Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Frank Jensen is a Danish politician, member of the Danish Social Democrats, has been Lord Mayor of Copenhagen since 1 January 2010. He was Minister for Research 27 September 1994 to 30 December 1996 in the Cabinet of Poul Nyrup Rasmussen II and Justice Minister from 30 December 1996 to 27 November 2001 in the Cabinets of Poul Nyrup Rasmussen III and IV; when Mogens Lykketoft resigned as leader of the Social Democrats after losing the 2005 Danish parliamentary election, Frank Jensen and Helle Thorning-Schmidt were the two candidates to succeed him. The party members voted on 12 April 2005, electing Helle Thorning-Schmidt as leader with 24,261 votes against 21,348 votes for Frank Jensen. Frank Jensen is an educated economist and holds a master's degree in economics from Aalborg University which he received in 1986. In May 2015, he banned all 45,000 city employees from flying with budget airline Ryanair for official business. Frank Jensen is author of several scientifical articles. In 2018 he stated on the online magazine Impakter.com that Copenhagen has decreased it's CO2 emissions by 40% since 2005.
Charlotte Sahl-Madsen or Sahl-Madsen is a Danish politician and businesswoman. She was the Danish Minister of Science and Development from 23 February 2010 to 3 October 2011, she had led Ebeltoft Glass Museum, Lego R&D and the Universe theme park. Sahl-Madsen was born in Holstebro in 1964. One of her parents was a hatter and the other was a self-employed business person, she was educated at Holstebro Gymnasium until 1983. She did not graduate, her highest academic qualification came from her high school. Her first notable job was as director of the Ebeltoft Glass Museum. Sahl-Madsen was a director of Lego, she joined the Economic and Business Affairs experts and director of the Danish Ministry's innovation unit. She describes how the CEO of Lego, Jørgen Vig Knudstorp, came to visit the Ebeltoft Glass Museum and she thought he had come to discuss a potential grant. Instead, she was offered the chance to lead their R&D department, she says that if people place trust in you you need to return the compliment by justifying their trust.
She was offered the job of leading what was called Danfoss Universe. The theme park is now called "Universe" and it is a theme park, focussed on interesting people in Science. Whilst she was at the theme park she worked with the developmental psychologist Howard Gardner to create experiences that appealed to his theory of multiple intelligences, she was a surprise choice as the Conservative Minister of Science and Development as she was not a member of the Danish Conservative People's Party. She did not know, she served from 23 February 2010 to 3 October 2011 as part of Lars Løkke Rasmussen's first Cabinet. Whilst she was in office she was criticised by universities because she capped their funding at a time when they were seeing an increase in student numbers. Media related to Charlotte Sahl-Madsen at Wikimedia Commons
Social Democrats (Denmark)
The Social Democrats Social Democracy, is a social-democratic political party in Denmark. It was the major coalition partner in government from the 2011 parliamentary election, with then-party leader Helle Thorning-Schmidt as Prime Minister. After the 2015 parliamentary election, the party is no longer in government, though it regained the position as the largest party in the Danish parliament, the Folketing, with 47 of 179 seats. Helle Thorning-Schmidt withdrew as party leader on the night of the election as a direct consequence of the loss of government control, she was succeeded on 28 June 2015 by the former vice leader, Mette Frederiksen. Founded by Louis Pio in 1871, the party first entered the Folketing in 1884. By the early 20th century it had become the party with the largest representation in the Folketing, a distinction it would hold for 77 years, it first formed a government in 1924 under Thorvald Stauning, the longest-serving Danish Prime Minister of the 20th century. During Stauning's government, the Social Democrats exerted a profound influence on Danish society, laying the foundation of the Danish welfare state.
From 2002 to 2016 the party used the name Socialdemokraterne in some contexts. A member of the Party of European Socialists, the Social Democrats have three MEPs in the European Parliament. Since its foundation the lemma of the party has been "Liberty and Brotherhood", these values are still described as central in the party program. In the political program of the party these values are described as being consistent with a focus on solidarity with the poorest and social welfare to those who need it, with individual responsibility in relation to other members in society, with an increased involvement in the European political project; the party has begun to adopt immigration policies closer to those of the right-wing, as it believes the perception of it being "soft on immigration" contributed to its poor electoral performance in the early 21st century. The leader of the party is Mette Frederiksen, she succeeded Helle Thorning-Schmidt, who stepped down after the left bloc's defeat in the 2015 General Election.
