Republics of the Soviet Union
The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Union Republics were the ethnically based proto-states of the Soviet Union. For most of its history, the USSR was a centralized state. According to Article 76 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution, a Union Republic was a sovereign Soviet socialist state that had united with other Soviet Republics in the USSR. Article 81 of the Constitution stated that "the sovereign rights of Union Republics shall be safeguarded by the USSR". In the final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of fifteen Soviet Socialist Republics. All of them, with the exception of the Russian Federation, had their own local party chapters of the All-Union Communist Party. Outside the territory of the Russian Federation, the republics were constituted in lands that had belonged to the Russian Empire and had been acquired by it between the 1700 Great Northern War and the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. In 1944, amendments to the All-Union Constitution allowed for separate branches of the Red Army for each Soviet Republic.
They allowed for Republic-level commissariats for foreign affairs and defense, allowing them to be recognized as de jure independent states in international law. This allowed for two Soviet Republics and Byelorussia, to join the United Nations General Assembly as founding members in 1945. All of the former Republics of the Union are now independent countries, with ten of them being loosely organized under the heading of the Commonwealth of Independent States. However, most of the international community did not consider the Baltic countries to have legitimately been part of the USSR; the Baltic states assert that their incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1940 under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was illegal, that they therefore remained independent countries under Soviet occupation. Their position is supported by the European Union, the European Court of Human Rights, the United Nations Human Rights Council and the United States. In contrast, the Russian government and state officials maintain that the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states was legitimate..
Constitutionally, the Soviet Union was a federation. In accordance with provisions present in the Constitution, each republic retained the right to secede from the USSR. Throughout the Cold War, this right was considered to be meaningless. In practice, the USSR was a centralised entity from its creation in 1922 until the mid-1980s when political forces unleashed by reforms undertaken by Mikhail Gorbachev resulted in the loosening of central control and its ultimate dissolution. Under the constitution adopted in 1936 and modified along the way until October 1977, the political foundation of the Soviet Union was formed by the Soviets of People's Deputies; these existed at all levels of the administrative hierarchy, with the Soviet Union as a whole under the nominal control of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, located in Moscow within the Russian Federation. Along with the state administrative hierarchy, there existed a parallel structure of party organizations, which allowed the Politburo to exercise large amounts of control over the republics.
State administrative organs took direction from the parallel party organs, appointments of all party and state officials required approval of the central organs of the party. Each republic had its own unique set of state symbols: a flag, a coat of arms, with the exception of Russia until 1990, an anthem; every republic of the Soviet Union was awarded with the Order of Lenin. The number of the union republics of the USSR varied from 4 to 16. In majority of years and at the decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics. Rather than listing the republics in alphabetical order, the republics were listed in constitutional order, which by the last decades of the Soviet Union, did not correspond to order either by population or economic power; the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia, in the winter of 1919 The Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed in 1919 but fell soon. The Galician Soviet Socialist Republic The Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic The Don Soviet Republic The Kuban Soviet Republic The Kuban-Black Sea Soviet Republic The Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic The Mughan Soviet Republic The Soviet Republic of Naissaar The Odessa Soviet Republic The North Caucasian Soviet Republic The Stavropol Soviet Republic The Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic The Terek Soviet Republic The Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets The Ukrainian Soviet Republic The Black Sea Soviet Republic The Far Eastern Republic existed in 1920-1922 as a formally independent state, was de facto under Soviet control.
The Persian Socialist Soviet Republic, in what is now Iran. The Slovak Soviet Republic The Bavarian Soviet Republic The Bremen Soviet Republic The Hungarian Soviet Republic The Limerick Soviet The Chinese Soviet RepublicThe Turkestan Soviet Federative Republic was proclaimed in 1918 but did not survive to the founding of the USS
A police car is a ground vehicle used by police for transportation during patrols and to enable them to respond to incidents and chases. Typical uses of a police car include transporting officers so they can reach the scene of an incident transporting and temporarily detaining suspects in the back seats, as a location to use their police radio or laptop or to patrol an area, all while providing a visible deterrent to crime; some police cars are specially adapted for certain operations. Police cars have rooftop flashing lights, a siren, emblems or markings indicating that the vehicle is a police car; some police cars may have reinforced bumpers and alley lights, for illuminating darkened alleys. Terms for police cars include patrol car. In some places, a police car may be informally known as a cop car, a black and white, a cherry top, a gumball machine, a jam sandwich or panda car. Depending on the configuration of the emergency lights and livery, a police car may be considered a marked or unmarked unit.
