Udemy.com is an online learning platform. It is aimed at professional adults. Unlike academic massive open online course programs which are driven by traditional collegiate coursework, Udemy uses content from online content creators to sell for profit. Udemy provides tools which enable users to create a course, promote it and earn money from student tuition charges. No Udemy courses are credentialed for college credit; some courses generate credit toward technical certification. Udemy has made a special effort to attract corporate trainers seeking to create coursework for employees of their company; as of 2018, there are more than 100,000 courses on the website. In 2007, Udemy founder Eren Bali built software for a live virtual classroom while living in Turkey, he saw potential in making the product free for everyone, moved to Silicon Valley to found a company two years later. The site was launched by Bali, Oktay Caglar and Gagan Biyani in early 2010. In February 2010, the founders tried to raise venture capital funding, but the idea failed to impress investors and they were rejected 30 times, according to Gagan Biyani.
In response to this, they bootstrapped the development of the product and launched Udemy—"The Academy of You"—in May 2010. Within a few months, 1,000 instructors had created about 2,000 courses, Udemy had nearly 10,000 registered users. Based on this favorable market reaction, they decided to attempt another round of financing, raised $1 million in venture funding by August. In October 2011, the company raised an additional $3 million in Series A funding led by Groupon investors Eric Lefkofsky and Brad Keywell, as well as 500 Startups and MHS Capital. In December 2012, the company raised $12 million in Series B funding led by Insight Venture Partners, as well as Lightbank Capital, MHS Capital and Learn Capital, bringing Udemy's total funding to $16 million. On April 22, 2014, the Wall Street Journal's Digital edition reported that Dennis Yang, Chief Operating Officer of Udemy was named CEO, replacing Eren Bali. In May 2014, Udemy raised another $32 million in a Series C funding, led by Norwest Venture Partners, as well as Insight Venture Partners and MHS Capital.
In June 2015, Udemy raised a $65 million Series D financing round, led by Stripes Group. Now Udemy joined another online learning house Skillsdox Inc of Canada to open up School of Skills in India. In June 2016, Udemy raised $60 million from Naspers Ventures as a follow-up to the $65 million Series D round of financing from June 2015. On February 5, 2019, Udemy announced that the board of the company has appointed Gregg Coccari as its new chief executive officer effective immediately. Udemy serves as a platform that allows instructors to build online courses on topics of their choosing. Using Udemy's course development tools they can upload video, PowerPoint presentations, PDFs, zip files and live classes to create courses. Instructors can engage and interact with users via online discussion boards. Courses are offered across a breadth of categories, including business and entrepreneurship, the arts and fitness, language and technology. Most classes are in practical subjects such as Excel software.
Udemy offers Udemy for Business, enabling businesses access to a targeted suite of over 2,000 training courses on topics from digital marketing tactics to office productivity, management and more. With Udemy for Business, organizations can create custom learning portals for corporate training. Udemy offers free courses, depending on the instructor. In 2015, the top 10 instructors made more than $17 million in total revenue. In April 2013, Udemy offered an app for Apple iOS, allowing students to take classes directly from iPhones; as of January 2014, the iOS app had been downloaded over 1 million times, 20 percent of Udemy users access their courses via mobile. In July 2016, Udemy expanded their iOS platform to include Apple TV. Udemy is part of the growing MOOC movement available outside the traditional university system, has been noted for the variety of courses offered. Udemy has been discussed in The New York Times, The China Post, Fast Company, the BBC, YPN and TechCrunch, with Mashable noting "Udemy offers an experience that rivals the real classroom, should prove to be a useful utility for teachers and students of all subject matters."In 2014, Forbes named Udemy cofounder Eren Bali as part of their "30 Under 30" of "the brightest stars in 15 different fields under the age of 30."Noted businessman Jack Welch has developed an online MBA program, offered through the Jack Welch Management Institute at Strayer University, which acquired JWMI assets in November 2011.
Udemy became the MOOC platform for the institute's Welch Way courseware in November 2012, promoted this Jack Welch connection. In November 2015, Udemy was accused of profiting from pirated courses; the CEO, Dennis Yang, answered the accusations in a blog post, looking at one accusation and stating that Udemy did not profit from that instance of piracy
Ng Chee Meng
Ng Chee Meng is a Singaporean politician and the current Secretary-General of the National Trades Union Congress. He served as the 8th Chief of Defence Force of the Singapore Armed Forces from 2013 to 2015, held the rank of Lieutenant-General, he was the Chief of the Republic of Singapore Air Force from 2009 to 2013. Upon retirement from military career, He announced his intention to enter politics, is the highest ranking officer to join the ruling party. In the 2015 Singapore general election, he was fielded into Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC and won a seat paving way to be a Member of Parliament, he is a Member of Parliament for the Pasir Ris-Punggol Group Representation Constituency. Ng was appointed as the Acting Minister of Schools and the Senior Minister of State at the Ministry of Transport, by the Prime Minister on 1 October 2015. Ng was promoted to Minister for Education and Second Minister for Transport on 1 November 2016. Ng was educated at The Chinese High School and Hwa Chong Junior College, was awarded the Singapore Armed Forces Overseas Training Award in 1987.
