Nordic Stone Age
The Nordic Stone Age refers to the Stone Age of Scandinavia. During the Weichselian glaciation all of Scandinavia was buried beneath a thick permanent ice cover and the Stone Age came rather late to this region; as the climate warmed up at the end of the ice age, nomadic hunters from central Europe sporadically visited the region, but it was not until around 12,000 BCE before permanent, but nomadic, habitation took root. As the ice receded, reindeer grazed the emerging tundra plains of southernmost Sweden; this was the era of the Hamburg culture, tribes who hunted over territories 100,000 km² vast and lived as nomads in teepees, following the reindeer seasonal migrations across the barren tundra. On this land there was little plant cover, except for rowan. A taiga forest appeared. Around 11,400 BCE, the Bromme culture emerged in Southern Scandinavia; this was a more warming era providing opportunity for other substantial hunting game animals than the ubiquitous reindeer. As former hunter-gather cultures, the Bromme culture was still dependent on reindeer and lived a nomadic life, but their camps diversified and they were the first people to settle Southern Scandinavia on a permanent, yet still nomadic, basis.
Local climate changes around 10,500 BCE, initiated both cultural changes and the first settling of the northern parts of Scandinavia. A thousand year long climate cooldown replaced the taiga with the former tundra and the local culture reverted to former times focus on the reindeer hunt; this culture is now referred to as the Ahrensburg culture. Around 9,500 BCE, the local climate warmed yet again, as the pre-Boreal era emerged, this triggered the Ahrensburg to settle the emerging tundra of northern Scandinavia. For the next two thousand years, the climatic phase known as the Boreal reigned in the Scandinavian region. In the 7th millennium BCE, the climate in Scandinavia was warming as it transitioned from the former Boreal age to the Atlantic period. Reindeer and their hunters had migrated and inhabited the lands of northern Scandinavia, forests had established. A culture called the Maglemosian culture lived in the areas of southern Sweden. To the north, in Norway and along the coast of western Sweden, the Fosna-Hensbacka culture was living in changing seasonal camps along the shores and close to the now thriving forests.
Utilizing fire and stone tools, these Stone Age tribal cultures managed to survive in northern Europe. The northern hunter-gatherers followed the herds and the salmon runs, moving south during the winters, moving north again during the summers; these early peoples followed cultural traditions similar to those practiced throughout other regions in the far north – areas including modern Finland and across the Bering Strait into the northernmost strip of North America. During the 6th millennium BCE, the climate of Scandinavia was warmer and more humid than today and the southern regions were clad in lush temperate broadleaf and mixed forests. Large animals like aurochs, wisent and red deer roamed in the forests and were game for tribes of what we now call the Kongemose culture. Like their predecessors, the Kongemose tribes hunted marine animals such as seals and fished in the rich shallow waters. North of the Kongemose people, lived other hunter-gatherers in most of southern Norway and Sweden, now dubbed the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures, descendants of the Fosna and Hensbacka cultures.
By the end of the 6th millennium BCE, as the sea levels rose these northerly tribal cultures continued their way of life, while the Kongemose culture was replaced by the Ertebølle culture, adapting to the climatic changes affecting their low lying southern regions more severely. During the 5th millennium BCE, the Ertebølle people learned pottery from neighbouring tribes in the south, who had begun to cultivate the land and keep animals. Soon, they too started to cultivate the land and, ca 4000 BCE, they became part of the megalithic Funnelbeaker culture. During the 4th millennium BCE, these Funnelbeaker tribes expanded into Sweden up to Uppland; the Nøstvet and Lihult tribes learned new technology from the advancing farmers, but not agriculture, became the Pitted Ware cultures, towards the end of the 4th millennium BCE. These Pitted Ware tribes halted the advance of the farmers and pushed them south into south-western Sweden, but some say that the farmers were not killed or chased away, but that they voluntarily joined the Pitted Ware culture and became part of them.
