Japanese nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that the Japanese are a monolithic nation with a single immutable culture, promotes the cultural unity of the Japanese. It encompasses a broad range of ideas and sentiments harbored by the Japanese people over the last two centuries regarding their native country, its cultural nature, political form and historical destiny, it is useful to distinguish Japanese cultural nationalism from political or state-directed nationalism, since many forms of cultural nationalism, such as those associated with folkloric studies, have been hostile to state-fostered nationalism. In Meiji period Japan, nationalist ideology consisted of a blend of native and imported political philosophies developed by the Meiji government to promote national unity and patriotism, first in defense against colonization by Western powers, in a struggle to attain equality with the Great Powers, it evolved throughout the Taishō and Shōwa periods to justify an totalitarian government and overseas expansionism, provided a political and ideological foundation for the actions of the Japanese military in the years leading up to World War II.
During the final days of the Tokugawa shogunate, the perceived threat of foreign encroachment after the arrival of Commodore Matthew C. Perry and the signing of the Kanagawa Accord, led to increased prominence to the development of nationalist ideologies; some prominent daimyō promoted the concept of fukko. The terms were not mutually exclusive, merging into the sonnō jōi concept, which in turn was a major driving force in starting the Meiji Restoration; the Meiji Constitution of 1889 defined allegiance to the State as the citizen's highest duty. While the constitution itself contained a mix of political Western practices and traditional Japanese political ideas, government philosophy centered on promoting social harmony and a sense of the uniqueness of the Japanese people; the extreme disparity in economic and military power between Japan and the Western colonial powers was a great cause for concern for the early Meiji leadership. The motto Fukoku kyōhei symbolized Meiji period nationalistic policies to provide government support to strengthen strategic industries.
Only with a strong economic base could Japan afford to build a strong, modern military along Western lines, only with a strong economy and military could Japan force a revision of the unequal treaties, such as the Kanagawa Accords. Government policies laid the basis of industrialist empires known as the zaibatsu; as a residue of its widespread use in propaganda during the 19th century, military nationalism in Japan was known as bushidō. The word, denoting a coherent code of beliefs and doctrines about the proper path of the samurai, or what is called generically'warrior thought', is encountered in Japanese texts before the Meiji era, when the 11 volumes of the Hagakure of Yamamoto Tsunetomo, compiled in the years from 1710 to 1716 where the character combination is employed, was published. Constituted over a long time by house manuals on war and warriorship, it gained some official backing with the establishment of the Bakufu, which sought an ideological orthodoxy in the Neo-Confucianism of Zhu Xi tailored for military echelons that formed the basis of the new shogunal government.
An important early role was played by Yamaga Sokō in theorizing a Japanese military ethos. After the abolition of the feudal system, the new military institutions of Japan were shaped along European lines, with Western instructors, the codes themselves modeled on standard models adapted from abroad; the impeccable behaviour, in terms of international criteria, displayed by the Japanese military in the Russo-Japanese War was proof that Japan had a modern army whose techniques and etiquette of war differed little from that of what prevailed among the Western imperial powers. The Imperial Rescript for Seamen and Soldiers, presented Japan as a "sacred nation protected by the gods". An undercurrent of traditional warrior values never wholly disappeared, as Japan slid towards a cycle of repeated crises from the mid-Taishō to early Shōwa eras, the old samurai ideals began to assume importance among more politicized officers in the Imperial Japanese Army. Sadao Araki played an important role in adapting a doctrine of seishin kyōiku as an ideological backbone for army personnel.
