and the three staff offices.
A computerized central command and communications system and various tactical command and communications systems were established, linking service and field headquarters with general headquarters at the Defense Agency and with one another. In the 1980s, efforts were under way to facilitate a clear and efficient command policy in the event of a crisis; the government stood by the principle that military action was permitted only under civilian control, but in recognition that delay for consultation might prove dangerous, ships of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force began to be armed with live torpedoes, fighter-interceptors were allowed to carry missiles at all times. Although aircraft had long been allowed to force down intruders without waiting for permission from the prime minister, ships were still required to receive specific orders before interdicting invading vessels; the Defense Agency ha
Montfort is a village in Grant and Iowa Counties in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 718 at the 2010 census. Of this, 622 were in Grant County, 96 were in Iowa County; the Iowa County portion of Montfort is part of the Madison Metropolitan Statistical Area, while the Grant County portion is part of the Platteville Micropolitan Statistical Area. Montfort was named from an old fort situated on a nearby hill. Montfort is located at 42°58′17″N 90°25′59″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.54 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 718 people, 279 households, 192 families living in the village; the population density was 1,329.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 298 housing units at an average density of 551.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.6% White, 0.8% African American, 0.6% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 279 households of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.2% were non-families.
22.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age in the village was 35.9 years. 24.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 50.6% male and 49.4% female. At the 2000 census, there were 252 households and 179 families living in the village; the population density was 1,252.1 per square mile. There were 273 housing units at an average density of 515.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.25% White, 0.15% African American, 0.60% from two or more races. There were 252 households, of which 37.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.12.
In terms of age distribution, 30.3% were under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, 14.6% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males. The median income for a household in the village was $37,500, the median income for a family was $43,295. Males had a median income of $28,125 versus $21,442 for females; the per capita income for the village was $16,126. About 1.7% of families and 5.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Information about Montfort, Wisconsin Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1899 1905 1914
The Intraocular Lens for Visually Impaired Patients is an intraocular lens system aiming to treat patients with poor central vision due to age related macular degeneration. The IOLVIP procedure involves the surgical implantation of a pair of lenses that magnify and divert the image using the principals of the Galilean telescope. By arranging the lenses it is possible to direct the image to a different part of the eye than the fovea, the centre of the macula and is used for detailed vision; the magnified image is projected on to a part of the eye not used for detailed vision. Magnification and patient training are both necessary to allow useful vision from this part of the retina, it is a procedure to give symptomatic relief rather than treat disease and is best understood as an implanted miniature telescope. The procedure was pioneered in Italy and has since been taken to the UK and USA, it should not be used in anyone with active macular degeneration. It can be used in both "burned out" wet macular degeneration and in dry or atrophic macular degeneration.
A telescopic simulator can be used to assess whether the surgery might be helpful, to establish the best rotation for the two lenses. LensSpecial, the manufacturers of the IOLVIP lens About macular degeneration IOLVIP procedure page File:IOLVIP.svg
This is a partial list of entertainment venues in London, England. The majority of London's commercial "theatre land" is situated around Shaftesbury Avenue, the Strand and nearby streets in the West End; the theatres are receiving houses, feature transfers of major productions from the Royal National Theatre and Royal Shakespeare Company.. The following list includes the major non-commercial theatres in London, many of which are to be found beyond the West End. See List of West End theatres for further specifications. Many major important theatres and National venues are sited beyond the traditional West End theatre land, they include the Royal National Theatre on the South Bank. The List of English Renaissance theatres covers the period from the establishment of the first Tudor theatres, through to their suppression by parliament at the beginning of the English Civil War; the List of Former theatres in London covers the period from the reopening of the playhouses after the English Restoration through to the 21st century.
It includes music halls. The two main opera houses are: Royal Opera House, Covent Garden London Coliseum, Charing Cross Both of the above stage ballet. Holland Park Opera stages opera at an outdoor venue in the summer. Several of the theatres listed have staged opera in the past, including the following: Sadler's Wells - London's main dance theatre Barbican Theatre - hosts leading touring dance companies Savoy Theatre, the former home of the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company Experimental and fringe opera is programmed at Riverside Studios, which hosts the annual Tete-a-Tete The Opera Festival; the Arcola Theatre hosts a contemporary fringe opera festival called'Grimeborn'. There are cinemas throughout Greater London multi-screen venues, however the majority of first run and independent films are shown in cinemas around Leicester Square. Odeon Leicester Square Odeon West End Empire, Leicester Square Prince Charles Cinema Vue West End National Film Theatre London IMAX Apollo cinemas There are clubs throughout Greater London, with many performing on a temporary basis.
The more permanent ones are listed, but there is a group of clubs in the Shoreditch and Hoxton areas. Chuckle Club, a comedy club that began in 1986 and has changed venues over time Electric Ballroom, a performance venue located in Camden Town constructed in the 1930s Hippodrome, built in 1900, this building was used for most of its lifetime as a venue for revues and musical comedy.
The New Melville Bridge Club is a contract bridge club situated a little outside the centre of Edinburgh. It was established in 1936 as the Melville Bridge Club and changed its name when it moved to its present premises in 2013. With about 300 members, it is one of the two largest bridge clubs in Edinburgh, is one of the largest in Scotland; the club has members ranging in ability from beginner to grand master. It is home to a significant number of Scotland's past internationalists. In the first World Mindsport Games in 2008 in Beijing all bar one of the open team and the majority of the ladies team came from the club; the club hosts pairs and teams duplicate events and rubber bridge. The club is extensively used for matches and events organised by the Eastern District of the Scottish Bridge Union - the governing body for the game in Scotland. Various national events are staged in the club. Visitors are welcome to play at the club and details are on the web site; the club first rented property at 44 Melville Street in the Edinburgh New Town, one of the grander streets in Edinburgh named after Viscount Melville.
In 1950 the club moved to a four storey Victorian Town House at 9 Grosvenor Crescent. 9 Grosvenor Crescent was built in 1868 firstly as a private house becoming a maternity home during the Second World War and part of the Edinburgh College of Domestic Science. During the excavations for the new building some Bronze Age swords were found some of which are now part of the collection in the National Museum of Scotland - see for details. In the summer of 2013, the club again moved premises to its current location at 1 Pinkhill in Corstorphine. At the same time, the club attained the status of a charitable organization and began trading under the name New Melville Bridge Club Ltd. A bridge club of the same name exists in The City of Melville in Australia. Homepage of the New Melville Bridge Club Homepage of the Carlton Bridge Club Scottish Bridge Union Scottish Bridge Union, East District City of Melville Bridge Club, Australia
The Mind Readers is a crime novel by Margery Allingham, first published in 1965, in the United Kingdom by Chatto & Windus, London. It is the eighteenth novel in the Albert Campion series. Canon Avril is looking forward to hosting Albert Campion and his wife Lady Amanda for half-term, with their nephew Edward, his cousin Sam, but strange things are happening at the electronics establishment on a remote island on the east coast where Sam's father works, when the boys arrive at Liverpool Street Station an attempt is made to kidnap them. Edward goes missing, Campion and DS Charles Luke find themselves caught up in a mystery, unexpectedly helped by a certain Thomas T. Knapp..... Margery Allingham, The Mind Readers, An Allingham bibliography, with dates and publishers, from the UK Margery Allingham Society A page about the book from the Margery Allingham Archive