At least one settlement appears to be mixed, the Alvastra pile-dwelling. It is not known what language these early Scandinavians spoke, but towards the end of the 3rd millennium BCE, they were overrun by new tribes who many scholars think spoke Proto-Indo-European, the Battle-Axe culture; this new people advanced up to Uppland and the Oslofjord, they provided the language, the ancestor of the modern Scandinavian languages. These new tribes were individualistic and patriarchal with the battle axe as a status symbol, they were cattle herders and with them most of southern Scandinavia entered the Neolithic. The Bronze Age would usher in a time of cultural advance in Scandinavia. T. Douglas Price: "Ancient Scandinavia: An Archaeological History from the First Humans to the Vikings", Oxford University Press Marek Zvelebil: "Hunters in Transition: Mesolithic Societies of Temperate Eurasia and Their Transition to Farming", Cambridge University Press
Coat of arms of Norway
The coat of arms of Norway is a standing golden lion on a red background, bearing a golden crown and axe with silver blade. The coat of arms is used by the King, the Parliament, the Supreme Court, which are the three powers according to the Constitution, it is used by several national and local authorities that are subordinate to the aforementioned, for example the County Governors and both the district courts and the courts of appeal. Since 1905, two parallel versions exist: the more elaborate version used by the King and the simpler one used by the State; the arms in banner form serve as basis for the monarch's flag, known as the Royal Standard. In addition, there are former and existing lands, organisations and families who have been granted the right to bear the coat of arms or derivations of this. Unless granted, it is illegal to use the coat of arms; the arms has its origin in the 13th century, at first just as a golden lion on a red shield, with the silver axe added late in the century, symbolising Olaf II as the Eternal King of Norway.
In origin the arms of the Sverre dynasty, the coat of arms became quartered with that of the Bjälbo dynasty when the Sverre lineage was extinct in 1319, the Sverre coat of arms figured as part of the further divisions of the coats of arms of Norwegian kings during the early modern period. The Sverre coat of arms was regarded as representing the Norwegian monarchy in the late 15th century, it came to be used to represent Norway on coins and in seals during the union with Denmark and the 19th-century personal union with Sweden, its 13th-century origins placing it among the oldest state coats of arms which remain in contemporary use; the axe tended to be depicted as a curved pollaxe or halberd from 1500 until 1844. The 1844 design approved by king Oscar I reverted to the depiction of a battle-axe as shown in medieval designs. After the dissolution of the union with Sweden in 1905 a medieval-type escutcheon and charge was designed by Eilif Peterssen. Peterssen's design would be used until 1937 when it was re-designed by state archivist Hallvard Trætteberg, resulting in a markedly different, more simplified design style.
Peterssen's design has, been retained in the Royal Standard and coat of arms. The Lion of Norway has been a embraced symbol for centuries; this popularity is, not least, visible in older folk art. The design of the coat of arms is derived from that of the Sverre dynasty. Hallvard Trætteberg in 1814 suggested that Sverre, king between 1184 and 1202, had a lion in his coat of arms, although there is no direct attestation. Snorre Sturlason claims that a golden lion on a red background was used in 1103 by King Magnus III, the son of King Olav III. Gustav Storm in 1894 concluded. Storm explained that the claimed lion in King Magnus's coat of arms is unknown both in the older Saga literature and in other contemporary sources, it is possible that Snorre, who wrote under the instruction of the King, attributed King Sverre's coat of arms to earlier Kings of Norway. A lion is shown on the coat of arms in the seal of Earl Skule Bårdsson, dated 1225, who had relations to the royal family. Haakon Haakonson the Old had a lion in his seal, shown as lying between the feet of the seated king.
A royal coat of arms with a lion is seen on the seal of Haakon Haakonson the Young, dated 1250. The first instance of the lion bearing an axe is found in a seal of Eric II. In 1280, either King Magnus VI or the guardianship of his son Eric Magnuson let the lion be equipped with a crown of gold and in the foremost paws an axe of silver; the axe was a symbol of Saint Olaf, i.e. King Olaf II, by inserting it into the coat of arms it symbolised that the King was the rightful heir and descendant of the'Eternal King of Norway'. With the death of King Haakon V in 1319, the reign of the Sverre dynasty came to an end; the Throne and thus the Royal Coat of Arms was inherited by Magnus VII, a maternal grandson of Haakon V and who himself belonged patrilineally to the family known as the Bjälbo dynasty. Subsequently, Norway remained in personal union with neighbouring countries; when acting as the ruler of one particular country, the sovereign would use the arms of that kingdom. When acting as sovereign of the united kingdoms, he would marshal the escutcheon by quartering.