As Minister of Education, he supported the integration of the samurai code into the national education system. In developing the modern concepts of State Shintoism and emperor worship, various Japanese philosophers tried to revive or purify national beliefs by removing imported foreign ideas, borrowed from Chinese philosophy; this "Restoration Shintōist Movement" began with Motoori Norinaga in the 18th century. Motoori Norinaga, Hirata Atsutane, based their research on the Kojiki and other classic Shintō texts which teach the superiority of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu; this formed the basis for State Shintōism, as the Japanese emperor claimed direct descent from Amaterasu. The emperor himself was therefore sacred, all proclamations of the emperor had thus a religious significance. After the Meiji Restoration, the new imperial government needed to modernize the polity and economy of Japan, the Meiji oligarchy felt that those goals could only be accomplished through a strong sense of natio
Minister for Foreign Affairs (Japan)
The Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan is the Cabinet member responsible for Japanese foreign policy and the chief executive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Since the end of the American occupation of Japan, the position has been one of the most powerful in the Cabinet, as Japan's economic interests have long relied on external relations; the recent efforts of former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi to establish a more interventionist foreign policy have heightened the importance of the position. The position is held by Tarō Kōno. Italics indicates subject served as Acting Foreign Minister. Bold indicates subject served concurrently as Prime Minister for a period of time. Liberal Imperial Family Progressive Socialist Democratic Democratic Liberal Liberal Democratic Liberal Democratic Japan Renewal Party Japan New Party Liberal League Democratic Foreign minister Foreign policy of Japan Minister's Profile at Ministry of Foreign Affairs website
Economic history of Japan
The economic history of Japan is most studied for the spectacular social and economic growth in the 1800s after the Meiji Restoration, when it became the first non-Western great power, for its expansion after the Second World War, when Japan recovered from devastation to become the world's second largest economy behind the United States, from 2013 behind China as well. Scholars have evaluated the nation's unique economic position during the Cold War, with exports going to both U. S.- and Soviet-aligned powers, have taken keen interest in the situation of the post-Cold War period of the Japanese "lost decades". Renaissance Europeans were quite admiring of Japan when they reached the country in the 16th century. Japan was considered a country immensely rich in precious metals, a view that owed its conception to Marco Polo's accounts of gilded temples and palaces, but due to the relative abundance of surface ores characteristic of a volcanic country, before large-scale deep-mining became possible in Industrial times.
Japan was to become a major exporter of silver during the period. Japan was perceived as a sophisticated feudal society with a high culture and advanced pre-industrial technology, it was densely urbanized. Prominent European observers of the time seemed to agree that the Japanese "excel not only all the other Oriental peoples, they surpass the Europeans as well". Early European visitors were amazed by the quality of Japanese metalsmithing; this stems from the fact that Japan itself is rather poor in natural resources found in Europe iron. Thus, the Japanese were famously frugal with their consumable resources; the cargo of the first Portuguese ships that arrived in Japan consisted entirely of Chinese goods. The Japanese were much looking forward to acquiring such goods, but had been prohibited from any contacts with the Emperor of China, as a punishment for Wakō pirate raids; the Portuguese therefore found the opportunity to act as intermediaries in Asian trade. From the time of the acquisition of Macau in 1557, their formal recognition as trade partners by the Chinese, the Portuguese started to regulate trade to Japan, by selling to the highest bidder the annual "Captaincy" to Japan, in effect conferring exclusive trading rights for a single carrack bound for Japan every year.
The carracks were large ships between 1000 and 1500 tons, about double or triple the size of a large galleon or junk. That trade continued with few interruptions until 1638, when it was prohibited on the ground that the ships were smuggling priests into Japan. Portuguese trade was progressively more and more challenged by Chinese smugglers on junks, Japanese Red Seal Ships from around 1592, Spanish ships from Manila from around 1600, the Dutch from 1609, the English from 1613; the Dutch, rather than "Nanban" were called "Kōmō" by the Japanese, first arrived in Japan in 1600, on board the Liefde. Their pilot was the first Englishman to reach Japan. In 1605, two of the Liefde's crew were sent to Pattani by Tokugawa Ieyasu, to invite Dutch trade to Japan; the head of the Pattani Dutch trading post, Victor Sprinckel, refused on the ground that he was too busy dealing with Portuguese opposition in Southeast Asia. In 1609 however, the Dutch Jacques Specx arrived with two ships in Hirado, through Adams obtained trading privileges from Ieyasu.