He completed a Bachelor of Science in electrical engineering at the United States Air Force Academy in 1991, graduated from the Singapore Command and Staff College in 1999. In 2002, he obtained a Master of Arts in international relations from The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. Ng joined the Singapore Armed Forces in December 1986 and was a fighter pilot in the Republic of Singapore Air Force. During his military career, among the appointments he held were the following: Commanding Officer, 144 Squadron, he was the Military Private Secretary to the Minister of Defence from December 1995 to July 1996. Ng succeeded his elder brother, Ng Chee Khern, as the Chief of Air Force on 10 December 2009, he relinquished this position to Hoo Cher Mou on 25 March 2013, succeeded Neo Kian Hong as the Chief of Defence Force on 27 March. He was promoted from the rank of Major-General to Lieutenant-General on 27 June 2013. Ng was the second air force general in Singapore's military history to be appointed as the CDF, after Bey Soo Khiang in 1995.
Ng chaired the organising committee for the state funeral of Singapore's first Prime Minister, Lee Kuan Yew, from 23 to 29 March 2015. He led the first round of the vigil guard who stood guard during Lee's lying in state in Parliament House from 25 to 28 March. Ng retired from the SAF on 18 August 2015 and was replaced by Perry Lim as the CDF. Ng confirmed on 18 August 2015 after retiring from the SAF. On 22 August, the People's Action Party announced that Ng would be part of a six-member PAP team that would be contesting in Pasir Ris-Punggol Group Representation Constituency in the 2015 general election; the PAP team won. Ng was appointed acting Minister of Education. Subsequently, Ng was appointed Second Minister for Transport. On 23 April 2018, Ng joined the National Trades Union Congress and was appointed as its Deputy Secretary-General. On 22 May 2018, Ng was elected by the NTUC Central Committee members to become Secretary-General of the NTUC. Ng has two notable brothers; the elder, Ng Chee Khern, was the Chief of Air Force from 2006 to 2009 and is the Permanent Secretary in the Prime Minister’s Office.
The younger, Ng Chee Peng, was the Chief of Navy from 2011 to 2014, is the Chief Executive Officer of the Central Provident Fund Board. Pingat Pentadbiran Awam, in 2011
An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr. abbrv. or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions, acronyms, or initialisms, with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connected by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. An abbreviation is a shortening by any method. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not a contraction. Acronyms and initialisms are regarded as subsets of abbreviations, they are abbreviations that consist of the initial parts of words. Abbreviations have a long history, created; this might be done to save time and space, to provide secrecy. Shortened words were used and initial letters were used to represent words in specific applications.
In classical Greece and Rome, the reduction of words to single letters was common. In Roman inscriptions, "Words were abbreviated by using the initial letter or letters of words, most inscriptions have at least one abbreviation." However, "some could have more than one meaning, depending on their context."Abbreviations in English were used from its earliest days. Manuscripts of copies of the old English poem Beowulf used many abbreviations, for example 7 or & for and, y for since, so that "not much space is wasted"; the standardisation of English in the 15th through 17th centuries included such a growth in the use of abbreviations. At first, abbreviations were sometimes represented with various suspension signs, not only periods. For example, sequences like ‹er› were replaced with ‹ɔ›, as in ‹mastɔ› for master and ‹exacɔbate› for exacerbate. While this may seem trivial, it was symptomatic of an attempt by people manually reproducing academic texts to reduce the copy time. An example from the Oxford University Register, 1503: Mastɔ subwardenɔ y ɔmēde me to you.
And wherɔ y wrot to you the last wyke that y trouyde itt good to differrɔ thelectionɔ ovɔ to quīdenaɔ tinitatis y have be thougħt me synɔ that itt woll be thenɔ a bowte mydsomɔ. The Early Modern English period, between the 15th and 17th centuries, had abbreviations like ye for Þe, used for the word the: "hence, by misunderstanding, Ye Olde Tea Shoppe."During the growth of philological linguistic theory in academic Britain, abbreviating became fashionable. The use of abbreviation for the names of J. R. R. Tolkien and his friend C. S. Lewis, other members of the Oxford literary group known as the Inklings, are sometimes cited as symptomatic of this. A century earlier in Boston, a fad of abbreviation started that swept the United States, with the globally popular term OK credited as a remnant of its influence. After World War II, the British reduced the use of the full stop and other punctuation points after abbreviations in at least semi-formal writing, while the Americans more kept such use until more and still maintain it more than Britons.