This was a tendency in Europe in general. The first union kings placed the Royal Coat of Arms in the first quarter of the quartered coat of arms. At the beginning of the Kalmar Union, Norway as a hereditary kingdom was considered more important than Sweden and Denmark, which were still electoral kingdoms. King Eric III of Pomerania placed his Norwegian Coat of Arms in an inescutcheon, superimposed on the coats of arms of his other realms. However, the Norwegian Coat of Arms would be degraded, so that the Coat of arms of Denmark would occupy the first field, whilst Norway's was placed in the second. In 1450, Count Christian of Oldenburg and of Delmenhorst became King of Norway, he was King of Denmark since 1448, in 1457, he became King of Sweden as well. Norway's coat of arms was placed in the lower dexter field and, when Sweden left the Kalmar Union in 1523, in the upper sinister field; the latter lasted until 1814. Varying from time to time, the Kings between 1450 and 1814 bore the coats of arms of the following kingdoms, people
The Quisling regime or Quisling government are common names used to refer to the fascist collaborationist government led by Vidkun Quisling in German-occupied Norway during the Second World War. The official name of the regime from 1 February 1942 until its dissolution in May 1945 was Nasjonale regjering. Actual executive power was retained by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen, headed by Josef Terboven. Given the use of the term quisling, the name Quisling regime can be used as a derogatory term referring to political regimes perceived as treasonous puppet governments imposed by occupying foreign enemies. Vidkun Quisling, Fører of the Nasjonal Samling party, had first tried to carry out a coup against the Norwegian government on 9 April 1940, the day of the German invasion of Norway. At 7:32 p.m. Quisling visited the studios of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation and made a radio broadcast proclaiming himself Prime Minister and ordering all resistance to halt at once, he announced that he and Nasjonal Samling were taking power due to Nygaardsvold's Cabinet having "raised armed resistance and promptly fled".
He further declared that in the present situation it was "the duty and the right of the movement of Nasjonal Samling to take over governmental power". Quisling claimed that the Nygaardsvold Cabinet had given up power despite that it had only moved to Elverum, some 50 km from Oslo, was carrying out negotiations with the Germans; the next day, German ambassador Curt Bräuer traveled to Elverum and demanded King Haakon VII and the legitimate Norwegian government return to Oslo and go into coalition with Quisling. However, Haakon told the Cabinet that he could not in good conscience appoint Quisling as prime minister, would abdicate rather than appoint a government headed by him. By this time, news of Quisling's attempted coup had reached Elverum. Negotiations promptly collapsed, the government unanimously advised Haakon not to appoint Quisling as prime minister. Quisling tried to have the Nygaardsvold Cabinet arrested, but the officer he instructed to carry out the arrest ignored the warrant. Attempts at gaining control over the police force in Oslo by issuing orders to the chief of police Kristian Welhaven failed.
The coup failed after six days, despite German support for the first three days, Quisling had to step aside in the occupied parts of Norway in favour of the Administrative Council. The Administrative Council was formed on 15 April by members of the Supreme Court and supported by Norwegian business leaders as well as Bräuer as an alternative to Quisling's Nasjonal Samling in the occupied areas. On 25 September 1940, German Reichskommissar Josef Terboven, who on 24 April 1940 had replaced Curt Bräuer as the top civilian commander in Norway, proclaimed the deposition of King Haakon VII and the Nygaardsvold Cabinet, banning all political parties other than Nasjonal Samling. Terboven appointed a group of 11 kommissariske statsråder from Nasjonal Samling to help him in governing Norway. Although the provisional councillors of state did not form a government, the intention of the Germans was to use them to prepare the way for a Nasjonal Samling take-over of power in the future. Vidkun Quisling was made the political head of the councillors and all members of Nasjonal Samling had to swear a personal oath of allegiance to him.
Most of the councillors worked diligently at introducing Nasjonal Samling politics. Amongst the schemes introduced during the council period was the introduction of labour duty, reforms of the labour market, the penal code and the system of justice, a reorganization of the police and the introduction of national socialist ideals in the Norwegian culture scene; the provisional councillors of state were intended as a temporary system while Nasjonal Samling built up its organization in preparation to assume full governmental powers. On 25 September 1941, the one-year anniversary of the councillors, Terboven gave them the title of "ministers". With the establishment of Quisling's national government, Quisling, as minister-president, temporarily assumed the authority of both the King and the Parliament. In 1942, after two years of direct civilian administration by the Germans, he was put in charge of a collaborationist government, proclaimed on 1 February 1942; the official name of the government was "Den nasjonale regjering".