The Dutch engaged in piracy and naval combat to weaken Portuguese and Spanish shipping in the Pacific, became the only westerners to be allowed access to Japan from the small enclave of Dejima after 1638 and for the next two centuries. The beginning of the Edo period coincides with the last decades of the Nanban trade period, during which intense interaction with European powers, on the economic and religious plane, took place. At the beginning of the Edo period, Japan built her first ocean-going Western-style warships, such as the San Juan Bautista, a 500-ton galleon-type ship that transported a Japanese embassy headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas, continued to Europe. During that period, the bakufu commissioned around 350 Red Seal Ships, three-masted and armed trade ships, for intra-Asian commerce. Japanese adventurers, such as Yamada Nagamasa, were active throughout Asia. In order to eradicate the influence of Christianization, Japan entered in a period of isolation called sakoku, during which its economy enjoyed stability and mild progress.
But not long after, in the 1650s, the production of Japanese export porcelain increased when civil war put the main Chinese center of porcelain production, in Jingdezhen, out of action for several decades. For the rest of the 17th century most Japanese porcelain production was in Kyushu for export through the Chinese and Dutch; the trade dwindled under renewed Chinese competition by the 1740s, before resuming after the opening of Japan in the mid-19th century. Economic development during the Edo period included urbanization, increased shipping of commodities, a significant expansion of domestic and foreign commerce, a diffusion of trade and handicraft industries; the construction trades flourished, along with banking facilities and merchant associations. Han authorities oversaw the rising agricultural production and the spread of rural handicrafts. By the mid-18th century, Edo had a population of more than 1 million and Osaka and Ky
Wake Island is a coral atoll in the western Pacific Ocean in the northeastern area of the Micronesia subregion, 1,501 miles east of Guam, 2,298 miles west of Honolulu, 1,991 miles southeast of Tokyo, 898 miles north of Majuro. The island is an unorganized, unincorporated territory of the United States, claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Wake Island is one of the most isolated islands in the world and the nearest inhabited island is Utirik Atoll in the Marshall Islands, 592 miles to the southeast. Wake Island, one of 14 U. S. insular areas, is administered by the United States Air Force under an agreement with the U. S. Department of the Interior; the center of activity on the atoll is at Wake Island Airfield, used as a mid-Pacific refueling stop for military aircraft and an emergency landing area. The 9,800-foot runway is the longest strategic runway in the Pacific islands. South of the runway is the Wake Island Launch Center, a missile launch site of the Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site operated by the United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command and the Missile Defense Agency.
The Base Operations Support contractor at Wake is Inc.. About 94 people live on the island, access to it is restricted. Population fluctuates depending on operations being conducted by Missile Defense Agency activities. On December 11, 1941, Wake Island was the site of the Empire of Japan's first unsuccessful attack on American forces in the Battle of Wake Island when U. S. Marines, with some US Navy personnel and civilians on the island repelled an attempted Japanese invasion, sinking two enemy destroyers and a transport; the island fell to overwhelming Japanese forces 12 days in a second attack, this one with extensive support from Japanese carrier-based aircraft returning from the attack on Pearl Harbor's naval and air bases in Hawaii further east, sixteen days previously. Wake Island remained occupied by Japanese forces until the end of the war in September 1945; the submerged and emergent lands at the atoll are a unit of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument. Wake island, together with eight other insular areas, comprises the United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 3166-1 code.
They are collectively represented by the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code UM. Wake Island derives its name from British sea captain Samuel Wake, who rediscovered the atoll in 1796 while in command of the Prince William Henry; the name is sometimes attributed to Capt. William Wake, reported to have discovered the atoll from the Prince William Henry in 1792. Wake is located two-thirds of the way from Honolulu to Guam. Honolulu is 2,300 statute miles to 1,510 statute miles to the west; the closest land is the uninhabited Bokak Atoll 348 mi in the Marshall Islands, to the southeast. The atoll is to the west of the International Date Line and in the Wake Island Time Zone, the easternmost time zone in the United States, one day ahead of the 50 states. Although Wake is called an island in the singular form, it is an atoll composed of three islets and a reef surrounding a central lagoon: Wake Island lies in the tropical zone, but is subject to periodic temperate storms during the winter. Sea surface temperatures are warm all year long, reaching above 80 °F in autumn.