The classic example, considered by their American counterparts quite curious, was the maintenance of the internal comma in a British organisation of secret agents called the "Special Operations, Executive"—"S. O. E"—which is not found in histories written after about 1960, but before that, many Britons were more scrupulous at maintaining the French form. In French, the period only follows an abbreviation if the last letter in the abbreviation is not the last letter of its antecedent: "M." is the abbreviation for "monsieur" while "Mme" is that for "madame". Like many other cross-channel linguistic acquisitions, many Britons took this up and followed this rule themselves, while the Americans took a simpler rule and applied it rigorously. Over the years, the lack of convention in some style guides has made it difficult to determine which two-word abbreviations should be abbreviated with periods and which should not; the U. S. media tend to use periods in two-word abbreviations like United States, but not personal computer or television.
Many British publications have done away with the use of periods in abbreviations. Minimization of punctuation in typewritten material became economically desirable in the 1960s and 1970s for the many users of carbon-film ribbons since a period or comma consumed the same length of non-reusable expensive ribbon as did a capital letter. Widespread use of electronic communication through mobile phones and the Internet during the 1990s allowed for a marked rise in colloquial abbreviation; this was due to increasing popularity of textual communication services such as instant- and text messaging. SMS, for instance, supports message lengths of 160 characters at most; this brevity gave rise to an informal abbreviation scheme sometimes called Textese, with which 10% or more of the words in a typical SMS message are abbreviated. More Twitter, a popular social networking service, began driving abbreviation use with 140 character message limits. In modern English, there are several conventions for abbreviations, the choice may be confusing.
The only rule universally accepted is th
Government of Singapore
The Government of Singapore is defined by the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore to mean the Executive branch of government, made up of the President and the Cabinet of Singapore. Although the President acts in his/her personal discretion in the exercise of certain functions as a check on the Cabinet and Parliament of Singapore, his/her role is ceremonial, it is the Cabinet, composed of the Prime Minister and other Ministers appointed on his/her advice by the President, that directs and controls the Government. The Cabinet is formed by the political party. A statutory board is an autonomous agency of the Government, established by an Act of Parliament and overseen by a government ministry. Unlike ministries and government departments that are subdivisions of ministries, statutory boards are not staffed by civil servants and have greater independence and flexibility in their operations. There are five Community Development Councils appointed by the board of management of the People's Association for districts in Singapore.
Where there are not less than 150,000 residents in a district, the PA's board of management may designate the chairman of a CDC to be the mayor for the district that the CDC is appointed for. As it is the practice for MPs to be appointed as Chairmen of CDCs, these MPs have been designated as mayors. From the founding of modern Singapore in 1819 until 1826, Singapore was headed by two residents in succession. Following Singapore's amalgamation into the Straits Settlements in 1826, it was governed by a governor together with a legislative council. An executive council of the Straits Settlements was introduced in 1877 to advise the Governor but wielded no executive power. In 1955, a Council of Ministers was created, appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House. Constitutional talks between Legislative Assembly representatives and the Colonial Office were held from 1956 to 1958, Singapore gained full internal self-government in 1959; the governor was replaced by the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, who had power to appoint to the post of prime minister the person most to command the authority of the assembly, other ministers of the Cabinet on the prime minister's advice.
In the 1959 general elections, the People's Action Party swept to power with 43 out of the 51 seats in the assembly, Lee Kuan Yew became the first prime minister of Singapore. The executive branch of the Singapore Government remained unchanged following Singapore's merger with Malaysia in 1963, subsequent independence in 1965; the PAP has been returned to power in every general election and has thus formed the Cabinet since 1959. The government is perceived to be competent in managing the country's economy and free from political corruption. On the other hand, it has been criticized for using unfair election tactics, violating freedom of speech and its excessive use of the death penalty for non-violent crimes; the term Government of Singapore can have a number of different meanings. At its widest, it can refer collectively to the three traditional branches of government – the Executive branch, Legislative branch and Judicial branch; the term is used colloquially to mean the Executive and Legislature together, as these are the branches of government responsible for day-to-day governance of the nation and lawmaking.