The original intention of the Germans had been to hand over the sovereignty of Norway to the new government, but by mid-January 1942 Hitler decided to retain the civilian Reichskommissariat Norwegen under Terboven. The Quisling government was instead given the role of an occupying authority with wide-ranging authorisations. Quisling himself viewed the creation of his government as a "decisive step on the road towards the complete independence of Norway". Although having only temporarily assumed the King's authority, Quisling still made efforts to distance his regime from the exiled monarchy. After Quisling moved into the Royal Palace he took back into use the official seal of Norway, changing the wording from "Haakon VII Norges konge" to "Norges rikes segl". After establishing national government Quisling claimed to hold "the authority that according to the Constitution belonged to the King and Parliament". Other important ministers of the collaborationist government were Jonas Lie as Minister of the Police, Dr. Gulbrand Lunde as Minister of Culture and Enlightenment, as well as the opera singer Albert Viljam Hagelin, Minister of the Inte
Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority
Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is a Norwegian public agency under the Ministry of Health and Care Services headquartered in Østerås, Bærum municipality, Greater Oslo Region. It works as an authority in the area of nuclear safety. NRPA fall under the Ministry of Health and Care Services, but serves all ministries and departments on issues relating to radiation; the NRPA was created on January 1, 1993 through the consolidation of the former Nuclear Energy Safety Authority with the National institute of Radiation Hygiene. The NRPA is responsible for: overseeing the use of radioactive substances and fissile material, coordinating contingency plans against nuclear accidents and radioactive fallout, monitoring natural and artificial radiation in the environment and at the workplace, increasing our knowledge of the occurrence as well as monitoring risk and effects of radiation, it has regional offices in Tromsø and Sør-Varanger and is divided into three sections: Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Department of Planning and Administration NRPA is involved in extensive international cooperation.
This includes cooperation on standards of management, but a growing collaboration on research across borders. NRPA cooperates with International Commission on Radiological Protection, International Atomic Energy Agency. Official website
History of Norway
The history of Norway has been influenced to an extraordinary degree by the terrain and the climate of the region. About 10,000 BC, following the retreat of the great inland ice sheets, the earliest inhabitants migrated north into the territory, now Norway, they traveled northwards along the coastal areas, warmed by the Gulf Stream, where life was more bearable. In order to survive they hunted reindeer. Between 5,000 BC and 4,000 BC the earliest agricultural settlements appeared around the Oslofjord. Between 1500 BC and 500 BC, these agricultural settlements spread into the southern areas of Norway - whilst the inhabitants of the northern regions continued to hunt and fish; the Neolithic period started 4000 BC. The Migration Period caused the first chieftains to take the first defenses to be made. From the last decades of the 8th century Norwegians started expanding across the seas to the British Isles and Iceland and Greenland; the Viking Age saw the unification of the country. Christianization took place during the 11th century and Nidaros became an archdiocese.
The population expanded until 1349 when it was halved by the Black Death and successive plagues. Bergen became the main trading port, controlled by the Hanseatic League. Norway entered the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Sweden in 1397. After Sweden left the union in 1523, Norway became the junior partner in Denmark–Norway; the Reformation was introduced in 1537 and absolute monarchy imposed in 1661. In 1814, after being on the losing side of the Napoleanic Wars with Denmark, Norway was ceded to the king of Sweden by the Treaty of Kiel. Norway adopted a constitution. However, no foreign powers recognized the Norwegian independence but supported the Swedish demand for Norway to comply with the treaty of Kiel. After a short war with Sweden, the countries concluded the Convention of Moss, in which Norway accepted a personal union with Sweden, keeping its Constitution and separate institutions, except for the foreign service; the union was formally established after the extraordinary Storting adopted the necessary amendments to the Constitution and elected Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway on 4 November 1814.
Industrialization started in the 1840s and from the 1860s large-scale emigration to North America took place. In 1884 the king appointed Johan Sverdrup as prime minister; the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905. From the 1880s to the 1920s, Norwegians such as Roald Amundsen and Fridtjof Nansen carried out a series of important polar expeditions. Shipping and hydroelectricity were important sources of income for the country; the following decades saw the rise of the labor movement. Germany occupied Norway between 1940 and 1945 during the Second World War, after which Norway joined NATO and underwent a period of reconstruction under public planning. Oil was discovered in 1969 and by 1995 Norway was the world's second-largest exporter; this resulted in a large increase of wealth. From the 1980s Norway experienced a banking crisis. Today Norway is one of the world's most prosperous countries, it has reinvested its oil revenues and has the world’s largest sovereign wealth fund. Norway's coastline rose from glaciation with the end of the last glacial period about 12,000 B.