Typhoons pass over the island. On October 19, 1940, an unnamed typhoon hit Wake Island with 120 knots winds; this was the first recorded typhoon to hit the island since observations began in 1935. Super Typhoon Olive barreled through Wake on September 1952 with wind speeds reaching 150 knots. Olive caused major flooding, destroyed 85% of its structures and caused $1.6 million in damages. On September 16, 1967, at 10:40 pm local time, the eye of Super Typhoon Sarah passed over the island. Sustained winds in the eyewall were 130 knots, from the north before the eye and from the south afterward. All non-reinforced structures were demolished. There were no serious injuries, the majority of the civilian population was evacuated after the storm. On August 28, 2006, the United States Air Force evacuated all 188 residents and suspended all operations as category 5 Super Typhoon Ioke headed toward Wake. By August 31 the southwestern eyewall of the storm passed over the island, with winds well over 185 miles per hour, driving a 20 ft storm surge and waves directly into the lagoon inflicting major damage.
A U. S. Air Force assessment and repair team returned to the island in September 2006 and restored limited function to the airfield and facilities leading to a full return to normal operations. Wake Island was first encountered by Europeans on October 2, 1568, by Spanish explorer and navigator Álvaro de Mendaña de Neyra. In 1567 Mendaña and his crew had set off on two ships, Los Reyes and Todos los Santos, from Callao, Peru, on an expedition to search for a gold-rich land in the South Pacific as mentioned in Inca tradition. After visiting Tuvalu and the Solomon Islands, the expedition headed north and came upon Wake Island, "a low barren island, judged to be eight leagues in circumference". Since the date – October 2, 1568 – was the eve of the feast of Saint Francis of Assisi, the captain named the island San Francisco; the ships were in need of water and the crew was suffering from scurvy, but after circling the island it was determined that Wake was waterless and h
Kazuo Aoki, was a bureaucrat and cabinet minister in the Empire of Japan, serving as Minister of Finance, Minister of Greater East Asia. Aoki was born to a farming family in Sarashina District, Nagano prefecture, was trained as a lawyer, graduating from the Law School of Tokyo Imperial University in 1916. On graduation, he entered the Ministry of Finance. Rising through the ranks, Aoki became chief of the Financial Bureau under Takahashi Korekiyo, who made use of his legal background to have Aoki draft a Foreign Exchange Management Act, passed by the Diet of Japan in 1933. Up until that time, Japan had not attempted to implement comprehensive state control over foreign exchange. Aoki followed up on this law with the Rice Control Act and the Petroleum Control Act, which set the stage for increasing state control over strategic sectors of the economy, he was on the committee which drafted the National Service Draft Ordinance, which placed the Japanese economy on a war economy footing after the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe asked Aoki to become deputy director of the Cabinet Planning Board in 1937, he became its chairman in 1939. The same year, Aoki was nominated to a seat in the Upper House in the Diet. Under Prime Minister Abe, Aoki was Minister of Finance in 1939, while retaining his post as chairman of the Cabinet Planning Board. After the fall of the Abe administration, Aoki was assigned as a special envoy to the Reorganized National Government of China to guide economic policy, he was recalled to Japan under the Tōjō administration to the newly created cabinet post of Minister of Greater East Asia In November 1942, in which position he oversaw the Greater East Asia Conference. Aoki visited Japanese-occupied Batavia in May 1943, meeting with Mohammad Hatta, who as representative for the Indonesian nationalists, advised him that unless there was a shift in Japanese policy towards granting independence for Indonesia, it would be difficult to maintain popular support for Japan. Aoki promised to raise the issue with Tōjō, who mentioned his intent to grant independence to Malaya, Java and Sulawesi within a year in his June 1943 parliamentary speech.