The first police car was a wagon run by electricity fielded on the streets of Akron, Ohio, in 1899. The first operator of the police patrol wagon was Sr.. It could travel 30 mi before its battery needed to be recharged; the car was built by city mechanical engineer Frank Loomis. The US$2,400 vehicle was equipped with electric lights, a stretcher; the car's first assignment was to pick up a drunken man at the junction of Main and Exchange streets. Ford introduced the Ford flathead V-8 in its Model B, as the first mass-marketed V8 car in 1932. In the 1940s, major American car makers began to manufacture specialized police cars. In some areas of the world, the police car has become more used than police officers "walking the beat". Placing officers in vehicles allows them to carry more equipment, such as automated external defibrillators for people in cardiac arrest or road cones for traffic obstructions, allows for more immediate transport of suspects to holding facilities. Vehicles allow for the transport of larger numbers of personnel, such as a SWAT team.
Decommissioned police cars are sold to the general public, either through a police auction or a private seller, after about 3–5 years of use. Such cars are sold cheaply due to the high mileage on such cars, in some cases exceeding the 300,000-mile mark. In some cases, the cars are re-purposed as a taxicab as an inexpensive way for cab companies to buy cars instead of fleet vehicle services. In all cases, the cars are stripped of their police markings as well as most internal equipment. There are several types of police car; the car that replaces walking for the'beat' police officer. Their primary function is to convey normal police officers between their duties. Patrol cars are able to respond to emergencies, as such are fitted with visual and audible warnings. A response car is similar to a patrol car, but is to be of a higher specification, capable of higher speeds, will be fitted with audible and visual warnings; these cars are only used to respond to emergency incidents, so are designed to travel fast, may carry specialist equipment, such as assault rifles, or shotguns.
In the UK, each station only has one, called an area car. Traffic police cars, known in the UK as Road Policing Units, are cars designed for the job of enforcing traffic laws, as such have the highest performance of any of the police vehicles, as they must be capable of catching most other vehicles on the road, they may be fitted with special bumpers designed to force vehicles off the road, may have visual and audible warnings, with special audible warnings which can be heard from a greater distance. In some police forces, the term traffic car may refer to cars equipped for traffic control in addition to enforcing traffic laws; as such, these cars may differ only from a patrol car, including having radar and laser speed detection equipment, traffic cones and traffic control signs. Some police forces do not distinguish between patrol and traffic cars, may use one vehicle to fulfill some or all roles though in some cases this may not be appropriate; these cars are a compromise between the different functions with elements added or removed.
SUVs and Pickups are used for a variety of reasons. This is a standard production car, visibly marked, but without audible and visual warning devices, it is used by community police officers to show a presence, transport them between jobs and make appearances at community events. These cars do not respond to emergencies. Many forces operate unmarked cars, in any of the roles shown above, but most for the use of traffic enforcement or detectives, they have the advantage of not being recognizable, are a valuable tool in catching criminals while the crime is still taking place. In the United States, unmarked cars are used by federal law enforcement agencies such as the FBI and the Secret Service, but can be recognized by their U. S. government plates. However, not all unmarked police cars have government license plates. Many U. S. jurisdictions use regular civ
The February Revolution, known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution and sometimes as the March Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917. The main events of the revolution took place in and near Petrograd, the then-capital of Russia, where long-standing discontent with the monarchy erupted into mass protests against food rationing on 23 February Old Style. Revolutionary activity lasted about eight days, involving mass demonstrations and violent armed clashes with police and gendarmes, the last loyal forces of the Russian monarchy. On 27 February O. S. mutinous Russian Army forces sided with the revolutionaries. Three days Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, ending Romanov dynastic rule and the Russian Empire. A Russian Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov replaced the Council of Ministers of Russia; the revolution appeared to break out without formal planning. Russia had been suffering from a number of economic and social problems, which compounded after the start of World War I in 1914.