C. The first immigration took place during this period as the Norwegian coast offered good conditions for sealing and hunting, they were nomadic and by 9300 B. C they were at Magerøya. Increased ice receding from 8000 B. C. caused settlement along the entire coastline. The Stone Age consisted of the Komsa culture in Troms and Finnmark and the Fosna culture further south; the Nøstvet culture took over from the Fosna culture ca. 7000 BC, which adapted to a warmer climate which gave increased forestation and new mammals for hunting. The oldest human skeleton discovered in Norway was found in shallow water off Sogne in 1994 and has been carbon dated to 6,600 BC. Ca. 4000 BC people in the north started using slate tools, skis and large skin boats. The first farming and thus the start of the Neolithic period, began ca. 4000 BC around the Oslofjord, with the technology coming from southern Scandinavia. The break-through occurred between 2900 and 2500 BC, when oats, pigs, cattle and goats became common and spread as far north as Alta.
This period saw the arrival of the Corded Ware culture, who brought new weapons, tools and an Indo-European dialect, from which the Norwegian language developed. The Bronze Age started in 1800 BC and involved innovations such as plowing fields with ards, permanents farms with houses and yards in the fertile areas around the Oslofjord, Trondheimsfjord, Mjøsa and Jæren; some yields were so high that it allowed farmers to trade furs and skins for luxury items with Jutland. About 1000 BC, speakers of Uralic languages arrived in the north and assimilated with the indigenous population, becoming the Sami people. According to Ante Aikio the formation of the Sámi language was completed in its southernmost area of usage by 500 AD. A climate shift with colder weather started about 500 BC; the forests, which had consisted of elm, lime and oak, were replaced with birch and spruce. The climate changes meant that farmers started building more structures for shelter. Knowledge of ironworking was introduced from the Celts, resulting in better tools.
The Iron Age allowed for easier cultivation and thus new areas were cleared as the population grew with the inc
Hereditary Kingdom of Norway
The Kingdom of Norway as a unified realm was initiated by King Harald I Fairhair in the 9th century. His efforts in unifying the petty kingdoms of Norway resulted in the first known Norwegian central government; the country however fragmented soon, was collected into one entity in the first half of the 11th century. Norway has been a monarchy since passing through several eras, thus was born the medieval kingdom of Norway, the realm of the Fairhair dynasty. According to the traditional view, Norway was the hereditary kingdom of the'Fairhair' dynasty, agnatic descendants of the first unifier-king, Harald Fairhair; the successors to the throne after year 872 were all placed among Harald's male descendants. In the 13th century, the kingdom was declared hereditary by law, contrary to the other Scandinavian monarchies which were elective kingdoms in the Middle Ages. Harald Fairhair was the first king of all Norway, as opposed to being one of several contemporaneous kings in Norway; the traditional date of the first formation of a unified Norwegian kingdom is set to 872 when he defeated the last petty kings who resisted him at the Battle of Hafrsfjord, though the consolidation of his power took many years.
The boundaries of Fairhair's kingdom were not identical to those of present-day Norway and upon his death the kingship was shared among his sons. Harald Fairhair unified Norway, at least the coastal areas north to Trøndelag. After his death, the fragmentation back into petty kingdoms happened instantly. However, most of them were now in the hands of Harald's putative descendants or allies. Although there were districts in the hands of other dynasties, the concept of a central power on an hereditary basis had come into existence, it remains uncertain whether Norway can be defined as an hereditary kingdom after the successions of Eric I of Norway and Haakon I of Norway, sons of Fairhair himself. Some historians put emphasis on the actual monarchical control over the country and assert that St. Olav, who reigned from 1015, was the first king to have control over the entire country. Olav is traditionally held to be the driving force behind Norway's final conversion to Christianity, he was also revered as Rex Perpetuum Norvegiæ.