Deputy leaders are Lord Mayor of Copenhagen. The secretary general is Henrik Dam Kristensen, the party secretary is Lars Midtiby and the political speaker is Magnus Heunicke. In the Cabinet of Helle Thorning-Schmidt, the party had ten ministers including the Prime Minister; the party was founded in 1871 by Harald Brix og Paul Geleff. The goal was to organize the emerging working class on a socialist basis; the industrialization of Denmark had begun in the mid 19th century and a period of rapid urbanization had led to an emerging class of urban workers. The social democratic movement emerged from the desire to give this group political rights and representation in parliament. In 1876 the Party held an annual conference; the stated policy was that: "The Danish Social Democratic Labour Party works in its national form, but is convinced of the international nature of the labour movement and ready to sacrifice everything and fulfill all obligations to provide: Freedom and brotherhood among all nations” In 1884 the Social Democracy party, as it was called had their first two members of parliament elected, P. Holm and Chr.
Hørdum. In the 1924 parliamentary elections the Social democratic party won the majority with 36.6 percent of the vote, its first government was put in place with Thorvald Stauning as prime minister. The same year he appointed the world's first female minister Nina Bang, nine years after women's suffrage had been given in Denmark. Stauning stayed in power until his death in 1942, his party laying the foundations for the Danish welfare state, based on a close collaboration between labor unions and the government. In January 1933 Stauning's government entered into what was the most extensive settlement yet in Danish politics — the Kanslergade settlement — with the liberal party Venstre; the settlement, named after Stauning's apartment in Kanslergade in Copenhagen, included extensive agricultural subsidies and reforms of the legislation and administration in the social sector. In 1935, Stauning was reelected with the famous slogan "Stauning or Chaos". Stauning's second cabinet lasted until the Nazi occupation of Denmark in 1940, when the cabinet was widened to include all political parties, called the National government, the Danish government pursued a collaborative policy with the German occupiers.
Through the 1940s and until 1972 Denmark was governed by the following Social Democratic prime ministers. The Social Democrats' social policy through the 1990s and continuing in the 21st century involved a significant redistribution of income and the maintenance of a large state apparatus with collectively financed core public services such as public healthcare and infrastructure. Social Democrat-led coalition governments implemented the system known as flexicurity, mixing strong Scandinavian unemployment benefits with deregulated employment laws, making it easier for employers to fire and rehire people in order to encourage economic growth and reduce unemployment; the Cabinets of Poul Nyrup Rasmussen maintained a parliamentary majority during the period from 1993 to 2001 by virtue of their support from the Socialist People's Party and the Red-Green Alliance. Towards the end of the 1990s, a trade surplus of 30 billion kroner turned into a deficit. To combat this, the government increased taxes.
The 1998 initiative, dubbed the Whitsun Pa
Ulla Pedersen Tørnæs is a Danish politician who serves as Minister for Development Cooperation of Denmark. She is a member of the Liberal Party and, from 1994 to 2014, was a member of the Danish parliament, she served as Minister for Science, Technology and Higher Education in the Lars Løkke Rasmussen II Cabinet of Denmark from February 2016 to November 2016. Tørnæs served as Minister for Education in the Cabinet of Anders Fogh Rasmussen I and as Minister for Development Cooperation in the Cabinet of Anders Fogh Rasmussen II from 18 February 2005. From 2007, she was a member of the World Bank Group’s High Level Advisory Council on Women's Economic Empowerment, chaired by Danny Leipziger and Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, she was a member of the Prime Minister’s Commission on Effective Development Cooperation with Africa which held meetings between April and October 2008. From 2010 until 2016, Tørnæs was a member of the management committee of the Danish Liberal Democracy Programme. Tørnæs became a Member of the European Parliament following the 2014 European elections.
A member of the ALDE political faction, she served as Vice-Chairwoman of the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs. In 2015, she was the lead negotiator for the ALDE group on the eCall system. In addition to her committee assignments, Tørnæs was a member of the parliament’s delegation for relations with the countries of Southeast Asia and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Tørnæs left the European Parliament on 29 February 2016, becoming Minister for Science, Technology and Higher Education in the Lars Løkke Rasmussen II Cabinet, where she proposed the education ceiling, her successor is Morten Løkkegaard. Since 28 November 2016, Tørnæs has again been serving as Minister for Development Cooperation. African Development Bank, Ex-Officio Member of the Board of Governors Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, World Bank Group, Ex-Officio Member of the Board of Governors World Bank, Ex-Officio Member of the Board of Governors Danish Liberal Democracy Programme, Member of the Board Plan International Denmark, Member of the Board Tørnæs was in the news on 25 February 2005 when it became known that her husband, Jørgen Tørnæs, had illegally employed a Latvian supervisor on one of his pig farms without the required residence and work permits.