Disaffected soldiers from the city's garrison joined bread rioters women in bread lines, industrial strikers on the streets. As more and more troops deserted, with loyal troops away at the Front, the city fell into chaos, leading to the overthrow of the Tsar. In all, over 1,300 people were killed during the protests of February 1917. A number of factors contributed to both short and long term. Historians disagree on the main factors. Liberal historians emphasise the turmoil created by the war, whereas Marxists emphasise the inevitability of change. Alexander Rabinowitch summarises the main long-term and short-term causes: The February 1917 revolution... grew out of pre-war political and economic instability, technological backwardness, fundamental social divisions, coupled with gross mismanagement of the war effort, continuing military defeats, domestic economic dislocation, outrageous scandals surrounding the monarchy. Despite its occurrence at the height of World War I, the roots of the February Revolution date further back.
Chief among these was Imperial Russia's failure, throughout the 19th and early 20th century, to modernise its archaic social and political structures while maintaining the stability of ubiquitous devotion to an autocratic monarch. As historian Richard Pipes writes, "the incompatibility of capitalism and autocracy struck all who gave thought to the matter"; the first major event of the Russian Revolution was the February Revolution, a chaotic affair, caused by the culmination of over a century of civil and military unrest. There were many causes of this unrest of the common people towards the Tsar and aristocratic landowners; the causes can be summarized as the ongoing cruel treatment of peasants by the bourgeoisie, poor working conditions of industrial workers and the spreading of western democratic ideas by political activists. All of these causes led to a growing social awareness in the lower classes of Russia. Dissatisfaction of proletarians was compounded by military failures. In 1905, Russia experienced humiliating losses in its war with Japan Bloody Sunday and the Revolution of 1905, in which Tsarist troops fired upon a peaceful, unarmed crowd.
These events further divided Nicholas II from his people. Widespread strikes and the famous mutiny on the Battleship Potemkin ensued; these conditions caused much agitation among professional classes. This tension erupted into general revolt with the 1905 Revolution, again under the strain of war in 1917, this time with lasting consequences; the revolution was provoked by Russian military failures during the First World War, as well as public dissatisfaction with the way the country was run on the home front. The economic challenges faced due to fighting a total war contributed. In August 1914, all classes supported and all political deputies voted in favour of the war; the declaration of war was followed by a revival of nationalism across Russian society, which temporarily reduced internal strife. The army achieved some early victories but suffered major defeats, notably Tannenberg in August 1914, the Winter Battle in Masuria in February 1915 and the loss of Russian Poland during May to August 1915.
Nearly six million casualties—dead and missing—had been accrued by January 1917. Mutinies sprang up more morale was at its lowest, the newly called up officers and commanders were at times incompetent. Like all major armies, Russia's armed forces had inadequate supply; the pre-revolution desertion rate ran at around 34,000 a month. Meanwhile, the wartime alliance of industry and Stavka started to work outside the Tsar's control. In an attempt to boost morale and repair his reputation as a leader, Nicholas announced in the summer of 1915 that he would take personal command of the army, in defiance of universal advice to the contrary; the result was disastrous on three grounds. Firstly, it associated the monarchy with the unpopular war; this left the reins of power to his wife, the German Tsarina Alexandra, unpopular and accused of being a spy and under the thumb of her confidant, Grigori Rasputin, himse
Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881. He was the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland. Alexander's most significant reform as Emperor was emancipation of Russia's serfs in 1861, for which he is known as Alexander the Liberator; the tsar was responsible for other reforms, including reorganising the judicial system, setting up elected local judges, abolishing corporal punishment, promoting local self-government through the zemstvo system, imposing universal military service, ending some privileges of the nobility, promoting university education. After an assassination attempt in 1866, Alexander adopted a somewhat more reactionary stance until his death. Alexander pivoted towards foreign policy and sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, fearing the remote colony would fall into British hands if there were another war, he sought peace, moved away from bellicose France when Napoleon III fell in 1871, in 1872 joined with Germany and Austria in the League of the Three Emperors that stabilized the European situation.