After the surrender of Japan, Aoki was arrested by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers and held in Sugamo Prison on charges of war crimes. However, he was released in 1948 without coming to trial. Afterwards, Aoki established a private legal practice. In 1953, he ran for a seat in the House of Councilors with the support of the Liberal Party on a nationwide ticket, he was subsequently reelected to the same seat three more times as a member of the Liberal Democratic Party. He joined a right-wing faction within the LDP in 1960, adamantly opposed to Japan’s normalization of relations with the People’s Republic of China and supported Japan’s continued recognition of the Republic of China on Taiwan, he was a strong supporter of building a nationwide network of highways in Japan the Chūō Expressway. After his retirement from politics, Aoki joined the Board of Directors of Shin-etsu Broadcasting, in 1968 was one of the founders of the Nagano Broadcasting Systems. In 1971, he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun, 1st class.
He published his memoirs in 1981, shortly before his death in 1982. Newspaper clippings about Kazuo Aoki in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Rising Sun Flag
The Rising Sun Flag was used by feudal warlords in Japan during the Edo period. On May 15, 1870, as a policy of the Meiji government, it was adopted as the war flag of the Imperial Japanese Army, on October 7, 1889, it was adopted as the naval ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy, it is still used in Japan as a symbol of tradition and good fortune, is incorporated into commercial products and advertisements. The flag is flown by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and a modified version is flown by the Japan Self-Defense Forces and the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force; the flag of Japan and the rising sun had symbolic meaning since the early 7th century in the Asuka period. The Japanese archipelago is east of the Asian mainland, is thus where the sun "rises". In 607 CE, an official correspondence that began with "from the Emperor of the rising sun" was sent to Chinese Emperor Yang of Sui. Japan is referred to as "the land of the rising sun". In the 12th-century work, The Tale of the Heike, it was written that different samurai carried drawings of the sun on their fans.
A well-known variant of the flag of Japan sun disc design is the sun disc with 16 red rays in a Siemens star formation. The Rising Sun Flag has been used as a traditional national symbol of Japan since the Edo period, it is featured in antique artwork such as ukiyo-e prints through history. Such as the "Lucky Gods' visit to Enoshima", ukiyo-e print by Utagawa Yoshiiku in 1869 and "One Hundred Views of Osaka, Three Great Bridges", ukiyo-e print by Utagawa Kunikazu in 1854; the Fujiyama Tea Co. used it as a wooden box label of Japanese tea for export in the Meiji period / Taisho period. The Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun"; the character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the red disc symbolizes the red lines are light rays shining from the rising sun. It was used by the daimyō and Japan's military the Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The ensign, known in Japanese as the Jyūrokujō-Kyokujitsu-ki, was first adopted as the war flag on May 15, 1870, was used until the end of World War II in 1945. It was re-adopted on June 30, 1954, is now used by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force; the Japan Self-Defense Forces and Japan Ground Self-Defense Force use a variation of the Rising Sun Flag with red and gold colors. The Rising Sun Flag has been used as a traditional national symbol of Japan since at least the Edo period, it has been used in many ukiyo-e prints through history. For example the "Lucky Gods' visit to Enoshima", ukiyo-e print by Utagawa Yoshiiku in 1869 and "One Hundred Views of Osaka, Three Great Bridges", ukiyo-e print by Utagawa Kunikazu in 1854; the Fujiyama Tea Co. used it as a wooden box label of Japanese tea for export in the Meiji period / Taisho period. The design is similar to the flag of Japan; the difference compared to the flag of Japan is that the Rising Sun Flag has extra sun rays exemplifying the name of Japan as "The Land of the Rising Sun".
The Imperial Japanese Army first adopted the Rising Sun Flag in 1870. The Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy both had a version of the flag; the flag was used until Japan's surrender in World War II during August 1945. After the establishment of the Japan Self-Defense Forces in 1954, the flag was re-adopted and approved by the GHQ/SCAP; the flag with 16 rays is today the ensign of the Maritime Self-Defense Force while the Ground Self-Defense Force uses an 8-ray version. Commercially the Rising Sun Flag is used on many products, clothing, beer cans, bands, comics, movies, video games, etc; the Rising Sun Flag appears on commercial product labels, such as on the cans of one variety of Asahi Breweries lager beer. The design is incorporated into the logo of the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun. Among fishermen, the tairyō-ki represents their hope for a good catch of fish. Today it is used as a decorative flag on vessels as well as for events; the Rising Sun Flag is used at sporting events by the supporters of Japanese teams and individual athletes as well as by non-Japanese.