At its narrowest, the term is used to refer to the Members of Parliament belonging to a particular political party holding a majority of seats in Parliament sufficient to enable the party to form the Cabinet of Singapore – this is the sense intended when it is said that a political party "forms the Government". The Constitution of the Republic of Singapore uses the word Government to mean the Executive branch, made up of the President and the Cabinet; this article describes the Government of Singapore in this technical sense, as well as selected aspects of the Executive branch of the Government. On 30 January 1819 Sir Stamford Raffles, an Englishman, the Governor of Bencoolen, entered into a preliminary agreement with the Temenggung of Johor, Abdul Rahman Sri Maharajah, for the British East India Company to establish a "factory" or trading post on the island of Singapore; this was confirmed by another agreement signed by Raffles, the Temenggung and Sultan Hussein Shah on 6 February. In June 1823 Singapore ceased to be a dependency of Bencoolen and was placed under the control of the Presidency City of Calcutta in the Bengal Presidency.
On 24 June 1824, Singapore and Malacca were formally transferred to the East India Company, with the result that they came under the control of Fort William. Full cession of Singapore to the Company by the Sultan and Temenggung was effected by a treaty of 19 November 1824, ratified by Calcutta on 4 March 1825. Between 1819 and 1826, Singapore was headed by two Residents of Singapore in Maj.-Gen. William Farquhar and Dr. John Crawfurd. In 1826, Malacca and Singapore were amalgamated into the Straits Settlements, which were made a Crown colony with effect from 1 April 1867; the Colony was governed by a governor together with a legislative council. An executive council was introduced in 1877 by letters patent issued by the Crown, Composed of "such persons and constituted in such manner as may be directed" by royal instructions, it existed to advise the Governor and wielded no executive power; the Governor was required to consult the Executive Council on all affairs of importance unless they were too urgent to be laid before it, or if reference to it would pre
Yong Nyuk Lin
Yong Nyuk Lin was a Singaporean politician. He was born in Seremban, Negri Sembilan and studied in Singapore, he was the general manager of Overseas Assurance Company for 18 years before he resigned to stand for the Singapore general elections in 1959. He became the Member of Parliament for Geylang West, he was in Singapore's first cabinet and served as a minister from 1959 to 1976. His portfolios included Education and Communications. From 1975 to 1977, Mr. Yong was appointed Singapore's High Commissioner to the United Kingdom. Speeches by Yong Nyuk Lin
Committee for Private Education
The Committee for Private Education Council for Private Education, is an agency under the SkillsFuture Singapore and was a statutory board under the Ministry of Education of Singapore. The Singapore Workforce Development Agency and Council for Private Education was restructured to form SSG on 3 October 2016. Established under the Private Education Act, the CPE was sanctioned with the legislative power to regulate the private education sector in Singapore. Now, the CPE is appointed by the SSG Board to carry out its functions and powers relating to private education under the Private Education Act; the CPE is supported by a team of dedicated staff from SSG to regulate the sector, provide student services, consumer education and facilitate capability development efforts to uplift standards in the local private education industry. The regulatory initiative continues to comprise the mandatory Enhanced Registration Framework which sets out the basic standards that a private education institution would need to adhere to in order to operate.
While private schools are required to register with the CPE, this is not an endorsement or accreditation of the school. Employers and individuals are to discrete the various school qualifications for recognition and acceptance purposes; the EduTrust Certification Scheme is a quality assurance scheme that differentiate private schools according to their quality in education and improvements leading to a good education outcome. There are 7 PEIs. In September 2009, the Private Education Act was passed in the Parliament of Singapore with the aim of strengthening and levelling up the quality of the private education sector through an enhanced registration framework and enforcement; the Act provided for the establishment of the Council for Private Education to oversee a new regulatory function. The CPE began its operations on 21 December 2009. In 15 November 2017, the CPE released the results of its Private Education Institution Graduate Employment Survey. Key Findings of PEI GES between 2015 and 2016 showed that the overall employment rate of Private School graduates was 84.3% with full-time permanent employment at 60.1%.
This result differs from the Autonomous University graduates at 89.6% and 79.9% respectively. Subsequently, the median salary of Private School graduates were $2,550 as compared to AU graduates at $3,325. Polytechnic graduates who completed National Service was paid $2,517 respectively. In 2018, graduates of private education institutes achieved a 47% full-time employment rate in comparison with 78.4% for their peers from three autonomous universities - the National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University and Singapore Management University. This result is lower than post-national service polytechnic graduates who's full-time employment rate was 64%; the response rate to the survey was more than 32% in the previous year. It revealed that private graduates earned median gross starting salaries of $2,650 a month, while NUS, NTU and SMU graduates earned $3,400. Post-NS polytechnic graduates earned $2,480 a month. In Oct 2017, Dr Sam Choon Yin, the dean of PSB Academy wrote in a commentary that private education providers need to remove the impression of second chance providers of education while offering more chances to individuals.