Despite his otherwise pacifist foreign policy, he fought a brief war with the Ottoman Empire in 1877–78, pursued further expansion into Siberia and the Caucasus, conquered Turkestan. Although disappointed by the results of the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Alexander abided by that agreement. Among his greatest domestic challenges was an uprising in Poland in 1863, to which he responded by stripping that land of its separate constitution and incorporating it directly into Russia. Alexander was proposing additional parliamentary reforms to counter the rise of nascent revolutionary and anarchistic movements when he was assassinated in 1881. Born in Moscow, Alexander Nikolaevich was the eldest son of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia, his early life gave little indication of his ultimate potential. In the period of his life as heir apparent, the intellectual atmosphere of Saint Petersburg did not favour any kind of change: freedom of thought and all forms of private initiative were suppressed vigorously by the order of his father.
Personal and official censorship was rife. The education of the Tsesarevich as future emperor took place under the supervision of the liberal romantic poet and gifted translator Vasily Zhukovsky, grasping a smattering of a great many subjects and becoming familiar with the chief modern European languages. Alexander's alleged lack of interest in military affairs resulted from his reaction to the effects of the unsavoury Crimean War of 1853–1856 on his own family and on the whole country. Unusually for the time, the young Alexander was taken on a six-month tour of Russia, visiting 20 provinces in the country, he visited many prominent Western European countries in 1838 and 1839. As Tsesarevich, Alexander became the first Romanov heir to visit Siberia. While touring Russia, he befriended the exiled poet Alexander Herzen & pardoned him, it was through Herzen's influence that the tsarevich abolished serfdom in Russia. In 1839, when his parents sent him on a tour of Europe, he met twenty-year-old Queen Victoria and both were enamored of each other.
Simon Sebag Montefiore speculates. Such a marriage, would not work, as Alexander was not a minor prince of Europe and was in line to inherit a throne himself. Alexander II succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father in 1855, he inherited a large mess, wrought by his father's fear of progress during his reign. Many of the other royal families of Europe had disliked Nicholas I, which extended to distrust of the Romanov dynasty itself. So, there was no one more prepared to bring the country around than Alexander II; the first year of his reign was devoted to the prosecution of the Crimean War and, after the fall of Sevastopol, to negotiations for peace led by his trusted counsellor, Prince Alexander Gorchakov. The country had been humiliated by the war. Bribe-taking and corruption were rampant. Encouraged by public opinion, Alexander began a period of radical reforms, including an attempt not to depend on landed aristocracy controlling the poor, an effort to develop Russia's natural resources, to reform all branches of the administration.
In 1867 he sold Alaska to the United States for $7.2 million after recognising the great difficulty of defending it against the United Kingdom or the former British colony of Canada. After Alexander became emperor in 1855, he maintained a liberal course. Despite this, he was a target for numerous assassination attempts. On 13 March 1881, members of the Narodnaya Volya party killed him with a bomb; the Emperor had earlier in the day signed the Loris-Melikov constitution, which would have created two legislative commissions made up of indirectly elected representatives, had it not been repealed by his reactionary successor Alexander III. The Emancipation Reform of 1861 abolished serfdom on private estates throughout the Russian Empire. Serfs gained the full rights of free citizens, including rights to marry without having to gain con
Internal Troops of Russia
The Internal Troops of the Ministry for Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, was a gendarmerie-like paramilitary force of the federal government in Russia. On 5 April 2016 it was split from the Ministry of Internal Affairs to form the basis of the National Guard of Russia. Internal Troops supported and reinforced the police, dealt with large-scale riots, internal armed conflicts and safeguarded highly-important facilities; as such, the service was involved in all conflicts and violent disturbances in modern Russia and First and Second Chechen Wars. Internal Troops fell under direct military command during wartime and fulfilled missions of local defence and rear area security. Internal Troops consisted of both volunteers and conscripts and hence the number of active service members kept fluctuating. On the moment of their disestablishment, it had less than 200,000 active members and had experienced a shortage of officers since 1998, its strength plunged to this level from the peak strength of 350,000 active members.