She was not forced to resign as minister because there was no proof she knew the supervisor was illegally employed. Tørnæs is the daughter of former minister Laurits Katty Tørnæs. CV – from the website of the Danish Folketing News story about the illegally employed supervisor – from TV 2 Personal website of Ulla Tørnæs
Politics of Denmark
The politics of Denmark take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state in which the monarch of Denmark, Queen Margrethe II, is head of state. Denmark is described as a nation state. Danish politics and governance are characterized by a common striving for broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole. Executive power is exercised by the cabinet of Denmark, presided over by the Prime Minister, first among equals. Legislative power is vested in the national parliament. Members of the judiciary are nominated by the executive, formally appointed by the monarch and employed until retirement. Denmark has a multi-party system, with two strong parties, four or five other significant parties. No single party has held an absolute majority in the Folketing since the beginning of the 20th century. Since only four post-war coalition governments have enjoyed a majority, government bills become law without negotiations and compromise with both supporting and opposition parties.
Hence the Folketing tends to be more powerful than legislatures in other EU countries. The Constitution does not grant the judiciary power of judicial review of legislation, however the courts have asserted this power with the consent of the other branches of government. Since there are no constitutional or administrative courts, the Supreme Court deals with a constitutional dimension. On many issues the political parties tend to opt for co-operation, the Danish state welfare model receives broad parliamentary support; this ensures a focus on public-sector efficiency and devolved responsibilities of local government on regional and municipal levels. The degree of transparency and accountability is reflected in the public's high level of satisfaction with the political institutions, while Denmark is regularly considered one of the least corrupt countries in the world by international organizations; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Denmark as "full democracy" in 2016. Margrethe II has ruled as Queen Regnant and head of state since 14 January 1972.
In accordance with the Danish Constitution the Danish monarch, as head of state, is the theoretical source of all executive and legislative power. However, since the introduction of parliamentary sovereignty in 1901, a de facto separation of powers has been in effect; the text of the Danish constitution dates back to 1849. Therefore, it has been interpreted by jurists to suit modern conditions. In a formal sense, the monarch retains the ability to deny giving a bill royal assent. In order for a bill to become law, a royal signature, a countersignature by a government minister, is required; the monarch chooses and dismisses the Prime Minister, although in modern times a dismissal would cause a constitutional crisis. On 28 March 1920, King Christian X was the last monarch to exercise the power of dismissal, sparking the 1920 Easter Crisis. All royal powers called Royal Prerogative, such as patronage to appoint ministers and the ability to declare war and make peace, are exercised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, with the formal consent of the Queen.
When a new government is to be formed, the monarch calls the party leaders to a conference of deliberation, where the latter advise the monarch. On the basis of the advice the monarch appoints the party leader who commands a majority of recommendation to lead negotiations for forming a new government. According to the principles of constitutional monarchy, today the monarch has an ceremonial role, restricted in his or her exercise of power by the convention of parliamentary democracy and the separation of powers. However, the monarch does continue to exercise three rights: the right to be consulted. Pursuant to these ideals, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet attend the regular meeting of the Council of State. Denmark has a multiparty system. Nine parties are represented in parliament; the four oldest and in history most influential parties are the Conservative People's Party, the Social Democrats and the Danish Social Liberal Party. However, demographics have been in favour of younger parties, which has led to a constant process of policy development and gradual renewal amongst the political parties.
No two parties have the same organization. It is however common for a party to have: an annual convention which approves manifestos and elects party chairmen. In most cases the party members in parliament form their own group with autonomy to develop and promote party politics in parliament and between elections; the government performs the executive functions of the kingdom. The affairs of government are decided by the Cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister; the Cabinet and the Prime Minister are responsible for their actions to the Folketing. Members of the Cabinet are given the title of "minister" and each hold a different portfolio of government duties; the day to day role of the cabinet members is to serve as head of one or more segments of the national bureaucracy, as head of the civil servants to which all employees in that department report. Enjoying the status of primus inter pares, the Prime Minister is head of the Danish government; the Prime Minister and members of the Cabinet are appointed by the Crown on basi
Lars Løkke Rasmussen II Cabinet
The Second Cabinet of Lars Løkke Rasmussen was the Government of Denmark, in office between 28 June 2015 and 28 November 2016, where Lars Løkke Rasmussen third cabinet took over. It was a single-party minority government consisting of Venstre, the first since Anker Jørgensen V Cabinet in 1981-82, it was supported by the Danish People's Party, the Liberal Alliance and the Conservative People's Party. "Here is Denmark's new government". The Local. 28 June 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015