The Rising Sun Flag is the war flag and naval ensign of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force since June 30, 1954. JSDF Chief of Staff Katsutoshi Kawano said the Rising Sun Flag is the Maritime Self-Defense Force sailors' "pride"; the Japan Self-Defense Forces and the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force use the Rising Sun Flag with eight red rays extending outward, called Hachijō-Kyokujitsuki. A gold border lies around the edge; the flag is used by non-Japanese, for example, in the emblems of some U. S. military units based in Japan, by the American blues rock band Hot Tuna, on the cover of its album Live in Japan. It is used as an emblem of the United States Fleet Activities Sasebo, as a patch of the Strike Fighter Squadron 94, a mural at Misawa Air Base, the former insignia of Strike Fighter Squadron 192 and Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System with patches of the 14th Fighter Squadron; some ex
Ministry of Colonial Affairs (Japan)
The Ministry of Colonial Affairs was a cabinet-level government ministry of the Empire of Japan from 1929 to 1942. The original Ministry of Colonial Affairs was the short-lived Hokkaidō Colonization Office, established in the early Meiji period by Prime Minister Kuroda Kiyotaka to protect Japan's sparely populated northern frontier against encroachment by the Russian Empire by encouraging the settlement of ex-soldiers as militia-farmers in Hokkaidō; this was followed by the shorter-lived Colonial Administration Department within the office of the Governor-General of Taiwan. Established on 2 April 1896 by General Takashima Tomonosuke, it was intended to encourage Japanese investment and settlement in Taiwan, after the acquisition of that island by Japan as a result of the First Sino-Japanese War; the office was abolished on 2 September 1897. The Japanese government continued to provide sporadic encouragement of overseas emigration to help relieve overpopulation of the Japanese archipelago and to help spread Japanese influence overseas.
During the late Meiji period and early Taishō period, large numbers of Japanese emigrated to Hawaii and the Philippines, lesser numbers to China, South America and Southeast Asia. However, the emigration of Japanese to foreign countries did nothing to help secure the peripheral areas of the Japanese Empire itself. Japan acquired Korea and the Kwantung Leased Territory as a result of the Russo-Japanese War, a Colonization Bureau was established within the Japanese Home Ministry on 22 June 1910; the bureau came under much criticism for its ineffectiveness, on 10 June 1929, it was elevated into a separate cabinet-level ministry under Prime Minister Giichi Tanaka. The new ministry was intended to coordinate emigration and settlement in all exterior territories of Japan, had supervisory responsibility for Japanese controlled territory of Korea, of Taiwan, of Karafuto, of Nanyo, the Kwantung Leased Territory However, the ministry did not sponsor emigration to those territories, it only cooperated with private emigration sponsorship companies.
The ministry oversaw operations of the South Manchuria Railway Company, but its authority did not extend to Manchuria due to strong resistance by the Ministry of War, who wanted to keep control over the future economic development of Manchuria to itself. The Governor-General of Korea, accustomed to virtual autonomy, rejected the new ministry's control and continued to administer Korea with little interference. On 1 November 1942, the Ministry of Colonial Affairs was abolished, its functions divided between the Japanese Foreign Ministry and the newly created Ministry of Greater East Asia. Beasley, W. G.. Japanese Imperialism 1894-1945. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822168-1. Ching, Leo T. S.. Becoming Japanese: Colonial Taiwan and the Politics of Identity Formation. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22553-8. Myers, Raymond; the Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895-1945. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-10222-8. Townsend, Susan C.. Yanihara Tadao and Japanese Colonial Policy: Redeeming Empire.
RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1275-5