In a Feb 2018 interview, Mr Dr Lee Kwok Cheong, CEO of SIM Holdings refers to SIM as a second-chance university for late bloomers to succeed. Official website
Tharman Shanmugaratnam is a Singaporean politician and economist. He is Deputy Prime Minister and Coordinating Minister for Economic and Social Policies, he is Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore, Singapore's central bank and financial regulator. In April 2017, Tharman was appointed to chair a G20 Eminent Persons Group on Global Financial Governance, set up to review the system of multilateral financial institutions, he succeeded Jean-Claude Trichet as Chairman of the Group of Thirty, an independent global council of leading economic and financial policy-makers from January 1, 2017. Tharman had been appointed by his international peers as Chairman of the International Monetary and Financial Committee, the key policy forum of the IMF, for an extended period of four years from 2011, he has spent his working life in roles related to economic policy and education. He served as Minister for Finance from 2007 to 2015, as Minister for Education from 2003 to 2008. Tharman attended the Anglo-Chinese School.
He went on to the London School of Economics. He subsequently obtained a master's degree in economics from Wolfson College, a Master in Public Administration from Harvard University, where he received a Lucius N. Littauer Fellow award for outstanding performance and potential. Tharman was a student activist while studying in the United Kingdom during the 1970s, he held socialist beliefs, but his views on economics changed over the course of his working career. Tharman started his career at the Monetary Authority of Singapore, he joined the Singapore Administrative Service and served in the Ministry of Education as a Senior Deputy Secretary for Policy, before returning to the MAS where he rose to become its Managing Director. He resigned from this position to contest in the 2001 general election as a candidate for the People's Action Party. Following the 2001 general election, Tharman was appointed Senior Minister of State at the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Education, he served as the Minister for Education from 2003 to 2008.
In May 2006, Tharman was appointed Second Minister for Finance before becoming Minister for Finance in December 2007. Following the 2011 general election, Tharman was appointed Deputy Prime Minister, while remaining as Minister for Finance, he served concurrently as the Minister for Manpower between May 2011 to July 2012. He stepped down as Minister for Finance in September 2015 after 9 years. After the 2015 general election, Tharman remained Deputy Prime Minister and was appointed as the Coordinating Minister for Economic and Social Policies in October 2015. Tharman was first elected Member of Parliament in Nov 2001 in Jurong GRC, has been re-elected three times since. At the 2015 general elections, Jurong GRC, helmed by Tharman, garnered a vote share of 79.3 per cent against a Singaporeans First team. Tharman has been elected to the Central Executive Committee of the People’s Action Party since Dec 2002, was appointed 2nd Assistant Secretary-General in May 2011. In May 2017, the National Trades Union Congress conferred on Tharman the Medal of Honour, the highest award of its May Day Awards.
NTUC cited amongst other things “his deep commitment to building an inclusive society”. On 2 March 2012, Tharman responded during the debate on the Singapore Budget to concerns expressed by non-constituency member of Parliament Gerald Giam about Singaporeans being unable to afford a flat in Singapore, "I would like to assure Mr Gerald Giam, who might not have caught up with all the developments, that our enhanced housing grants for lower income families are such that a family with a monthly income of as low as $1,000 can now purchase a small flat." He added that “98% of our younger cohorts, those who are below 35, earn at least $1,000 of income a month. A family that earns a bit more, say $1,500, can purchase a medium-sized flat; this is because the housing grants that have been given are more aggressive than what any other Government would give. For those who cannot afford it, other schemes are available to help”, he was criticised for the statement by netizens who were not aware that the scheme had in fact led to many poor families being eligible and taking up the offer to own a new 2-room flat.
In April 2017, Tharman was appointed to chair a G20 Eminent Persons Group on Global Financial Governance, set up to review the system of multilateral financial institutions. He succeeded Jean-Claude Trichet as Chairman of the Group of Thirty, an independent global council of leading economic and financial policy-makers from January 1, 2017. Tharman had been appointed by his international peers as Chairman of the International Monetary and Financial Committee, the key policy forum of the IMF, for an extended period of four years from 2011. In announcing Tharman's selection, the IMF said that his "broad experience, deep knowledge of economic and financial issues, active engagement with global policy makers will be valuable to the IMFC".. Tharman is the Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore, he sits on the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation Board, chairs its Investment Strategy Committee. Tharman led the SkillsFuture programme, launched in 2014 to provide broad-based and funded opportunities for lifelong learning among Singaporeans, aimed at developing the skills of the future.
He subsequently chaired the tripartite Co