The commander of the Russian Internal Troops was Colonel General Viktor Zolotov until their disestablishment occurred in April 2016. The organisation was formed in 1811, & was evolved to the Special Corps of Gendarmes The modern Internal Troops were raised by the All-Russian Central Execuitive Committee as part of the NKVD in 1918, was reorganized in 1919 unto the Internal Security Forces. In 1919, these were transferred to the Cheka and in 1922-23 into the OGPU. On 28 July 1988, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet issued a decree “On duties and rights of the Internal Troops of the USSR MVD when safeguarding public order”, clarifying its role in the cracking USSR. However, the Internal Troops were still a part of the Soviet Armed Forces and this state of affairs pleased no one; the Armed Forces did not want to be seen as a force of internal suppression after the disastrous Afghan War. The MVD was finding itself having to extinguish frequent and violent hot spots and to cope with growing and well organised and equipped criminals.
For this the MVD needed more fire power. On 21 March 1989, the Presidium decided to take the Internal Troops out of the Armed Forces and the Ministry of Defense and give them to the Internal Affairs Ministry. In 1990, the establishment of the RSFSR MVD meant that the Internal Troops in the SFSR were now subordinated to the republican ministry. With the April 2016 foundation of the National Guard, the Internal Troops became the National Guard Forces and now report directly to the Security Council and its chairman, the President of Russia, thus removed from the MVD proper; the Federal Law No.27-173 was signed into law on 6 February 1997. The law set the operational standards for the Internal Troops of the Russian Federation; the law is entitled "On the Russian Federation Ministry of Internal Affairs Internal Troops". When supporting a state-of-emergency regime, Internal Troops were paid salary increases and additional monetary payments according to federal laws and other legal acts approved by the Minister of Internal Affairs.
Article 38 granted senior operational commanders the right to call in subunits of special motorized formations and military units outside their deployment areas for a period of up to one month. The federal law detailed the important role that the Russian Ministry of Defense played in the affairs of the MVD's Internal Troops when crises arose. For example, MOD was responsible for providing airliners for supporting Internal Troop activities during emergency situations, conditions of armed conflicts. Despite being subordinated to civilian MVD authority, Internal Troops were a paramilitary force with centralized system of ranks and service; the Chief Commander and Staff of the troops reported only to Ministry of Internal Affairs, maintaining their separate chain of command. The Chief Commander was concurrently First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs. VV units in the Soviet Union were predominantly formed up of conscripts drafted by the same system as for the Soviet Army. Modern Internal Troops in Russia, as in Ukraine, experienced a slow transition to the contract personnel system.
VV officers were trained in the Army's military academies. The main kinds of Internal Troops were field units, various facility-guarding units, special motorized units, riot control and patrol units, special forces like Rus. Since the 1980s, spetsnaz units were created within the VV to deal with terrorism and hostage crises. Fields units were light motorized infantry, similar to respective regular army units by their organization and weapons, they and the special forces have been engaged in the armed conflicts in Chechnya and the broader North Caucasus. The organization of the Russian Internal Troops comprised headquarters, military units, military training institutions and the institutions for Internal Troops activities, maintenance and administration bodies; the largest units were located in all major cities. Internal Troops districts: Northwestern District Moscow Orshansko-Hingansky Order of the Red Banner District N
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, abbreviated NKVD, was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917 as NKVD of Russian SFSR, the agency was tasked with conducting regular police work and overseeing the country's prisons and labor camps, it was disbanded in 1930, with its functions being dispersed among other agencies, only to be reinstated as an all-union ministry in 1934. The functions of the OGPU were transferred to the NKVD in 1934, giving it a monopoly over law enforcement activities that lasted until the end of World War II. During this period, the NKVD included both ordinary public order activities, as well as secret police activities; the NKVD is known for its role in political repression and for carrying out the Great Purge under Joseph Stalin. It was led by Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria; the NKVD undertook mass extrajudicial executions of untold numbers of citizens, conceived and administered the Gulag system of forced labour camps. Their agents were responsible for the repression of the wealthier peasantry, as well as the mass deportations of entire nationalities to uninhabited regions of the country.
They oversaw the protection of Soviet borders and espionage, enforced Soviet policy in communist movements and puppet governments in other countries, most notably the repression and massacres in Poland. In March 1946 all People's Commissariats were renamed to Ministries, the NKVD became the Ministry of Internal Affairs. After the Russian February Revolution of 1917, the Provisional Government dissolved the Tsarist police and set up the People's Militsiya; the subsequent Russian October Revolution of 1917 saw a seizure of state power led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks, who established a new Bolshevik regime, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The Provisional Government's Ministry of Internal Affairs under Georgy Lvov and under Nikolai Avksentiev and Alexei Nikitin, turned into NKVD under a People's Commissar. However, the NKVD apparatus was overwhelmed by duties inherited from MVD, such as the supervision of the local governments and firefighting, the Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya staffed by proletarians was inexperienced and unqualified.