Only when the "half-brothers" Olav II and Harald III ascend to power, is there any weight given to the claim that the successor was predestined by some rules of inheritance and not through force. The Fairhair dynasty can, however, be seen as an artificial construct; the murder of king Harald Greycloak in 970 brought an end to the rule of the immediate family of his grandfather, Harald Fairhair, Norway was ruled instead by the Danish king and his proxies for 25 years. Olav I of Norway, raised overseas in obscure circumstances, took the kingdom by force, his death resulted in another 15-year period of Danish rule, before the successful Viking raider, Olav Haraldson in turn conquered the kingdom, to be succeeded by his son and by his half-brother, Harald Hardråde, himself a famous Viking. The heroic sagas would give each of these three warrior kings distant descents from Harald Fairhair. However, it has been proposed that the genealogical lines connecting Harald Fairhair via otherwise obscure individuals to Olav I, Olav II and Harald Hardråde are a political fiction, founded on a attempt to legitimize their rule and that of Hardråde's descendants, as well as to provide a claim to the region of Viken, a claim challenged by the Danes.
Adherents of this proposal consider Harald Hardråde to be the first king of the lineage that would rule the realm, but that he owed his succession not to a descent from Fairhair, but to being maternal half-brother of Olav II. Descent from the same mother was not in Germanic understanding a proper dynastic tie, thus Harald Hardråde's legitimacy necessitated the fabrication of unbroken male line descents for Hardråde and his two predecessors. There could have been other lines of descent from King Harald I than the three distant ones related by Heimskringla. On the other hand, there is no evidence that these three are factual. Under Harald Hårdråde Norway was established as an independent kingdom and all kings would claim to be descendants of him. With a few notable exceptions all successful claims are well supported and not disputed by modern historians; this succession of kings is sometimes called the “Hårdråde ætten” to distinguish them from the certain issue of Harald Fairhair. If Hårdråde is accepted as a descendant of Fairhair this dynasty would be just a branch of a larger Fairhair dynasty.
The kings themselves are not known to have referred to their dynasty with any official name. Until the 13th century there were no defined succession laws. Instead the succession was based on customs with origins in old Germanic traditions: The situation followed loosely agnatic seniority and agnatic succession with some elements of elective monarchy. All patrilineal male descendants of Harald Hårdråde were entitled to share the kingship; this included. To formally become king the candidate had to be hailed at the thing – though he would make sure to have the assembly’s support before launching his candidacy; the sources do not record any instance of a candidate being turned down by a thing after demanding to be hailed. As kingship took shape as an institution a few things Øreting in Trøndelag, received a special status as the places the new king was hailed; the result of these customs was that brothers and half-brothers would inherit the throne t
Nygaardsvold's Cabinet was appointed on 20 March 1935, the second Labour cabinet in Norway. It brought to an end the non-socialist, minority Governments, dominating politics since the introduction of the parliamentary system in 1884, replaced it with stable, Labour Governments that, with the exception of during World War II, would last until the coalition cabinet Lyng in 1963. Since the cabinet Hornsrud intermezzo in the winter of 1928, a one-month Labour Government, the Labour Party had changed from revolutionary communism to social democracy; the main reason for the change of course was the realization of that Government power could be used for reforms that could lessen the impact of the economic crisis. In the 1933 election the party used the slogans "Work for everyone" and "Country and city, hand in hand"; the last time the party portrayed itself as revolutionary was the 1930 election. The Labour Party did not get a majority. Instead they made a compromise with the Farmer Party, allowing the cabinet Nygaardsvold to enter the Council of State.
The party did not get majority in the 1936 election either, continued to govern thanks to fluctuating support from various opposition parties. The night before 9 April 1940, the Norwegian Government was, like most other authorities in the country, surprised by the German Operation Weserübung, it chose resistance, though in a rather fumbling and unclear way initially. The Government left Norway on 7 June 1940 after the capitulation and established itself in London the same day, along with King Haakon VII and Crown Prince Olav. Back in Norway, over the course of the war, four cabinets were instated by Vidkun Quisling and Josef Terboven, as the de facto Governments of Norway; the Government-in-exile is sometimes referred to as the London Cabinet. It returned to Norway on 31 May 1945 aboard the UK troop ship RMS Andes. On 12 June, Nygaardsvold announced his resignation, on 25 June, the pan-political first cabinet Gerhardsen took over. Below are the four de facto Governments in Oslo during the war, either sympathising with or appointed by German Forces.
The Reichskommissar in Oslo was Josef Terboven. First cabinet Quisling Cabinet Christiansen Cabinet Terboven Second cabinet Quisling Norwegian Armed Forces in exile Friis, Erik J. "The Norwegian Government-In-Exile, 1940–45". Scandinavian Studies. Essays Presented to Dr. Henry Goddard Leach on the Occasion of his Eighty-fifth Birthday. Pp. 422–444