Realizing that it was left with no capable security force, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR established a secret political police, the Cheka, led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. It gained the right to undertake quick non-judicial trials and executions, if, deemed necessary in order to "protect the Russian Socialist-Communist revolution"; the Cheka was reorganized in 1922 as the State Political Directorate, or GPU, of the NKVD of the RSFSR. In 1922 the USSR formed, with the RSFSR as its largest member; the GPU became the OGPU, under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. The NKVD of the RSFSR retained control of the militsiya, various other responsibilities. In 1934 the NKVD of the RSFSR was transformed into an all-union security force, the NKVD, the OGPU was incorporated into the NKVD as the Main Directorate for State Security; as a result, the NKVD took over control of all detention facilities as well as the regular police. At various times, the NKVD had the following Chief Directorates, abbreviated as "ГУ"– Главное управление, Glavnoye upravleniye.
ГУГБ – государственной безопасности, of State Security ГУРКМ– рабоче-крестьянской милиции, of Workers and Peasants Militsiya ГУПВО– пограничной и внутренней охраны, of Border and Internal Guards ГУПО– пожарной охраны, of Firefighting Services ГУШосДор– шоссейных дорог, of Highways ГУЖД– железных дорог, of Railways ГУЛаг– Главное управление исправительно-трудовых лагерей и колоний, ГЭУ – экономическое, of Economics ГТУ – транспортное, of Transport ГУВПИ – военнопленных и интернированных, of POWs and interned persons Until the reorganization begun by Nikolai Yezhov with a purge of the regional political police in the autumn of 1936 and formalized by a May 1939 directive of the All-Union NKVD by which all appointments to the local political police were controlled from the center, there was frequent tension between centralized control of local units and the collusion of those units with local and regional party elements resulting in the thwarting of Moscow's plans. Following its establishment in 1934, the NKVD underwent many organizational changes.
During Yezhov's time in office, the Great Purge reached its height from the years 1937 and 1938 alone, at least 1.3 million were arrested and 681,692 were executed for'crimes against the state'. The Gulag population swelled by 685,201 under Yezhov, nearly tripling in size in just two years, with
General Administration for Traffic Safety
The General Administration for Traffic Safety of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, popularly known under its historical abbreviation GAI, is a law enforcement agency and the Russian Traffic Patrol. They are responsible for the regulation of traffic, investigating traffic accidents, manning the stop lights; the Administration is part of the Public Security Service of the MVD. The Administration has patrol jurisdiction over all Russia highways; the GAI, short for State Automobile Inspectorate, was formed on July 3, 1936. The GAI was part of the NKVD and starts executing tasks: fighting accidents, developing technical standards of operation of vehicles, supervises the preparation and education of drivers, and keep records of accidents, analyze their causes, accident attracts offenders to justice, manages the issuance of license plates, data sheets, search cars, hiding from the accident scene. In 1961 it was merged with the Road Traffic Control Department. After the dissolution of USSR, GAI was renamed GIBDD - General Administration for Traffic Safety.
There were rumors from March 2017 that the GIBDD is about to be dissolved until December 2018, as part of Russian police reform and will merged into the patrol service of the police. The Minister of Internal Affairs denied those rumors. Roads Patrol Service Roads Inspection and Traffic organisation Service Inspection and registration Investigation Division vehicles Departament of Ensuring Road Traffic Safety of MVD of Russia abbreviated as DOBDD, since 1994 State Inspection for Road Traffic Safety abbreviated as GIBDD, since 2002 GAI, short for State Automobile Inspectorate, until 2011 DPS, Road Patrol Service - a part of the GAI/GIBDD directly responsible for patrolling the streets Vladimir Feodorov Viktor Kiryanov Vladimir Shvetsov Viktor Nilov Mikhail Chernikov Police of Russia Militsiya MVD Official page of the General Administration for Traffic Safety